Antibodies are proteins made by our immune system to attack viruses and bacteria. Under abnormal conditions, these antibodies attack the harmless or good red blood cells in our body causing immune disorders. The Rh (Rhesus factor) antibody Titres test is performed to determine the Rh negativity in a person’s blood serum. The type and quantity of the antibodies in the blood serum can be determined. During early stages of pregnancy, this test proves fruitful in knowing whether the mother is Rh negative. Later, the new born may also be tested to determine whether the Rh negativity has passed from the mother to the baby through the placenta. Problem arises when Rh negative blood comes in contact with Rh positive blood. In such a case, the Rh antibody Titres test is done to protect against Rh sensitization. The Rh antibody Titres test is usually ordered in case of an impending booster shot, recent or past infection, and to determine any autoimmune disorder.
No special preparation and no fasting are required. You need to discuss your present health condition, recent or past illnesses or infections if any. Discuss any on-going medication if any with the doctor. The doctor’s advice is of prime importance. You must follow instructions, if any, regarding discontinuing current medication. If there is a history of chemotherapy, it should be discussed with the doctor. Like all blood tests, wear sleeveless or short sleeve dress to allow easy blood sample collection.
Basically, the test result indicates the strength of the body’s immune response. Normal test result indicates healthy body. Abnormal test result indicates immune disorders like, hyper-IgE syndrome, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (aPL), X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Current or past infections like, meningitis, diphtheria, hepatitis, chicken pox, helicobacter pylori etc. Abnormal test result for a baby indicates haemolytic problems, depending on the level of other antibodies.
The blood sample is collected through venipuncture by a qualified phlebotomist. A tourniquet is tied to the upper arm and the vein is located. An alcohol based antiseptic is applied to the needle site. A disposable needle is pushed gently into the vein and the tourniquet is released. Preferably, 5 ml blood sample is collected in a labelled yellow top tube. Alternatively, 1 ml blood sample can also be collected in a labelled EDTA lavender top tube. Based on the red cell panel studies, the test is carried out in a laboratory. The method ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) is used to detect Rh antibody Titres.
Rh Antibodies Titre
All age groups
Are you planning on undertaking a botox treatment? Botox is a drug which is made from a neurotoxin. This is produced by the bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. Botox is used for medical purposes, commonly for treating muscular conditions. It is also used for cosmetic procedures, which help in removing wrinkles. This process is carried out by paralyzing the facial muscles temporarily. Botulinum toxin is also sold commercially under certain names.
Medical and Cosmetic Uses-
Botox is most commonly used as a treatment procedure for reducing the appearance of facial lines and wrinkles in middle-aged adults. It is also used for medical purposes, for the treatment of conditions such as eye squints, excessive sweating, leaky bladders and migraines. Botox is used for treating more than 20 medical conditions.
How Does Botox Work?
Botox or botulinum toxin is a very poisonous substance, and a single gram of it is capable of killing more than one million people. It is considered to be an effective therapeutic protein when used in ideal dosage, and frequency. It is used in several medical procedures and treatment therapies.
How is Botox Procedure Undertaken?
Botulinum toxin is administered by diluting the power in saline. It is injected directly into your neuro-muscular tissue. A duration of 24 to 72 hours is required for it to take effect. This time reflects the time required for disruption of the normal synaptosomal process of the body. It may take over five days for experiencing the full effects of botox. Botox must not be used in women who are pregnant or lactating, or by people having a previous allergic reaction to it.
Risk and Side-Effects:
Injections which contain botox are usually well tolerated. They have several side effects as well.
In some cases, a person may have a genetic predisposition which causes a mild, transient and unusual response to Botox. Some people who are receiving botox type A injections may develop antibodies to the toxins, which may make the treatment ineffective. In people who are using botox type B for cervical dystonia, antibody development may occur.
Along with the effects intended, botulinum toxin may lead to several other undesirable effects. They may include conditions such as transient numbness, headaches, malaise, mild cases of nausea, mild pain, local edema and erythema on the site of injection.
Drooping or temporary upper lid and brow ptosis are also indicated.
Among the two types of botox treatments, the results from abobotulinum toxin A is considered to be more effective than onabotulinum toxin A treatment. Better results are experienced when the muscles are contracted instead of being at rest. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic Physician.
It can be disheartening to find out that you're infertile, especially when you thought that everything was normal. There are many reasons why a man is not able to contribute to the conception process and, consequently, there are options that can assist with male infertility.
Here are the treatment options available for male infertility.
1. Vasectomy Reversal
In recent years many men are opting to have children after a vasectomy. Luckily, a vasectomy is not necessarily a permanent issue anymore. It can be reversed. It takes a simple surgical procedure that restores the flow of sperm. There are certain factors that affect the success rates of vasectomy reversals such as your age, the presence of antisperm antibodies, time elapsed since the vasectomy and the age of the woman. Although this procedure is an option it is generally not encourage.
