Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) test is also called sedimentation rate test or sed rate test. It is used to determine if the patient is experiencing any inflammation. The test alone does not indicate the cause of the inflammation or the part of the body that is inflamed. It merely points to the existence of inflammation. The patient's blood is placed in a tall, thin tube and time that it takes to reach the bottom of the tube is measured. Inflammation can causes the appearance of abnormal proteins in the blood which cause the red blood cells to clump making them fall quickly.

If you take any regular medications, inform the doctor. You may have to stop them for a few days before the test as certain medications tend to affect the results of the ESR test. Also, inform the lab if you are allergic to latex or pregnant or on your period. Only a few milliliters of blood are required for the test. Also, inform the lab if you have ever felt light headed after blood collection. It is recommended that you wear either a sleeveless or half sleeved shirt or a full sleeved shirt whose sleeves can be easily rolled up.

The result of an ESR test is in terms how many milliliters of clear fluid is present at the top of the tube after one hour. ESR test is usually done to determine whether or not the patient has an inflammation and further tests need to ordered if the result is abnormal. If the ESR was elevated moderately, it could be because of anemia, aging, pregnancy or infection. A very high value can indicate auto immune disease or severe infection. If the ESR value is lower than normal, it may indicate a variety of diseases like congestive heart failure, sickle cell anemia, low plasma protein etc.

The blood collection for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate can be performed at a lab or at a clinic. A vein is selected for drawing blood and a tourniquet is secured above the vein. The skin is cleaned using a pad soaked in alcohol. A needle is inserted in to the vein and blood is collected. The puncture site is covered with cotton for a little while. The tubes are labeled with your name or ID and then send to the laboratory for testing.

Type Gender Age-Group Value
ESR Westergren
All age groups
Average price range of the test is between Rs.50 to Rs.80 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

Table of Content

What is Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test?
Preparation for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test
Uses of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test
Procedure for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test
Normal values for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test
Price for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Test
Lybrate Gaurantee
Lybrate Gaurantee

Popular Questions & Answers

My 25 OH Vit D is 22.26 ng Calcium 9.21 mg Iron 21.2 ug/dl Haemoglobin 10.6 Transferrin saturation 6.77% Serum globulin 2.22 gm LDL cholesterol 145 Blood urea nitrogen is 7.1 mg T3 105 T4 9.1 TSH 2.54 My heamogram 6 part hba report says I hv hypochromia anisotysosys. Erythrocyte sedi rate is 25 mm/1st hour. Kindly let me know ab my health. And the supplements I should take. I hv pain in legs n knees. I hv severe hair fall prob. Can I be cured? Do I have osteoarthritis? Please help .i m confused.

Homeopath, Surat
Do not worry, your reports are not that much bad. Your will be cured and your reports will also becomes normal and your hair fall also stopped with 3 months medicines course. Please increase green leafy vegetable in your diet and fruits. Drink 1 glass cow's milk every day. Start walking daily for half and hour. Take sprouts on daily bases. For medicines please consult on private.
1 person found this helpful

Hi Lybrate. My brother is 17 years old in 11th standard having some behavioral issues. From last 2 years we notice his behavior is totally change. Always irritating, Replying in anger. Poor performance in studies day by day as compare to 2 years before. Roaming with friend late night. After noticing these changes we have doubt that his friend circle is not good and also taking drugs or alcohol also. We also go through his blood test report as under. Please suggest. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) is 42 mm/Hr. HB-12.1 gm/dl, MCH-30.5, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) is 79.2 fl, SGOT/AST-56.7 IU/L, SGPT/ALT - 50.9 IU/L, VITAMIN B12 Level (cyanocobalamin)-292.0 pg/ml. Platelet count 1.69 lacs/cu. Mm.Serum Uric Acid-6.2 mg/dl. Other things are normal in report. Please suggest as we are really worried.

