he test is a complete blood routine test carried out to measure the levels of different components of the blood. The test measures Hb (Hemoglobin), TC (Total count), DC (Differential count), and ESR(Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate).It gives information about the general health of a person.TC or total count measures the number of WBCs or white blood cells, which if high in number are indicative of an infection. DC measures the structure and consistency of WBCs and counts the percentage of basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. ESR levels check for inflammation in the body. Hb measures the number of red blood cells in the blood.
No special preparation is required for the test. The doctor should be informed of prior medical history and medications being taken and existing allergies, for specific instructions.
The normal levels of the different components of the blood are as follows:
TC : 4000-11000/cu.mm
DC (in %): Neutrophils – 40-70
Basophils – 0-1
Eosinophils – 1-6
Monocytes – 2-10
Lymphocytes – 20-45
Higher levels of DC and TC are indicative of cancers such as leukemia.
Hemoglobin (in %): 11-16. Low levels of Hb are indicative of sickle cell anemia.
ESR (in %): 2-16. High levels of ESR can be indicative of an auto-immune disease, tuberculosis, thyroid disease or other infections, while low levels of ESR are indicative of diseases such as sickle cell anemia and congestive heart failure.
The levels of these components should be corresponded with the levels of other components of the blood to get a clearer picture of the disease being indicated.
A sample of blood is taken through a sterile swab inserted into the vein. The nozzle is withdrawn and the sample is collected. The sample can also be collected through a prick with a sterilized needle. The sample is tested for the levels of different components through a microscope.