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Vasectomy - Types, Procedure, Risks, Side effects, Cost and Reversal

Last Updated: Nov 02, 2021

What is vasectomy?

A vasectomy surgery is considered to be a method of birth control that can last for an entire lifetime. It is a highly effective and one-time procedure. It is performed to prevent a man from releasing sperms when he ejaculates. In this treatment, the ducts which carry the sperms, known as vas deferens are cut, clamped or sealed in each testicle.

This will prevent the sperm from getting mixed with the semen that is ejaculated from the penis. As an egg from the female ovary can never get fertilized without the sperms in the semen, it eliminates any chances of pregnancy. The testicles will continue producing sperms after the surgery, but they will be absorbed by your body.

Where to get a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is done on the scrotum and is performed by the urologist. The main aim of the surgery is to stop the sperm and prevent the partner from getting pregnant.

Who performs a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is performed by a urologist who is a well-trained doctor who specializes in treating urinary tract of males and the reproductive system.

How old do you have to be to get a vasectomy?

The legal age to get a vasectomy is 18 years but it can vary according to the needs of the person and what are his reasons to get a vasectomy.

Do you still come after a Vasectomy?

The composition of the cum consists more than your sperm. From the initial stage of arousal to the end stage of ejaculation, your sperm went through various stages. First, it passes through ejaculatory ducts where it mixes with fluids from the seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands to form the semen. The seminal vesicles are responsible for producing a yellow-colored viscous fluid rich in fructose and other substances which take almost 70% of human semen. Only 2% - 5% of the whole of the ejaculate consists of the sperm.

Which makes it clear that even after Vasectomy your cum will appear the same as other organs associated with a male reproductive system will function the same.

What are the different types of vasectomy?

There are two ways of doing it and they are Conventional method and No-Scalpel method. In both the methods local anesthesia is used by the urologist so as to numb the scrotum.

1. Conventional method: In this method two small cuts in the scrotum are made by the doctor in order to get the access of the vas deferens. After getting the access a small part of the vas deferens is removed by cutting it down. After doing this the ends are sealed by heat (cauterize) or the end is tied with the stitches. The same procedure is followed on the other side of the testicle as well. It can be done through the same opening or another scrotal incision is made. After the tying of the vas deferens, few stitches or skin glue will be applied in the scrotum in order to close the openings.

2. No-Scalpel method: In this method on one side of the scrotum a small puncture hole is made thus it will be easy for the doctor to find out the vas deferens and it will be pulled out of the hole. After pulling it out the small portion of the vas deferens will be cut and a small portion is removed. Then the end is put back in the same place after tying it off or cauterizing it.

Does sperm test different after Vasectomy?

Since the composition of the ejaculation consists of more than just sperm (The prostatic secretion contains proteolytic enzymes, acid phosphatase, citric acid, and lipids), also, the sperm only contains 2% - 5% of the content. The overall taste, smell, color, or texture and anything associated with the ejaculation will remain the same, except it will be sterile and keep you safe from an unexpected pregnancy.

How is a vasectomy done?

  • Firstly, the scrotum and the testicles will be shaved and cleaned with some antiseptic to clear the area from all kind of germs.
  • A medicine will be given to you either in the form of a tablet or through an IV (intravenous) channel. This is mainly to reduce the anxiety.
  • The surgeon will locate your vas deferens by touch and inject the area with a local anesthesia.
  • The doctor then makes a small opening in the scrotum, and both the vas deferens will be cut. The two ends of each of the vas deferens will be tied, sealed or stitched. Sometimes, the ends can be sealed with heat by the process of electrocautery. Scar tissues from the surgery will also help in blocking the tubes.
  • The vas deferens will be then replaced back in your scrotum. The skin will be closed with stitches that can dissolve by itself. There would be no need to remove them. The procedure takes about half an hour and can be done in the doctor’s clinic.
  • In the case of a non-scalpel vasectomy, a clamp is used to poke through the skin of your scrotum to make an opening. This procedure has fewer complications and less bleeding compared to the conventional method.

How long does a vasectomy take?

The procedure of vasectomy takes about 30 minutes to perform.

Who is eligible for the treatment?

A man would want to undergo vasectomy surgery in the following situations:

  • If he wishes to have no children in the future
  • If he is in a physical relationship with a woman who has health problems, making pregnancy unsafe for her
  • If both the partners have genetic disorders which they do not wish to pass on
  • If he and his partner are not interested in other birth control measures

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

People who are not eligible for vasectomy include:

  • If someone is suffering from a hernia in the groin. A hernia has to be treated first and then a vasectomy surgery can be performed.
  • Skin infection in the scrotum
  • If the tip of the penis is inflamed or swollen at the time of surgery
  • Undescended testicles in each side

Does a Vasectomy make you last longer?

The surgical procedure through which Vasectomy is conducted aims specifically to stop the sperm's way, not its production. So your hormones which are responsible for your sex drive, erection, orgasm, ejaculation, and performance will function the same. Male hormones like testosterone will be produced in the same routine as before.

Even though there is no physical evidence of performance alteration, studies show psychological upliftment in males. When the fear of unwanted pregnancy is dissolved, couples find fornication to be more satisfying, pleasurable, intense, and sensuous. Studies have also seen the sex between lovers more frequent and spontaneous.

How painful is a Vasectomy?