Bachelor of Psychology, Masters in Applied Psychology, PG Diploma in Counselling and Family Therapy
Psychologist, Delhi
Hi, I can help you with the behavioral aspet of your brother. For medicine, I would suggest you to seek help of certified doctor. Chances are that there could be something bothering him, something which is unresolved in his head. Another possibility is peer pressure. Peer pressure is when we get influenced by people of our age, friends, collegues etc. Many a times in order to keep others happy, we end up doing things they expect from us. Most of the times there is disagreement within ourselves that keeps us frustrated, irirtated and angry. Try and know the reason if possible. It's been 2 years and he still hasn't shared it. I would suggest you to seek help of a counsellor. It will be easy for him to open up infront of a nuetral body and a professional will be able to give you better results.
1 person found this helpful

My present abdomen report- Liver- appear normal Gal bladder- CBD is echo free and measures 4.5 mm approx. Pancreas- normal Spleen- 80 mm x 41 mm Kidney- both are normal size shape position and axis right kidney show cyst measuring 1.8 cm and 2.0 cm approx. Left kidney show cyst measuring 4.2 x 3.7 cms approx. There is no evidence of renal calculi on either side. Right kidney 86 mm x 36 mm Left kidney 87 mm x 43 mm Urinary bladder is normal in size shape and contour no intraluminal lesion seen. Prostate glad is enlarge in size shape and echo pattern prostate measure 37 mm x 40 mm x 42 mm. Prostate volume is 33.3 ml BLOOD REPORT Haemoglobin 10.8 gm/dl W.B.C - 6300/cu. Mm neutrophil - 63% Lymphocytes - 30% eosinophil - 06% monocyte - 01% Basophild - 00% Erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1st hour - 78 mm 2nd hour - 102 mm Average - 64. 5 mm Blood sugar - fasting 116 mg/dl. Post prandial - 174 mg/dl TAKING medicine :- 1. Cap pantocid - L - one in morning empty stomach. 2. Syp. Duphalac - 10 ml two time. 3. Tab. Flodart plus - one at nite. 4. Tab. Niftas 100 mg - two time morning and evening. 5.syp.sucral- three time. 6.cap.becosules z.7.glucobay 25 - morning. 8.glyciphage 500 mg one time. Steel feel heavy stomach not feeling hungry.

Post Doctoral Research (Ph.D.) (A.M) (Oncology), Integrative Oncology For Physicians (MSKCC, N.Y, USA), Doctor of Natural Medicine (N.D/ N.M.D), PG Diploma In Clinical Counseling, PG Diploma In Oncology & Haematology (A.M), Ayurveda (I) Certification, Clinically Relevant Herb-Drug Interactions (CME) (Cine-Med Inc. USA), Advanced Strategic Management (APSM), B.E (Computer Sc. & Engg.), Certificate Course in Homeopathic Oncology
Alternative Medicine Specialist, Bhubaneswar
My present abdomen report- Liver- appear normal Gal bladder- CBD is echo free and measures 4.5 mm approx.
Pancreas- n...
Hi Mr. lybrate-user, I appreciate you seeking help. Well, for the medical conditions described, I believe his physician has already prescribed the needful medications. However, for the appetite issue that he has currently, I would suggest that he be given small and frequent meals instead of large ones. Again the food given should suit his taste, and yet healthy/ balanced. A cup of soup, with little bit of healthy spices, given especially before his lunch/ dinner can be of help in improving his appetite levels too. Walking daily, to the extent he can safely, is recommended too. The above-mentioned is subject to his physician's concurrence lest he/ she has any reservations here. Hope this helps. You can connect in private should his anorexia persist still. Do take care, and all the very best. Sincerely,
1 person found this helpful

As per my Haematology Report, my Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate is 25 mm/hr. I a aged 57 years - Male, Vegetarian. What is my diagnosis?