2. Sperm Aspiration
This is a group of procedures which is used to get viable sperm from the man. The sperm is used with Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). This option is suitable for men who have severe types of male infertility. For example, if there is no sperm in their ejaculate, where sperm is dead or there is no motility. With this group of procedures there are four techniques that can be used to obtain the sperm. It is important to keep in mind that each technique is not suitable for everyone. These techniques are mentioned in the next four points.
3. Testicular Sperm Extraction
In this technique the fertility doctor removes a small piece of testicular tissue through a half inch skin incision. Sperm is liberated from the seminiferous tubules (where they are produced). This procedure can be performed in the doctor's surgery or the operating room and a mild sedation is recommended for comfort. The sperm harvested with this technique can be stored for later use.
4. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
If you have a reproductive tract blockage then this technique is an option. During this technique an operating microscope is used to examine the tubules that contain sperm. The fluid containing the sperm is collected and the quality is examined. Thereafter it is taken to the IVF laboratory for use.
5.Testicular Sperm Aspiration
This technique uses a needle biopsy of the testicle. The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia in a doctor's surgery. The sperm is extracted through the testicle but the amount obtained can be low because the needle cuts a thin layer of the tissue. This procedure is usually quite successful and less invasive than other methods.
In most diseases, early detection of the disease is the key to control the symptoms, cure, reduce progression and improve prognosis. This holds true for sexually transmitted diseases too. As soon as there is a mild degree of suspicious of having contracted a sexually transmitted disease, it is advisable to go for a test. Most of the STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) can develop into serious complications over a period of time, ranging from infertility to even death.
Complications: Why early diagnosis is important: When left undiagnosed and untreated, most STDs progress to cause severe damage from sterility to cancer to even death. Listed below are some complications associated with each of the common STDs.
Symptoms of Sexually transmitted diseases: If there is a doubt of having contracted an STD, then it is very important to get tested for the same. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below.
Prevention: Always practice safe sexual practices. When in doubt, refrain from sex until diagnosis and treatment is complete.
Testing for STDs: Some of the standard tests include:
It is understandable that getting tested for STDs is an embarrassing situation. However, there are options available where anonymity can be maintained when getting tested for STDs. This is a wise choice to make as the risk is not just for the person affected but for the partner and in some cases even for the fetus. Early testing can help prevent complications like infertility and cancer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
In case you have a concern or query regarding gynaecological issues, you can consult a gynaecologist online & get the answers to your questions through online doctor consultation via video call.
Also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy and celiac sprue, celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder, wherein the consumption of gluten-based foods leads to damage of the tissues that line the small intestine. This hinders the ability of your body to absorb the essential nutrients from the foods you eat.
Under normal conditions, the immune system of the body offers protection against external intruders. When individuals diagnosed with celiac disease consume gluten-based foods, gluten resistant antibodies are formed by the immune system. This causes them to attack the linings around the intestines, thus causing irritation in the digestive tract and harming the villi (hair-like structures on the covering of the small intestine which absorb nutrients from the food). This impairs the nutrient absorbing capacity of the individual, thus increasing chances of malnourishment.
Celiac disease has symptoms that vary from patient to patient. Some of the common symptoms include:
Other complications associated with celiac disease
What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever or enteric fever is a digestive tract infection in which there is fever, headache, and abdominal pain or discomfort. It is very common in developing countries like india.
What are the causes and risk factors?
Typhoid fever is caused by a bacterium called salmonella typhi which is transmitted through contaminated water or food (feco-oral or urine-oral route).
Risk factors include:
How will you know if you have typhoid fever?
Signs and symptoms develop gradually over the period of 10-14 days after exposure to the bacteria.
Signs and symptoms include an irregular fever that can go up to 104.9 ˚f (40.5 ˚c), headache, pain in abdomen, tiredness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, nausea, constipation or diarrhoea, skin rash.
How is typhoid fever diagnosed?
Your doctor will do a physical examination and carry out some tests.
Physical findings in early stages include abdominal tenderness, enlarged spleen and liver, enlarged lymph nodes, and development of a rash (also known as rose spots because of their appearance).
What is the treatment for typhoid fever?
What are the complications of typhoid fever?
If not treated and sometimes even after treatment, there can be serious complications due to typhoid like pneumonia, meningitis (inflammation of meninges of brain), infection in bones (osteomyelitis), intestinal perforation and intestinal haemorrhage.
A doctor needs to be consulted if a person starts developing the symptoms few days after travelling to a place where typhoid is prevalent.
How can typhoid fever be prevented?