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Jaundice - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Jaundice?

Jaundice is also called icterus and describes a yellow coloring of skin and the sclera. It happens due to excess blood bilirubin levels (hyperbilirubinemia). Body fluids might turn yellow as well. The sclera and skin color changes depending on bilirubin levels. Moderately high bilirubin levels turn the skin yellow and very high levels turn it brown. Bilirubin is a yellow waste product that causes sclera and skin coloration in jaundice. Bilirubin is the byproduct after iron gets removed from the RBCs. Excess bilirubin might leak into the surrounding tissues and cause coloration.


Underlying disorders where bilirubin is overproduced or the liver is prevented from disposing it cause jaundice in most cases. In both instances, the bilirubin gets stored in the tissues.

Few conditions that might result in jaundice are:

  • Acute liver inflammation- it might impair the liver’s ability to secrete bilirubin after conjugating it and may result in buildup.
  • Bile duct inflammation- it might obstruct the liver in bilirubin disposal
  • Hemolytic anemia- bilirubin production increases when there are large amounts of RBCs to be broken
  • Gilbert’s syndrome- it is inherited and impairs the enzymes ability to excrete bile

Cholestasis is a condition when the bile flow is interrupted. The bile with the conjugated bilirubin, instead of getting excreted, stays within the liver.

    Jaundice has three primary types:

    • Hepatocellular Jaundice- It happens due to liver injury or disease.
    • Hemolytic Jaundice- It happens due to hemolysis and results in increased bilirubin production.
    • Obstructive Jaundice- It happens due to bile duct obstruction and prevents the bilirubin from escaping form the liver.

    Jaundice treatment needs a diagnosis for a specific cause for selecting viable treatment plans. Such a treatment targets the cause instead of the jaundice.

    • Jaundice caused due to anemia can be addressed by increasing the blood’s iron content by either consuming food rich in iron or using supplements.
    • Jaundice resulting from hepatitis can be treated by giving steroid or anti-viral medications.
    • Obstruction induced jaundice can be treated with surgery so as to make it unobstructed.
    • Medication induced jaundice can be treated with alternative medicines and stopping the medicines that started it


The itching in jaundice might get very intense and the patients might have insomnia, scratch excessively and in extreme cases may commit suicide. The complications in jaundice are mostly not due to the jaundice itself, but the underlying causes. For example, a bile-duct obstruction jaundice might result in continuous bleeding due to vitamin deficiency.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test not required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks Non communicable
Yellowish colour in skin and eyes which starts at the head and spreads downwards Itchiness Pale stools Vomiting Dark coloured urine Pain in the abdomen

Popular Health Tips

Jaundice - The Right Way It Can Be Treated!

MBBS, DNB - Internal Medicine, DNB - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Faridabad
Jaundice - The Right Way It Can Be Treated!

Jaundice is a medical condition where the bilirubin level shoots up in the blood of the affected person. Also referred to as icterus, the condition may affect adults as well as newborn babies (Neonatal Jaundice), whereby the skin and the white part of the eye (sclera) appears yellowish in color (due to the accumulation of bilirubin).

Bilirubin is the bile pigment that results from the breakdown of hemoglobin (when the RBC cells breakdown). The bilirubin thus produced is released into the plasma. The liver then filters the released bilirubin for further metabolism. In the case of a diseased condition, injury or infection to the liver, it fails to remove the bilirubin from the bloodstream. As a result, there is an abnormal rise in the bilirubin level in the blood (Hyperbilirubinemia), resulting in jaundice. In jaundice, Bilirubin can go upto much higher levels. At 2.5-3 it just starts to get manifest as yellow eyes. Obstructive jaundice may require an endoscopic procedure or surgery.

Types of jaundice:
Jaundice may be of the following types:

  • Hepatocellular jaundice: In Hepatocellular jaundice, the elevated bilirubin level in the blood is an outcome of a liver disease or an injury (altering the normal functioning of the liver).
  • Hemolytic jaundice: Here, the increased level of bilirubin in the blood results from an increased breakdown of the RBCs (Hemolysis).
  • Obstructive jaundice: As the name suggests, Obstructive jaundice results from an obstruction in the bile duct. As a result, the bilirubin does not get filtered and remains in the liver.