DHMS (Hons.)
Homeopath, Patna
As per my Haematology Report, my Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate is 25 mm/hr. I a aged 57 years - Male, Vegetarian. W...
hello,lybrate user, normal range of esr denotes 22mm/ hr if your ESR is 25, nothing is to be worried about. the care .
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Jaundice - 7 Factors That Can Cause It

General Physician, Delhi
Jaundice - 7 Factors That Can Cause It

Jaundice is a disease which causes the skin and the sclerae of the eye to turn yellow. It is caused by hyperbilirubinemia or excess secretion of bilirubin into the blood. The body fluids may also turn yellow. The shade of the skin depends on the bilirubin level. A mild increase in the bilirubin turns the skin pale yellow, and high level makes the skin turn brown.

There are three primary types of jaundice:

  1. Hepatocellular jaundice: This type of jaundice occurs due to liver disorders.
  2. Hemolytic jaundice: This type of jaundice occurs due to the breakdown of erythrocytes or red blood cells, and then excess bilirubin is produced.
  3. Obstructive jaundice: This type of jaundice develops due to an obstruction in your bile duct, restricting the bilirubin to exit the liver.

The common causes of jaundice are as follows:

  1. Inflammation of the liver disables the secretion and production of bilirubin and results in a buildup of bilirubin.
  2. Inflammation of the bile duct disables the secretion of bile juice, which results in bilirubin removal and leads to jaundice.
  3. In case the bile duct gets obstructed, the liver cannot dispose the bilirubin and leads to hyperbilirubinemia.
  4. Hemolytic anaemia may result in jaundice. When a large number of red blood cells break down, bilirubin production gets enhanced.
  5. An inherited condition known as Gilbert’s syndrome may also lead to jaundice. The enzyme’s ability to process bile excretion is also impaired.
  6. Another medical condition called Cholestasis disrupts the flow of bile from the liver. The conjugated bilirubin containing bile remains in the liver and leads to jaundice.
  7. Jaundice is also caused from alcoholic liver disease, caused due to excess alcohol consumption.

Treatment of jaundice
Jaundice itself cannot be cured and hence, the underlying cause of the jaundice is treated. Different types of jaundice are cured using different methods:

  1. Jaundice induced by anaemia can be cured by increasing the iron amount in your blood. This is done by intake of iron supplements or having iron rich food.
  2. Jaundice caused from hepatitis is treated by injections of anti-viral and steroid medicines.
  3. Obstruction induced jaundice has to be treated by surgical means. The obstruction is removed by surgery.
  4. Jaundice inflicted from medication is usually treated by choosing alternative medicines and abstaining from the medicines which caused the jaundice.
  5. Jaundice can be kept away if you take proper care of your liver. For this, you should eat a balanced diet, work out regularly and prohibit yourself from consuming excess of alcohol.

Jaundice is the most common type of liver disorder and occurs in people of all ages and also in newborn babies. Keep away from contaminated food and water, if you want to avoid jaundice.anemia

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult the doctor and ask a free question.

5351 people found this helpful

PRP for Hair Fall and Skin Rejuvenation

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
Dermatologist, Delhi
PRP for Hair Fall and Skin Rejuvenation

PRP is a latest, state-of-the-art technology that employs non-surgical methods to stimulate hair growth in case of hair loss.Advancements in research have enabled scientists to make new inroads in the field of wound and tissue healing. The result of these researches is PRP, which is a natural way to rejuvenate your scalp, skin and stimulate your hair growth.

How PRP works? 
The presence of mesenchymal stem cells and autologous blood products in human blood contain specific growth factors that assist in tissue regeneration and healing. PRP has been used to heal skin and wounds for over two decades now. Apart from this it finds use in oral surgery, cosmetic surgery and neurosurgery as well. It is also the promising treatment to promote hair growth.


