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Overview

Rh Antibody Titres Test

Rh Antibody Titres Test

Antibodies are proteins made by our immune system to attack viruses and bacteria. Under abnormal conditions, these antibodies attack the harmless or good red blood cells in our body causing immune disorders. The Rh (Rhesus factor) antibody Titres test is performed to determine the Rh negativity in a person’s blood serum. The type and quantity of the antibodies in the blood serum can be determined. During early stages of pregnancy, this test proves fruitful in knowing whether the mother is Rh negative. Later, the new born may also be tested to determine whether the Rh negativity has passed from the mother to the baby through the placenta. Problem arises when Rh negative blood comes in contact with Rh positive blood. In such a case, the Rh antibody Titres test is done to protect against Rh sensitization. The Rh antibody Titres test is usually ordered in case of an impending booster shot, recent or past infection, and to determine any autoimmune disorder.

No special preparation and no fasting are required. You need to discuss your present health condition, recent or past illnesses or infections if any. Discuss any on-going medication if any with the doctor. The doctor’s advice is of prime importance. You must follow instructions, if any, regarding discontinuing current medication. If there is a history of chemotherapy, it should be discussed with the doctor. Like all blood tests, wear sleeveless or short sleeve dress to allow easy blood sample collection.

Basically, the test result indicates the strength of the body’s immune response. Normal test result indicates healthy body. Abnormal test result indicates immune disorders like, hyper-IgE syndrome, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (aPL), X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Current or past infections like, meningitis, diphtheria, hepatitis, chicken pox, helicobacter pylori etc. Abnormal test result for a baby indicates haemolytic problems, depending on the level of other antibodies.

The blood sample is collected through venipuncture by a qualified phlebotomist. A tourniquet is tied to the upper arm and the vein is located. An alcohol based antiseptic is applied to the needle site. A disposable needle is pushed gently into the vein and the tourniquet is released. Preferably, 5 ml blood sample is collected in a labelled yellow top tube. Alternatively, 1 ml blood sample can also be collected in a labelled EDTA lavender top tube. Based on the red cell panel studies, the test is carried out in a laboratory. The method ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is used to detect Rh antibody Titres.

Type Gender Age-Group Value
Rh Antibodies Titre
Unisex
All age groups
> 1:16
Average price range of the test is between Rs.100 to Rs.1250 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

Table of Content

What is Rh Antibody Titres Test?
Preparation for Rh Antibody Titres Test
Uses of Rh Antibody Titres Test
Procedure for Rh Antibody Titres Test
Normal values for Rh Antibody Titres Test
Price for Rh Antibody Titres Test
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Popular Questions & Answers

Dear doctor I have a one problem about sex, meri gf virgin he and humne sex karneka faisla kiya, hum koi risk nahi Lena chahte iss liye humne condom use kiya. But jesehi me sex karneki koshish karu to condom break ho jata he. Aur meri gf ko takleef bhi hoti he. So what can I do?

MBBS, D.P.H
General Physician, Gurgaon
MR SAURABH YOU ARE DOING UNPROTECTED SEX WITH A UNMARRIED GIRL IF SHE GOT PREGNANT DUE TO YOUR THIS ACT THEN YOU MAY BE IN LEGAL TROUBLE SO AVOID IT IF YOU HAVE PERFORMED WITH TEAR CONDOM THEN CHANCES OF CONCEPTION ARE THERE IF ANY OF YOU ARE HIV +VE THEN YOU MAY GIVE INFECTION TO EACH OTHER SIMULTANEOUSLY YOU MAY BE EXPOSED TO SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE WITH UNPROTECTED SEX OR WITH TEARED CONDOM , IF IT WILL HAPPEN THE LIFE OF BOTH PERSON WILL BE RUINED BECAUSE IN HIV INFECTION THE SYMPTOMS USUALLY APPEARS AFTER 10 YEARS, AND ANTIBODY APPEARS IN THE BLOOD AFTER 3 MONTH NOW THE DECISION IS YOUR'S

Hello, my question regarding blood group, what level of complications are occurred in pregnancy if the blood group of female is negative and partner is positive.