Factors contributing to jaundice:
The increased buildup of bilirubin may be an outcome of

  • Obstruction and inflammation of the bile duct.
  • Chronic liver disease including liver cirrhosis and hepatitis.
  • Pancreatic Cancer.
  • Hemolytic anemia: It is a condition resulting from increased breakdown of RBCs.
  • Gilbert's syndrome.
  • Certain medications may also interfere and alter the normal functioning of the liver (steroids, birth control pills, and acetaminophen, to name a few).
  • In cholestasis, the bile (conjugated bilirubin), instead of getting eliminated, remains in the liver.

The symptoms associated with jaundice include

  • The skin (particularly, the face, hands, nails, and feet) and the sclera appear yellowish.
  • The urine appears dark in color.
  • Fever, vomiting, tiredness, and loss of body weight.
  • Abdominal pain (mild to severe).
  • The stool appears pale in color.
  • Itchiness or Pruritus.

Diagnosis and treatment:
The earlier the diagnosis, more effective is the treatment.

  • Jaundice can be diagnosed by
  • Physical examination.
  • Bilirubin tests to determine the total bilirubin level.
  • CBC is used to determine the levels of RBCs, WBCs, and platelets.
  • Liver function tests.

The treatment for jaundice involves identifying the underlying factor responsible for the condition and treating it.

  • In the case of obstructive jaundice, operation helps to improve the condition.
  • Patients with hepatitis may benefit from antiviral medicines as well as steroids.
  • In hemolytic anemia, use of iron supplements helps to improve the condition.
  • Avoid oily and spicy foods, smoking and drinking.
  • Rest as much as possible.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2140 people found this helpful

Enlarged Pancreas - 5 Factors Behind It

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM
Endocrinologist, Hyderabad
Enlarged Pancreas - 5 Factors Behind It

Enlarged pancreas can result beacuse of factors such as: 

  1. An abscess in your pancreas: This refers to a dangerous formation inside the pancreas. Neglecting its occurrence can also turn out to be fatal. An abscess is a cavity containing pus that further infects the rest of the organ. Presence of harmful bacteria in the pancreas leads to such a case.
  2. A cyst in the lining of your pancreas: Epithelial cysts in the pancreas can also cause the organ to swell up. Such cysts are mostly benign but they are accompanied by disabling pain.
  3. Pancreatitis is one disease with an array of threats: Highly active enzymes within the organ can make its tissues wear down thus, affecting the size of your pancreas. If you are an alcoholic, you are more prone to develop this condition. It could also be contracted due to an excess of calcium or fats in the blood.
  4. Cancer of the pancreas is dreadful too: Due to the unanticipated growth of cancer cells in the pancreas, the organ grows bigger. A person suffers from excruciating pain under the influence of this condition.
  5. Pseudocysts in the pancreas can have serious ill effects: When benign cysts become unmanageably harmful, they result into pseudocysts. The cysts contain remains of your tissues and other damaging fluids that can increase the size of the pancreas.

An enlarged pancreas surfaces in the form of these symptoms:

  1. The kind of stool you pass indicates a lot about your health. Oily poop can be indicative of an enlarged pancreas. Persisting diarrhea can also be a symptom of pancreatic ailments.
  2. You may even experience an accelerated pulse rate.
  3. You may feel feverish continually. Bouts of fever can impede your free movement and general health.
  4. Health issues with your pancreas can make you suffer from jaundice. It could be a one- time affair or it could reappear from time to time.
  5. Constant queasiness could hint at some underlying problem in your pancreas.
  6. You may even lose more than a few pounds over a short span of time. Such a thing should not be taken lightly as it not only makes you look sick but also degrades your immunity. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
3106 people found this helpful

Jaundice: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

F.I.A.G.E.S , MNAMS (Membership of The National Academy) (General Surgery), DNB (General Surgery), MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
Jaundice: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

The medical name for the yellow tint on your skin and around the white portion of the eye is jaundice. However, jaundice is a symptom of a variety of underlying medical conditions, and not a specific disease. When the body break downs deceased red blood cells, a yellow pigment known as bilirubin is formed. Jaundice develops when your system contains excess bilirubin. Usually, the bilirubin, as well as the dead blood cells, are exterminated by your body.

Jaundice may symbolise a critical problem with your pancreas, blood cells, gallbladder or liver.