  • It is a progressive healing treatment that doesn't require surgery
  • Simple, rapid and highly effective system
  • Autologous (from patient's own blood)
  • The system is biocompatible and xeno-free, so there shouldn't be any safety concerns
  • Increase in the concentration of platelets can be observed
  • It helps in the elimination of undesired erythrocytes, which significantly decrease the fibroblast proliferation
  • Contains growth factors that help in the stimulation of growth of the hair follicles
  • Can be performed preoperatively, intraoperatively, or post operatively

The Science of PRP
There are special cells called platelets used in PRP, that have been theoretically proved to stimulate hair follicles growth by stimulating stem cells and other important cells in the ecosystem of the follicles. They are instrumental in promoting the healing ability and regeneration of cells, formation of new cells and response to injury. PRP stimulates inactive or newly implanted hair follicles, and makes them active by inducing them into a growth phase.

Platelets are known to contain various structures, which are crucial for blood clotting and cell regeneration, and are released during the repair process by the body. Some of these structures are: glycogen, alpha granules and lysosomes.

Who should not have PRP treatment? 
Those with heavy drug and smoking issue should avoid PRP. Also those who drink a lot of alcohol should avoid PRP. Those suffering from platelets related ailments, sepsis, chronic liver disease, thrombocytopenia, hyperfibrinogenemia, systemic disorders and cancer should also stay away from PRP.

At length, PRP is a boon for all those who aren't fans of surgery or the ones who prefer a more aggressive but non-surgical approach for treatment to their ailments. The results might vary from patient to patient, but it is certainly one of the most promising technologies to stimulate hair growth and rejuvenate your skin, and the results are quite convincing. So decide wisely!

3832 people found this helpful

Health Benefits Of Honey

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Health Benefits Of Honey

Health benefits of honey

#1 honey is good for your blood:
Honey influences the body in different ways depending on how you consume it. If honey is mixed in tepid water and drunk, it has a beneficial impact on the red blood cell (rbc) count in the blood. Rbcs are mainly responsible for carrying oxygen in the blood to various parts of the body. The honey-tepid water mixture raises the bloods hemoglobin levels, which takes care of anemic conditions. Iron deficiency anemia is a condition that occurs when dietary intake or absorption of iron is insufficient, and the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is compromised. The reduced oxygen carrying capacity leads to fatigue, breathlessness, and sometimes depression and other problems. Honey can negate these issues by building the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood.

Building the level of oxygen in the blood is extremely important because how healthy the body is and how easily it rejuvenates itself depends on the level of oxygen in the blood. Preliminary research has also shown the positive effect of honey on hypertension or high blood pressure. Traditionally, honey is also consumed to reduce the effects of hypotension or low blood pressure.

There is also some preliminary evidence that honey can prevent low white blood cell (wbc) count in chemotherapy patients. In a small-scale experiment, 40% of patients at risk of low wbc count had no recurrence of the problem after consuming two teaspoons of therapeutic honey a day during chemotherapy.

#2 honey is safer than sugar:
There has been a lot said about the negative effects of white sugar on the body. Honey is a great substitute that is as sweet but also safe to consume. Though honey also includes simple sugars in its chemical makeup, it is quite different from white sugar in that it contains about 30% glucose and 40% fructose two monosaccharide or simple sugars with 20% other complex sugars. Honey also includes dextrin, a starchy fiber. This combination helps the body regulate blood sugar levels.

#3 honey is good for yoga practitioners:
For those doing yogic practices, consuming honey brings balance to the blood chemistry and is especially recommended. Regular intake of honey makes the system more vibrant. Taking tepid water mildly laced with honey in the morning before beginning the practice can open the system up.

#4 honey is antibacterial and antiseptic:
Consumption of honey promotes an increase is beneficial antioxidant agents, stimulates antibodies and combats harmful microbial activity. Several studies have also looked at honey in wound treatment. One study used a therapeutic honey that had undergone a special purification process, which destroyed all strains of bacteria in wounds among the study participants. Another study treated wounds and leg ulcers for 59 patients, of whom 80% had not responded to conventional treatment, with unprocessed honey. Except for one patient, all the others' wounds showed improvement. What's more, the infected wounds became sterile within one week of honey application.