Medical professionals make sure that your Vasectomy or any surgery will be as painless as possible. Surgeons use locally available anesthesia to numb your testicles so that you won’t feel anything during the medical procedure, its sting can be a little hurtful but you won't feel it too once the anesthesia starts to do its work.

Whether it is done with or without making an incision, the overall surgery will take approximately 30 minutes. Most of the patients reported barale mild pain and swelling in the scrotum region post-surgery. The patient might feel like they have been kicked in the balls for the next 24 hours, so it is advised to take rest and avoid any or all kinds of physical activity, especially the ones which put pressure on your lower abdomen region.


Are there any side effects of Vasectomy treatment?

The side effects of vasectomy surgery include:

  • Bleeding under your skin can cause bruising or swelling
  • There can be chances of an infection at the place of incision. In rare cases, the infection may develop inside your scrotum.
  • Leaking of sperm from the vas deferens and formation of a lump. This condition can be treated with medicines and adequate rest.
  • The tubes that move the sperm from the testicles can suffer from inflammation
  • In very rare cases, the vas deferens grows back together, and the man becomes fertile again.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Listed below are some post treatment guidelines that a man who has undergone vasectomy can follow:

  • The scrotum generally stays numb 1 to 2 hours after the surgery. You can apply cold packs in that area for comfort.
  • Change the dressing if it is stained or soiled
  • You can take a bath from the day after you have undergone the surgery
  • You must lie on your back on that whole day after the surgery was performed
  • A jockstrap will provide protection to the area and at the same time keep you comfortable
  • It is recommended to avoid heavy lifting for at least a week

How long does it take to recover from Vasectomy treatment?

It normally takes one or two days to get back to your daily routine. The surgery does not affect your sexual activities, but you must use some other form of birth control until you check with your doctor to confirm zero sperm count. You must go for a follow-up test for your sperm count 2 months after the vasectomy has been performed on you.

Risks and complications of Vasectomy:

These are the complications that are involved with this surgery:

  • Pain or swelling can get worse or it does not even go away.
  • Blood while urinating
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, bleeding
  • Discharge from the site of surgery

How effective is a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is not a time taking procedure and is successful most of the time. There are very few risks and complications and the time of recovery is also very quick. But at times after the recovery is successful also it can get the partner pregnant and if this happens one must go directly to the doctor. The patient must not get indulged into unprotected sex.

How long after vasectomy can I have sex?

There is no time limit for having sex after vasectomy. As soon as the person feels comfortable he can involve into having sexual intercourse but he must be comfortable as the scrotum remains tender for a few days.

Does ejaculate after a Vasectomy hurt?

Your medical expert will let you know for how long exactly you need to avoid any vigorous physical exercise to heal the incisions made during Vasectomy. On average it takes two to four weeks to heal completely till then sex and any physical activity like lifting heavy weights, running, exercise is needed to be avoided.

After healing, one can pursue their daily routine as per their comfort. For a brief period, your scrotum may be sensitive and agitate a bit during sex or physical activity. One may find the first few ejaculations a bit discomforting, but they will fade away with time within a month or so.

In case the pain and discomfort are prolonged than the usual time, it may lead to post-Vasectomy pain syndrome. PVPS is known as intermittent or constant testicular pain for more than three month period. The probability of post-Vasectomy pain syndrome is 1–2% in men who underwent a Vasectomy.

What cost of a vasectomy surgery in India?

The cost of a vasectomy surgery in India ranges from Rs. 85,102 to Rs. 1, 04,740. The prices may vary in different clinics and cities.

How much does it cost to reverse a vasectomy?

Reversal of vasectomy is a complex and time taking process. It costs between 144,000-360,000 INR.

Are the results of the Vasectomy treatment permanent?

The failure rate of vasectomy has been observed to be very low. It is considered to be one of the most effective forms of birth control. By any chance, if sperms are found in your semen, there may be a requirement for a second vasectomy.

What are the alternatives to the Vasectomy treatment?

The alternatives to vasectomy surgery would include using condoms during the intercourse to prevent your partner from getting pregnant. Apart from this, you and your partner can mutually decide and she can opt for birth control pills, cervical cap or diaphragm to prevent unplanned pregnancies.

Do’s and Don’ts

These are the things you should do:

  • Take pain-relieving medicines like acetaminophen (Tylenol) but thinners like aspirin (Bayer) or naproxen (Aleve) should be avoided.
  • Wear tight underwear to keep the genetic area secured and to avoid injuries.
  • Surgical site must be kept on the check and the stitches must be watched. Attention should also be given if there is redness, swelling, bleeding for a couple of days.
  • One must keep pressing ice pack or cool things against the scrotum for 3-4 times a day so that it can help in relieving the pain and swelling.
  • The person who has gone through the vasectomy surgery must take complete rest and keep the scrotum straight as much as possible.

These are the things that should not be done:

  • On must not get a bath soon after the surgery as it can worsen the condition and wait for a day or for the instructions of the concerned doctor.
  • Do not exercise, lift heavy weight or do not have sex soon after the vasectomy and must consult the doctor before doing any of these.
Summary: It is a very safe medical procedure used as male birth control. It is used to separate the sperm from the seminal fluid by sealing the tubes that carry the sperm.

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Written ByDr. Ajay Kumar Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)Sexology
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