Jaundice isn’t a disease; it is a symptom. Thus if you have jaundice, it might indicate you may have any of the following complications:

  1. Alcohol abuse.

  2. Liver infection

  3. Liver cancer

  4. Cirrhosis (Liver scarring mostly due to alcohol).

  5. Gallstones.

  6. Hepatitis (Swollen liver that decreases its functionality).

  7. Pancreatic cancer

  8. Blood disorders.

  9. An overdose or adverse reaction to certain medications.


The major indication of jaundice is yellow tinted skin and eyes. In serious cases, the sclera (white parts) of the eye can turn orange or brown. You might additionally exhibit other symptoms such as pale stools and dark urine.

If a concealed condition such as viral hepatitis is causing jaundice, you will probably experience symptoms such as vomiting and excessive fatigue.

Misdiagnosis is common when it comes to jaundice. Sometimes, an abundance of beta carotene (a type of anti-oxidant found abundantly in fruits and plants) can turn your skin yellow.


Since jaundice is a symptom of some other underlying disease, the treatment will focus on that disease. When your treatment starts, the yellow tint will disappear on its own.

If the jaundice is serious, blood transfusions might be needed to expel the excess bilirubin and rejuvenate the body’s red blood cells. However, if the body’s bile duct mechanism gets blocked, a surgery might be required to unblock the same. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

2127 people found this helpful

Jaundice - Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatment And More!

Internal Medicine Specialist, Delhi


Jaundice is a medical condition when the amount of bilirubin in the blood increases causing yellow discoloration of skin, whites of the eye and mucous membranes. Bilirubin is produced by natural breakdown of red blood cells and it is also referred to as icterus.

Types of Jaundice

There are three types of jaundice:

1. Hepatocellular jaundice

2. Hemolytic jaundice

3. Obstructive jaundice

Hepatocellular jaundice – This type of jaundice is triggered due to a disease, an injury or damage caused to the liver.

Hemolytic jaundice – This type of jaundice is triggered when an increased amount of bilirubin is produced in the body as a result of breakdown of red blood cells at a very fast pace.

Obstructive jaundice – This type of jaundice occurs when there is an obstruction in the bile duct. This obstruction prevents bilirubin passing through the liver resulting in jaundice.


Common symptoms of jaundice include:

- a yellow tinge to the skin and the whites of the eyes, normally starting at the head and spreading down the body

- pale stools

-  dark urine

- itchiness

Accompanying symptoms of jaundice resulting from low bilirubin levels include:

- fatigue

- abdominal pain

-  weight loss

-  vomiting

-  fever

- pale stools

-  dark urine


As aforementioned, Jaundice is a medical condition where the skin, the mucous membrane and the eyes turn yellow due to excess amount of bilirubin in blood. The major causes of increase in bilirubin include:

-  Breaking down or dying of red blood cells and protruding through the liver.

-  Overload or damage to the liver.

-  Improper movement of the bilirubin from the liver into the digestive tract.

Here are some major conditions that can cause jaundice:

-  Liver infections including hepatitis A, B, C, D and E or liver infections caused to parasites

-  Overdose of certain drugs (acetaminophen)

-  Exposure to certain poisonous items

-  Birth defects

-  Disorders such as Gilbert syndrome, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor syndrome, or Crigler-Najjar syndrome

-  Chronic liver diseases

-  Gallstones

-  Gallbladder disorders

-  Blood disorders

-  Pancreatic cancer

- Bile buildup in the gallbladder (jaundice of pregnancy)

Risk factors

As already discussed earlier, Jaundice occurs due to the production of excess amount of bilirubin in the blood. This causes bilirubin to get deposited in the tissues. Here are some medical conditions that increase the risk of jaundice:

- Liver inflammation.

- Bile duct inflammation.

-  Blockage of the bile duct

-  Hemolytic anemia

-  Gilbert's syndrome

- Cholestasis

Listed below are some rare medical conditions that increase the risk of jaundice:

-  Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

-  Dubin-Johnson syndrome.

-  Pseudojaundice


If not treated properly, Jaundice may lead to severe itching. Sometime, this itching is so intense that patients scratch their skin intensely, suffer from insomnia and even start experiencing suicidal tendencies. Here it is important to understand that these complications are due to some underlying problems and the disease itself.

Jaundice, caused due to obstruction of bile duct, may lead to uncontrolled and unexplained bleeding. The bleeding caused is uncontrolled because of the lack of the vitamin required for clotting of blood.


Diagnosis of the disease is often done by checking the medical history of the patient, his/her physical examination and a test to confirm the bilirubin level.

