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Last Updated: Mar 23, 2020
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Vasectomy - Types, Procedure, Risks, Side effects, Cost and Reversal

About Types Procedure Side effects Recovery Risks and complications How effective is a vasectomy? Cost Reversal Results Alternatives Do’s and Don’ts

What is vasectomy?

A vasectomy surgery is considered to be a method of birth control that can last for an entire lifetime. It is a highly effective and one-time procedure. It is performed to prevent a man from releasing sperms when he ejaculates. In this treatment, the ducts which carry the sperms, known as vas deferens are cut, clamped or sealed in each testicle.

This will prevent the sperm from getting mixed with the semen that is ejaculated from the penis. As an egg from the female ovary can never get fertilized without the sperms in the semen, it eliminates any chances of pregnancy. The testicles will continue producing sperms after the surgery, but they will be absorbed by your body.

Where to get a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is done on the scrotum and is performed by the urologist. The main aim of the surgery is to stop the sperm and prevent the partner from getting pregnant.

Who performs a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is performed by a urologist who is a well-trained doctor who specializes in treating urinary tract of males and the reproductive system.

How old do you have to be to get a vasectomy?

The legal age to get a vasectomy is 18 years but it can vary according to the needs of the person and what are his reasons to get a vasectomy.

What are the different types of vasectomy?

There are two ways of doing it and they are Conventional method and No-Scalpel method. In both the methods local anesthesia is used by the urologist so as to numb the scrotum.

1. Conventional method: In this method two small cuts in the scrotum are made by the doctor in order to get the access of the vas deferens. After getting the access a small part of the vas deferens is removed by cutting it down. After doing this the ends are sealed by heat (cauterize) or the end is tied with the stitches. The same procedure is followed on the other side of the testicle as well. It can be done through the same opening or another scrotal incision is made. After the tying of the vas deferens, few stitches or skin glue will be applied in the scrotum in order to close the openings.

2. No-Scalpel method: In this method on one side of the scrotum a small puncture hole is made thus it will be easy for the doctor to find out the vas deferens and it will be pulled out of the hole. After pulling it out the small portion of the vas deferens will be cut and a small portion is removed. Then the end is put back in the same place after tying it off or cauterizing it.

How is a vasectomy done?

  • Firstly, the scrotum and the testicles will be shaved and cleaned with some antiseptic to clear the area from all kind of germs.
  • A medicine will be given to you either in the form of a tablet or through an IV (intravenous) channel. This is mainly to reduce the anxiety.
  • The surgeon will locate your vas deferens by touch and inject the area with a local anesthesia.
  • The doctor then makes a small opening in the scrotum, and both the vas deferens will be cut. The two ends of each of the vas deferens will be tied, sealed or stitched. Sometimes, the ends can be sealed with heat by the process of electrocautery. Scar tissues from the surgery will also help in blocking the tubes.
  • The vas deferens will be then replaced back in your scrotum. The skin will be closed with stitches that can dissolve by itself. There would be no need to remove them. The procedure takes about half an hour and can be done in the doctor’s clinic.
  • In the case of a non-scalpel vasectomy, a clamp is used to poke through the skin of your scrotum to make an opening. This procedure has fewer complications and less bleeding compared to the conventional method.

How long does a vasectomy take?

The procedure of vasectomy takes about 30 minutes to perform.

Who is eligible for the treatment?

A man would want to undergo vasectomy surgery in the following situations:

  • If he wishes to have no children in the future
  • If he is in a physical relationship with a woman who has health problems, making pregnancy unsafe for her
  • If both the partners have genetic disorders which they do not wish to pass on
  • If he and his partner are not interested in other birth control measures

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

People who are not eligible for vasectomy include:

  • If someone is suffering from a hernia in the groin. A hernia has to be treated first and then a vasectomy surgery can be performed.
  • Skin infection in the scrotum
  • If the tip of the penis is inflamed or swollen at the time of surgery
  • Undescended testicles in each side

Are there any side effects?

The side effects of vasectomy surgery include:

  • Bleeding under your skin can cause bruising or swelling
  • There can be chances of an infection at the place of incision. In rare cases, the infection may develop inside your scrotum.
  • Leaking of sperm from the vas deferens and formation of a lump. This condition can be treated with medicines and adequate rest.
  • The tubes that move the sperm from the testicles can suffer from inflammation
  • In very rare cases, the vas deferens grows back together, and the man becomes fertile again.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Listed below are some post treatment guidelines that a man who has undergone vasectomy can follow:

  • The scrotum generally stays numb 1 to 2 hours after the surgery. You can apply cold packs in that area for comfort.
  • Change the dressing if it is stained or soiled
  • You can take a bath from the day after you have undergone the surgery
  • You must lie on your back on that whole day after the surgery was performed
  • A jockstrap will provide protection to the area and at the same time keep you comfortable
  • It is recommended to avoid heavy lifting for at least a week

How long does it take to recover?