In traditional medicine, one of the health benefits of honey includes the treatment of respiratory infections. Daily consumption of honey is used to deal with issues such as excess mucus and asthma.

Clinical research has also shown that medical-grade honey can destroy food-borne illness pathogens such as eschetichia coli and salmonella. Honey has also shown promise in fighting bacterial strains that have developed resistance to antibiotics. Research has shown that honey is effective against methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Honey fights infections on many levels making it difficult for pathogens to develop resistance to it. Antibiotics by contrast, typically target bacteria while they are growing, giving them an opportunity to evolve resistance. Honey is also found to disrupt what is known as quorum sensing, which reduces the virulence of bacterial pathogens, and allows antibiotics to take effect.

#5 honey is an energy food:
One of the important uses of honey in traditional medicine is as an instant energy booster. As mentioned above, honey contains many different kinds of sugar molecules, especially glucose and fructose. However, unlike white sugar where fructose and glucose are combined as sucrose and require an additional step in the digestive process, in honey, these two sugars are separate. Thus, the glucose acts as an instant energy source.

The united states national honey board recommends consumption of honey because it contains many vitamins and minerals in small amounts. A list of these include: niacin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium and zinc.

#6 honey helps with digestion:
Honey helps reduce constipation, bloating and gas, thanks to it being a mild laxative. Honey is also rich in probiotic or friendly bacteria such as bifido bacteria and lactobacilli, which aid in digestion, promote the health of the immune system, and reduce allergies. Using honey in place of table sugar has been found to reduce the toxic effects in the gut of mycotoxins produced by fungi.

#7 honey combats skin and scalp infections:
There are many health benefits of honey on skin and scalp wellbeing as well. In a small-scale study with 30 patients that looked at the effects of honey on treating seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff, participants applied diluted crude honey every alternate day by gently rubbing their problem areas for 2-3 minutes. The honey was left in place for three hours before being washed off with warm water. All the patients showed improvement with the treatment. Itching was relieved and scaling disappeared in a week, while lesions disappeared in two weeks. The patients' hair loss situation also improved. What's more, patients who continued the treatment for six months by applying honey once a week did not suffer from a relapse.

#8 honey helps children sleep soundly:
Preliminary results from several studies indicate that honey can improve the quality of sleep in children. Based on parents' opinions, the studies concluded that honey reduced cough among children during the night and helped them sleep more soundly.

Honey should not be given to infants under 12 months of age due to the risk that it may contain spores of the botulism bacteria that can lead to infant botulism. These spores are found in dust and soil and could find their way into honey. An infant's system is still not geared to defend itself against this kind of infection.

Uses of honey in siddha and ayurveda
Perhaps no one has explored honey's benefits in as much depth as indians have. Honey was considered to be nature's gift to mankind and was prescribed as an essential ingredient of every kitchen. It was seen as an important part of the diet for anyone over 12 months of age. Honey was considered a predigested food, and was said to be easily digested by human beings. One of the uses of honey in both ayurveda and siddha is as a vehicle for medicines. When mixed with honey, medicines are easily and quickly absorbed by the body, and they spread across the system through blood circulation. Honey is also said to maintain the potency of a medicine and prolong its effectiveness.

Traditional remedies and uses of honey

Honey water
1-3 teaspoons with a glass of room temperature water, twice a day nourishes tissues and helps alleviate weakness in the nervous system. 1-3 teaspoons with a glass of lukewarm water provides instant energy and helps in weight management.

Topical uses
Honey smeared over abrasions promotes quicker healing and minimizes the scar.

Benefits of honey and lemon
Twice a day, for 20 minutes each, apply equal parts of honey and fresh lemon juice on the face topically. This can remove black marks on the face.