In the physical examination, medical professionals usually look for swelling abdomen and inflammation in lever. Here it is important to know that a stiff liver may indicate signs of cirrhosis or cancer in the liver.

In addition to the physical examination, several other types of tests can confirm jaundice. One such test is liver function test. If the liver function test indicates signs of jaundice, doctors may also suggest:

-  Bilirubin tests

-  FBC (full blood count)

-  CBC (complete blood count)

-  Tests for hepatitis A, B, or C

In order to diagnose an obstruction in the liver, doctors may suggest:

-  MRI

-  CT

- Ultrasound Scans

-  ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)

-  X-ray imaging.

Furthermore, doctors may also suggest a liver biopsy to detect the signs of liver inflammation, fatty liver, cirrhosis and cancer. Liver biopsy is done by obtaining a liver tissue by inserting a needle into the liver.


The treatment of Jaundice depends upon the underlying cause. Typically, the treatment of the disease is done to cure the cause and not just the symptoms of jaundice. Treatment of jaundice includes:

-  Jaundice caused due to anemia is treated by iron supplements and iron-rich foods in order to increase the iron component in the blood cells.

-  Jaundice caused due to hepatitis is treated using steroid or antiviral medicines.

- Jaundice caused due to obstruction is treated by performing a surgery to remove obstruction.

-  Jaundice caused by overuse of certain medicine is treated using alternative medicines.


Typically, jaundice is caused to the malfunction of liver. Therefore, it is important to ensure healthy functioning of the liver by ensuring healthy and balanced diet, regular exercise and refraining from the consumption of alcohol.


Myth 1: Jaundice is a waterborne disease.

Fact: While it is true that jaundice is usually triggered due to consumption of contaminated water, it is not the only cause. Jaundice is also caused due to malaria, leptospirosis, and hepatitis B/ C. These diseases are not waterborne. Obstruction of bile duct, gall stones or cancer may also lead to jaundice and these disease too are not waterborne.

Myth 2: All liver problems lead to Jaundice.

Fact: Though liver malfunction mostly leads to jaundice, all medical issues related to liver do not trigger jaundice. There are many medical conditions related to liver that do not lead to jaundice.

Myth 3: Itching is the sign that patient is recovering from jaundice.

Fact: Jaundice, caused due to obstruction, usually triggers acute itching. However, itching doesn’t signal that the patient is recovering from the disease. 

Myth 4: Jaundice usually causes extreme sleepiness or insomnia.

Fact: Though extreme fatigue is common jaundice during jaundice, excessive sleepiness or insomnia is not caused by jaundice. On the other hand, excessive sleepiness or insomnia may be a signal of liver malfunction or liver failure. In such a case, one must seek immediate medical attention.

Myth 5: There is no cure for jaundice.

Fact: A large fraction of people believe that there is no cure for jaundice. In fact, this is one of the biggest myths associated with this disease. The reality, however, is akin to this myth. Successful evaluation of the jaundice by liver function test can help one understand the caused and severity of the disease. Once the cause is identified, one can seek medical treatment to treat the root cause of Jaundice.

Myth 6: When diagnosed with jaundice, one needs to stop eating spices and non-vegetarian food.

Fact: While it is important to ensure balanced diet when diagnosed with jaundice, one can eat spicy and non-vegetarian food. However, it is important to ensure avoiding too much spices as it may lead to nausea. A balanced and frequent diet is important to ensure fix the liver malfunctioning and bring it back to a healthy state.

Myth 7: Consuming turmeric can lead to severity of jaundice.

Fact: This is yet another myth around the disease. No medical evidence has been found that proves the consuming turmeric can lead to the increase in the production of bilirubin. Therefore, one can consume turmeric during jaundice; however, it is advised to consume only small quantity of it.

Myth 8: Sugarcane juice is the best treatment option for jaundice.

Fact: A large number of people believe that sugarcane juice is the best treatment for jaundice. However, this is not completely true. Sugarcane juice is a great source of carbohydrate and helps increase nutrients in the body. But it doesn’t really help heal the liver faster or slow down the excessive production of bilirubin in the blood.

Myth 9: It is important to give water to newborn babies to treat jaundice.

Fact: Typically, most newborn babies have jaundice. Some people believe that if the newborn has jaundice, they aren’t really adjusting to their mother’s milk and they should be given water instead. However, this is wrong. Mother’s milk is safest for newborn babies. In addition, giving water to newborn babies may lead to jaundice, if the water is not clean and also lead to several other infections leading to life-threatening complications.