M.D. Consultant Pathologist, CCEBDM Diabetes, PGDS Sexology USA, CCMTD Thyroid, ACDMC Heart Disease, CCMH Hypertension, ECG
Sexologist, Sri Ganganagar
Hello, my question regarding blood group, what level of complications are occurred in pregnancy if the blood group of...
In terms of pregnancy, when the mother's blood group is Rh negative and the fetus (baby growing in the womb) is Rh positive, then there is a chance of mixing blood during pregnancy or at the time of delivery and lead to further complications. It is called as Rh incompatibility.
1 person found this helpful

If unprotected sex with in how days HIV test should be done and with in how many days HIV antibodies produced. please tell me for that

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
If unprotected sex with in how days HIV test should be done and with in how many days HIV antibodies produced. please...
HIV proviral can be positive after 15 days HIV antibody can start produce after 2 to 3 weeks but some case it can take upto 6 months
1 person found this helpful

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Botox Injections - What You Can Expect?

MD-Hom., BHMS, Dip. in Cosmetology & Trichology
Cosmetic Physician, Mumbai
Botox Injections - What You Can Expect?

Are you planning on undertaking a botox treatment? Botox is a drug which is made from a neurotoxin. This is produced by the bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. Botox is used for medical purposes, commonly for treating muscular conditions. It is also used for cosmetic procedures, which help in removing wrinkles. This process is carried out by paralyzing the facial muscles temporarily. Botulinum toxin is also sold commercially under certain names.

Medical and Cosmetic Uses-

Botox is most commonly used as a treatment procedure for reducing the appearance of facial lines and wrinkles in middle-aged adults. It is also used for medical purposes, for the treatment of conditions such as eye squints, excessive sweating, leaky bladders and migraines. Botox is used for treating more than 20 medical conditions.

How Does Botox Work?

Botox or botulinum toxin is a very poisonous substance, and a single gram of it is capable of killing more than one million people. It is considered to be an effective therapeutic protein when used in ideal dosage, and frequency. It is used in several medical procedures and treatment therapies.

How is Botox Procedure Undertaken?

Botulinum toxin is administered by diluting the power in saline. It is injected directly into your neuro-muscular tissue. A duration of 24 to 72 hours is required for it to take effect. This time reflects the time required for disruption of the normal synaptosomal process of the body. It may take over five days for experiencing the full effects of botox. Botox must not be used in women who are pregnant or lactating, or by people having a previous allergic reaction to it.

Risk and Side-Effects:

Injections which contain botox are usually well tolerated. They have several side effects as well.

  1. In some cases, a person may have a genetic predisposition which causes a mild, transient and unusual response to Botox. Some people who are receiving botox type A injections may develop antibodies to the toxins, which may make the treatment ineffective. In people who are using botox type B for cervical dystonia, antibody development may occur.

  2. Along with the effects intended, botulinum toxin may lead to several other undesirable effects. They may include conditions such as transient numbness, headaches, malaise, mild cases of nausea, mild pain, local edema and erythema on the site of injection.

  3. Temporary tiredness, fatigue or the paralysis of nearby musculature may also be experienced because of the reaction of the toxin.

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Among the two types of botox treatments, the results from abobotulinum toxin A is considered to be more effective than onabotulinum toxin A treatment. Better results are experienced when the muscles are contracted instead of being at rest. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic Physician.

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What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

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Here are the treatment options available for male infertility.

1. Vasectomy Reversal
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3. Testicular Sperm Extraction
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4. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
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5.Testicular Sperm Aspiration
This technique uses a needle biopsy of the testicle. The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia in a doctor's surgery. The sperm is extracted through the testicle but the amount obtained can be low because the needle cuts a thin layer of the tissue. This procedure is usually quite successful and less invasive than other methods.