It normally takes one or two days to get back to your daily routine. The surgery does not affect your sexual activities, but you must use some other form of birth control until you check with your doctor to confirm zero sperm count. You must go for a follow-up test for your sperm count 2 months after the vasectomy has been performed on you.

Risks and complications of Vasectomy:

These are the complications that are involved with this surgery:

  • Pain or swelling can get worse or it does not even go away.
  • Blood while urinating
  • Loss of appetite, nausea, bleeding
  • Discharge from the site of surgery

How effective is a vasectomy?

Vasectomy is not a time taking procedure and is successful most of the time. There are very few risks and complications and the time of recovery is also very quick. But at times after the recovery is successful also it can get the partner pregnant and if this happens one must go directly to the doctor. The patient must not get indulged into unprotected sex.

How long after vasectomy can I have sex?

There is no time limit for having sex after vasectomy. As soon as the person feels comfortable he can involve into having sexual intercourse but he must be comfortable as the scrotum remains tender for a few days.

What cost of a vasectomy surgery in India?

The cost of a vasectomy surgery in India ranges from Rs. 85,102 to Rs. 1, 04,740. The prices may vary in different clinics and cities.

How much does it cost to reverse a vasectomy?

Reversal of vasectomy is a complex and time taking process. It costs between 144,000-360,000 INR.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The failure rate of vasectomy has been observed to be very low. It is considered to be one of the most effective forms of birth control. By any chance, if sperms are found in your semen, there may be a requirement for a second vasectomy.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The alternatives to vasectomy surgery would include using condoms during the intercourse to prevent your partner from getting pregnant. Apart from this, you and your partner can mutually decide and she can opt for birth control pills, cervical cap or diaphragm to prevent unplanned pregnancies.

Do’s and Don’ts

These are the things you should do:

  • Take pain-relieving medicines like acetaminophen (Tylenol) but thinners like aspirin (Bayer) or naproxen (Aleve) should be avoided.
  • Wear tight underwear to keep the genetic area secured and to avoid injuries.
  • Surgical site must be kept on the check and the stitches must be watched. Attention should also be given if there is redness, swelling, bleeding for a couple of days.
  • One must keep pressing ice pack or cool things against the scrotum for 3-4 times a day so that it can help in relieving the pain and swelling.
  • The person who has gone through the vasectomy surgery must take complete rest and keep the scrotum straight as much as possible.

These are the things that should not be done:

  • On must not get a bath soon after the surgery as it can worsen the condition and wait for a day or for the instructions of the concerned doctor.
  • Do not exercise, lift heavy weight or do not have sex soon after the vasectomy and must consult the doctor before doing any of these.

Popular Questions & Answers

I had hand sex. Read somewhere that fluid contact could lead to pregnancy. My period ended just yesterday. Just to be safe feel the need to use a plan b pill but I cannot go and buy it. Is it okay if I used novelon birth control pills in an increased dosage?

M.B.B.S, Post Graduate Diploma In Maternal & Child Health
Gynaecologist, Bokaro
In what dosage have you taken it? As you had normal periods the question of pregnancy does not arise. If you are sexually active you should be aware of normal physiology of menstruation and conception. That will help you to avoid unnecessary medic...

My boyfriend was fully naked I had jeans and underwear on. His normal white discharge (not sperm) touched my jeans, later I touched my jeans to check whether I have wet on my jeans but I could hardly feel the wet from outside the jeans and I felt no wet inside the jeans. Will I get pregnant? Can I take I pill ,bcz this was happened today mrng.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FMAS, DMAS, Fellowship in Assisted Reproductive technology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gynaecologist, Burhanpur
Hello, if you will there was a pre cum contact and you are in your unsafe period, then you may opt for an emergency contraceptive pill.
1 person found this helpful

If I had sex last month and this month I missed my periods it means pregnancy. So which tablets I used this time to avoid pregnancy at this time.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FCPS, DGO, Diploma of the Faculty of Family Planning (DFFP)
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Your question is not clear. If you have missed period then to do pregnancy test and if positive to meet gynecologist for termination tablets. If you had unprotected sex within last 72 hours and looking for avoiding pregnancy - emergency contracept...

Dear doctor, greetings this is naveen kumar from mumbai avoid pregnancy while having sex, we have already 2 kids and my wife interested one more but I am not interested. Please advice how to avoid pregnancy from my side.

MBBS, Basic Life Support (B.L.S), Advanced Cardiac Life Support, Fellow of Academy of General Education (FAGE)
General Physician, Delhi
I am sorry to hear about your concern but will be happy to assist you. 9 types of contraception you can use to prevent pregnancy the condom. The oral contraceptive pill. Intrauterine device (iud. The contraceptive implant. The contraceptive inject...

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