Myth 10: Jaundice spreads by physical contact.

Fact: A fair share of people also believes that jaundice is spread by physical contact. However, this is not true at all. Jaundice doesn’t spread by physical contact.


Question 1: What is infant jaundice?

Answer: Infant jaundice is very common amongst babies born before the completion of the pregnancy period. Typically, a large number of babies, born before 38 weeks, the completion of pregnancy period and breastfeeding, show the symptoms of jaundice. But there is nothing to really fear as the signs of jaundice don’t signal that the baby is born with weak or malfunctioning liver. In newborn babies, liver aren’t usually string enough to remove bilirubin produced in the blood. But as the baby grows, the liver becomes stronger and starts functioning normally.

There is not treatment for infant jaundice and the symptoms of the disease automatically subside without the help of any medicines. However, some medical professionals may suggest medicines for infant jaundice depending upon the condition of the newborn baby and the complication of the disease. Complication of infant jaundice may even lead to brain damage.

Question 2: What causes infant jaundice?

Answer: Listed below are some of the many causes for infant jaundice:

When the liver is still underdeveloped. This is very common and one must not worry about the same. Gradually, the liver becomes stronger and starts removing bilirubin from the blood.

-When there is some internal bleeding

-When the newborn suffers from blood infection

-When the newborn baby suffers from deficiency or malfunctioning of enzyme

-When the red blood cells of the newborn baby break down more than normal

-When the newborn baby’s blood is not compatible with mother's blood. This lead to abnormal breakdown of RBCs.

-When the newborn has any viral or bacterial infection

-When the baby isn’t breastfed sufficiently

Question 3: Can jaundice occur without discoloration of the skin?

Answer: Discoloration or yellowish tinge of the skin is just one of the symptoms of jaundice. There have been many cases where jaundice patients have shown delayed discoloration or yellowish tinge. This is why one must know all the signs and symptoms of jaundice. Here is a list of some of the other symptoms of jaundice:

Extreme pain in the abdomen

Discoloration of urine and stool

Excessive vomiting

High fever

Weight loss

Extreme fatigue

Question 4: Is it difficult to treat jaundice?

Answer: the answer is no. The treatment of jaundice is not difficult. In fact, the treatment of jaundice can be easily administered depending upon the causes of the disease.

Listed below are just some of the many treatment options for the disease:

Hemolytic jaundice can be treated using medicines to increase iron in the blood. Also, iron rich diet can help treat hemolytic jaundice.

Jaundice can also be treated using steroids. Jaundice caused due to bile obstructions can be treated with surgeries in order to remove the obstruction.

Question 5: Can jaundice be fatal?

Answer: Typically, jaundice is not a fatal disease. However, those suffering from extreme liver problems may eventually develop chronic jaundice and this could lead to life-threatening scenarios. Age also plays an affective factor in the treatment of the disease. Jaundice may prove to be life-threatening for elderly people and that’s why most doctors recommend hospitalization to elderly people suffering from jaundice. In addition, those who consume excessive amount of alcohol may damage their liver developing chronic jaundice that may prove to be fatal.

Question 6: What is Latent Jaundice?

Answer: Latent jaundice is a medical condition where the amount of bilirubin in the blood increases without any signs or symptoms of jaundice. In this medical condition, the inner skin cells turn to yellowish greenish color excluding the brain cells.

Question 7: What is the recovery period for jaundice?

Answer: Typically, jaundice patients take approximately one to two months to completely recover from the disease. However, weakness, pain and itching associated with jaundice usually disappear by the end of the 3rd week. But it is important to stick to healthy and balanced diet to ensure complete recovery of the liver in its best forms.

2 people found this helpful


B.H.M.S., Post Graduate Certificate In Nutrition, Obesity & Health
Homeopath, Indore

How many people adults or children do we see in day to day life who tend to fall ill at every change of temperature?

Sensitivity to change in atmospheric conditions has become a very common phenomenon in todays world. Most people end up with viral infections such as cough, cold, fever etc at every change in season – be it summer to rainy, rainy to winter or winter to summer.Other common infections include stomach infections, diarrhoea, typhoid, jaundice, malaria, allergic rhinitis, breathing problems etc.This sensitivity basically comes from an altered or weakened immune system. A body which is not capable enough to handle natural external stimuli and ends up over reacting and throwing out symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, cough, fever, bodyache, upset stomach, loss of appetite etc.