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STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

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  1. Chlamydia: If left untreated, can lead to epididymitis and testicles shrinking and infertility in males. This is a condition where there is pus formation in the scrotum. In women, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease which is deep-seated and unable to cure completely. This brings with it symptoms ranging from abdominal pain to uterine infections to sterility.
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  3. Gonorrhea: If diagnosed early, it can be cured completely with antibiotics. However, if left untreated, it can lead to infertility.
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Symptoms of Sexually transmitted diseases: If there is a doubt of having contracted an STD, then it is very important to get tested for the same. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below.

  1. Women: The most common symptoms in women including painful urination, burning sensation, abnormal vaginal discharge (sometimes bleeding), warts, and abdominal pain.
  2. Men: Testicular pain, urethral pain, painful urination, pain and inflammation in the prostate, sores, fever, and abdominal pain.

Prevention: Always practice safe sexual practices. When in doubt, refrain from sex until diagnosis and treatment is complete.

Testing for STDs: Some of the standard tests include:

  1. 1. Herpes- HSV I & II - 
    2. Testing HIV-- Kits and ELISA available for testing 
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It is understandable that getting tested for STDs is an embarrassing situation. However, there are options available where anonymity can be maintained when getting tested for STDs. This is a wise choice to make as the risk is not just for the person affected but for the partner and in some cases even for the fetus. Early testing can help prevent complications like infertility and cancer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

In case you have a concern or query regarding gynaecological issues, you can consult a gynaecologist online & get the answers to your questions through online doctor consultation via video call.

 

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MBBS, MS - General Surgery , DNB - Surgical Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
8 Signs You Are Suffering From Celiac Disease!

Also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy and celiac sprue, celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder, wherein the consumption of gluten-based foods leads to damage of the tissues that line the small intestine. This hinders the ability of your body to absorb the essential nutrients from the foods you eat.

Causes
Under normal conditions, the immune system of the body offers protection against external intruders. When individuals diagnosed with celiac disease consume gluten-based foods, gluten resistant antibodies are formed by the immune system. This causes them to attack the linings around the intestines, thus causing irritation in the digestive tract and harming the villi (hair-like structures on the covering of the small intestine which absorb nutrients from the food). This impairs the nutrient absorbing capacity of the individual, thus increasing chances of malnourishment.

Symptoms
Celiac disease has symptoms that vary from patient to patient. Some of the common symptoms include:

  1. A severe skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis.
  2. Digestive problems such as:
  3. Musculoskeletal problems such as bone and joint pain as well as muscle cramps
  4. Seizures
  5. Aphthous ulcers which are basically sores occurring in the mouth
  6. Tingling sensation in the legs which are caused by low calcium and nerve damage
  7. Growth issues in children since they cannot absorb the required amount of nutrients
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Other complications associated with celiac disease

  1. Miscarriage or Infertility
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  3. Intestinal Cancer
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MBBS
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What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.

What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).

Risk factors include:

  • Travelling to areas where typhoid fever is a common disease.
  • Being in a profession where contamination with bacteria is likely. Like those working in laboratories.
  • Coming in close contact with a person suffering from typhoid.
  • Drinking/ eating contaminated water or food.

How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ˚f (40.5 ˚c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.

How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).

Investigations include:

  • Blood tests: typhidot test igm and igg antibodies, blood culture to test for salmonella typhi.
  • Stool and urine analysis
  • Bone marrow culture: it is the most sensitive test, but it is rarely required except in patients who have already received antibiotics and not getting any better.
  • Widal antigen test: this test can be done, but there is a longer waiting phase of about 10 days till results can be seen, it is time-consuming and could give false positive results.

What is the treatment for typhoid fever?

What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.

A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.

How can typhoid fever be prevented?

  • Typhoid fever can be prevented by improving sanitation facilities and drinking clean drinking water.
  • Always wash your hands with soap and warm water after using restrooms, before eating or cooking food.
  • Maintaining optimum personal hygiene is the key to preventing this disease.
  • Travellers should not drink untreated water; avoid adding ice to their drinks and should not eat ice creams or milk products or street foods that are a rich source of the infection.
  • Vaccines are available that give partial protection. Vaccines usually are reserved for those who may be exposed to the disease or are travelling to areas where typhoid fever is common.
20 people found this helpful