Ginger honey drink

Brew #1
Beat ginger and crush it to extract juice. Leave the juice for 15 minutes in a glass container. Leave the sedimentation and store the clear juice in a refrigerator for 5-6 days. Mix two teaspoons of this ginger juice and two teaspoons of honey and consume it in the morning every day on an empty stomach. This helps purify the blood. It can be consumed for 48 days once every 6 months.

Brew #2
Wash fresh ginger and peel off the skin. Cut ginger into small pieces, soak it in honey in a wide mouth glass bottle. Cover the bottle mouth with a thin, white, cotton cloth and keep in the sun for 12 days. Consume 2-4 pieces daily in the morning and evening to get rid of any indigestion issues.

Brew #3
Mix four teaspoons of ginger juice, four teaspoons of honey and two teaspoons of lemon juice in three-fourths of a cup of water. Consume. This helps reduce your susceptibility to cold.

Heart care
Take fresh juice of one pomegranate and add one tablespoon of honey in it. Consume every day in the morning on an empty stomach. Make holes in dates by piercing them with a needle. Soak in honey and consume 2-4 dates twice a day.
Honey remedies for cold

If you suffer from cold-related diseases or are one of those who has to deal with blocked nostrils every morning, the consumption of neem, pepper, honey and turmeric can help to a great extent. Here's a couple of simple remedies.

Option 1: roughly crush 10 to 12 peppercorns and soak them in two teaspoons of honey overnight (8-12 hours). Consume the peppercorns in the morning and make sure to chew them well. You can also add some turmeric to honey.

Option 2: grind neem leaves to a paste and roll the paste into a marble-sized ball. Dip the ball in honey and swallow it every morning on an empty stomach. Don't eat anything for the next 60 minutes to allow the neem to pass through the system. This also helps with other kinds of allergies such as skin or food allergies. Neem has many medicinal qualities and this practice is highly beneficial. If you find regular neem leaves too bitter, tender neem leaves can also be used.

Watermelon-ginger-mint cooler
Here's a cool recipe with honey and watermelon that can be a great boon during summer months.

A quarter of a watermelon1 inch piece of ginger cup fresh mint leavessalt to tasteblack pepper powder to taste3 tablespoons honey

Peel the watermelon, deseed and chop roughly. Toss the pieces into the jar of a blender. Peel ginger, crush and add to the jar. Add the mint leaves, salt, pepper powder and honey. Blend everything together till smooth. Pass the contents through a strainer. Pour the juice into glasses and serve.
To finish off the article, here are a few facts about honey and bees in general.

About 25, 000 species of bee are known to exist, of which many are unfortunately under threat of extinction. Almost 80% of food in the supermarket is there as a result of bee-pollination. The first record of human beings collecting honey comes from 6000 bc! this is depicted in a cave painting in the cave of the spider in valencia, spain. It takes about 10 million trips foraging for nectar, or the equivalent of 1.5 round trips around the world, for honey bees to produce the equivalent of 500 grams of honey.
Editor's note: isha shoppe stocks several honey-related products. For delivery in india, here's a list of food items and bodycare products. For delivery in the us, here's a list of bodycare products.

31 people found this helpful

Septic Arthritis Hip

MBBS, MS - Orthopaedics
Orthopedic Doctor, Delhi
Septic Arthritis Hip

Septic Arthritis of Hip is relatively uncommon condition in children, but it should be suspected in a child who is ill, toxic and unable to walk. Movement of the affected joint is not possible because of pain. Diagnosis is confirmed by raised white cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and perhaps by effusion on ultrasound images. No test is perfectly sensitive or specific, so expert clinical judgement is required.

Urgent surgical drainage should be done to save the hip joint from destruction or to reduce the risk of late osteoarthritis.

  • Diagnosis may be particularly difficult in neonates.
  • Staphylococcus aureus  is the usual infective organism.
  • Patient will need long term antibiotic  therapy.
  • Weight bearing should be avoided until complete recovery.
6 people found this helpful