Most of the times attention is given to the symptoms and thus symptomatic relief is obtained. The actual cause of the symptoms is oftern overlooked .When the body throws out symptoms, it is asking for help so that it can fight for itself and not get affected by external stimuli.This is where homeopathy steps in....where the PATIENT is treated and not just his symptoms. Homeopathic medicines are prescribed afer a detailed case study covering every aspect of the patient’s personality and thus they help in giving relief to existing symptoms and in the long run the medicines make the body capable of fighting for itself.

Homeopathic medicines have practically no side effects and can be given to even infants, or the elderly . They can also be administered side by side along with regular medication and eventually we can reduce the patient’s depency on medicines.For more information or treatment for conditions such as allergic rhinitis, illness at every change of weather, bronchitis, skin allergies, weak digestion or lowered immune system please feel free to consult a doctor.

3 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My son suffering from jaundice. Hepatitis A, B, C and E are reported negative. HIV is also negative. Ultrasound scan for liver, pancreas, gall bladder, kidneys are also ok. What may be the reason?

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
Jaundice can be due to multiple reasons. It can be obstructive jaundice if all Infection parameters are negative. But nothing to worry about. Please take private consult thru Lybrate.

Hello, Please prescribe me the best food for jaundice. My LFT result shows 6.9 mg%(total bilirubin), 3.5 mg% (direct bilirubin). I am active alcoholic for last ten years. Now, totally quit for 7 months.

General Surgeon, Navi Mumbai
Dear Mr. lybrate-user, If bilirubin is not coming down even after you stoped alcohol indicate liver damage. You need to have detailed test to assess severity of liver damage. Which is important to plan further treatment.
1 person found this helpful

My son is 25 days old and suffering from jaundice and viral infection. His hemoglobin slightly fall in 10 days from 13.6 to 12.3.

Pediatrician, Bangalore
The fall in HB is reasonable if they have been taking blood samples for the jaundice tests. But make sure jaundice is coming down or else if jaundice is getting worse and Hb decresing then it could be because of Red blood cells destruction creating more bilirubin which causes jaundice. Check with your pediatrician.
4 people found this helpful

My father underwent an operation on 9th March 2017. He was having gallstones and type 1 choledochal cyst. Now he is having symptoms of jaundice after 11 months. Please help.

MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Kanpur
He need to be investigated like ultrasound abdomen and serum bilirubin direct and indirect and serum alk phosphatase, bt ct pt inr, mrcp. Proper treatment follows according to examination report.

Table of Content

What is Jaundice?



Play video
Facts and Myths about Gall Bladder diseases

Hi, I m Dr Nitin Shah. I m a senior consultant at Fortis hospital, Noida. I m a laparoscopic surgeon. I do all sorts of abdomen surgeries. Today we are going to be talking about the gallbladder disease, in which there are stones formed in the gallbladder. We need to understand that patients can initially be absolutely asymptomatic. The patient can have no pain or any discomfort. Many times it is detected by routine health examinations when the patient undergoes an ultra sound of the abdomen.

The initial stages after asymptomatic, the patient starts having little bloating in the abdomen which is commonly referred as gas and acidity. So people have a tendency of neglecting it and keep on taking some antacid or pantocid or Digene and this kind of stuff to suppress the symptoms. So after dyspepsia, the patient starts having pain in the abdomen. This pain can initially very simple pain. It can even progress into severe pain. It starts usually in the pre-gastric region, upper abdomen and goes to the back. This is very typical of a bilicuric and increases after any fatty meal like any extra oily friend. This kind of stuff when we eat, the patient has more pain and then depending on the severity of the inflammation, even patients are known to have pus in the gallbladder, thereby, increasing the mobility of the disease.

Some stones can slip from the gallbladder into the bile duct thereby obstructing the bile duct and producing something that is called obstructive jaundice. In which the patient has severe pain and has visible jaundice also. These stones not only block the bile duct but also can block the pancreas duct thereby causing something called as gall stone pancreatic. So, this is another very severe problem. As we all know, gall bladder cancer is quite common these days. In 4% of the cases, the gall stones are the causes of gallbladder cancer. So, for a simple disease like a gall bladder stone, if not treated at the immediate time this can land up into very very severe problems. now once the diagnosis is confirmed it is a simple surgery called as lap coly cystectomy in which we remove the gallbladder in very small three to four cuts that is called the laparoscopic surgery. The same surgery was previously done with a big cut that s called the laparotomy, cutting open the whole abdomen and then removing the gall bladder. Now it is done by three or four small cuts. In fact, my specialization is getting the same surgery done by a single incision in the ablycus. In which there is one cut in the navel and no cut anywhere else in the abdomen and hence the surgical cut is hardly seen. Probably, even after two months, the surgeon will also not be able to make out whether any surgery is done on the patient or not. The scar is hardly seen and it is very cleverly hidden in the ablycus.

So, for any further information or any question that you want to ask I am available at lybrate.

You can log onto lybrate or even text me or video chat with me on lybrate and I will be more than happy to clear all your doubts regarding any surgical disease and help you in the best way I can.

Play video
Vaccinations for Infants and Children
I am Dr Abhishek Goyal, I am M.D. paediatrics, a child specialist. I am working with my own clinic and a nursing home with the name of Vaishnavi mother and child clinics.
Today I want to tell you regarding the vaccinations. Usually, parents ask me, sir, should we give all the vaccinations to the child, they are very costly. I suggest them this is a thing we should always vaccinate our child with all the vaccinations. As the thing is prevention is always better than cure. And for prevention, the various vaccinations are very important. There are very important vaccinations like in this scenario, we are getting so many patients of chicken pox. And for chicken pox, the vaccination we give to the child is very effective. If the baby is vaccinated, then the baby is at least 90-95% is cured or prevented from chicken pox.

Secondly, if they get also chicken pox, it will be very mild. So according to same, there are so many vaccinations today we should give our neonates to the childhood. Like from the starting we should start from the B.C.G., O.P.V and Hepatitis B, which is given at the birth.
Then after 1 month, 2 month and 3 months there are 7 diseases from which vaccination can be given that is D.P.T. (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus). Polio, injectable and oral according to the availability and H.I.P., Influenza-b and rota virus. With that hepatitis b is a very important vaccination also. One category is the meningococcal vaccine which is a very good vaccine for pneumonia.
At 9 months, the measles or M.M.R.
At 1 year, Hepatitis A for jaundice. For 15 months, we give M.M.R, chicken pox and at the age of 1 years, it is d.p.t. booster and 2 years it is typhoid.
These days, typhoid vaccine has arrived which can be given earlier around 1 year. Same after that we usually forgot, that 4 years is a very important milestone where the baby has to get the vaccinations which are M.M.R, 2, Chicken pox and D.P.T. And in ten years again the D.T. booster and in girls, it is the cervical cancer vaccine. So these all vaccines are there in all the vaccination charts and you should get your child vaccinated from all the deadly diseases.

For any further query, you can always contact me from the very good app called Lybrate app.

I am available on the Lybrate app.
Play video
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Symptoms, causes, and treatment for Alcoholic Liver Disease

Hi, This is Dr. Umesh Alegaonkar from Thane, Sampada Hospital. The topic of discussion is Chronic Alcoholic Liver Disease.

As you know, that 95% of the cases of liver damage on earth is because of alcohol and over intake of alcohol. Usually, it is defined as alcoholic diseases when a person suffers from the diseases of liver related illnesses and consumes more than 80 grams of alcohol or 240 ml of alcohol every day for at least five years. In the case of women, this amount gets little lower, it's 50 grams of alcohol daily for five years. Usually, the liver failures manifest in terms of increase in weight gain, jaundice, irrelevant speech, a decrease in night sleep, day time sleep pattern alters, decrease in appetite, increase in your abdominal girth. It is usually very late to diagnose the chronic liver disease because of the alcoholism, usually, the patients are into the denial mode, and the sonographic features may not be able to reveal the intensity of the liver diseases.

The newer technology like the Fibroscan can definitely give an early indication of the liver damages that has happened because of the alcohol intake. Apart from the history of the alcohol intake, the patient can simply opt for Elastography which is the finest diagnostic tool available nowadays in any of the diagnostic centers. Depending on the share value, we can judge the severity of the liver damage because of alcohol. Of course, the liver transplant is the golf standard treatment when the liver is completely damaged, but the need for the liver transplant goes into declining mode as the person quits alcohol, it decreases by and large the survival rate from the day of abstinence of alcohol is more than 30%. So if we consider that 30% of the life span of a person when he leaves alcohol considering the liver damage costing nowadays are around 30-35 lac rupees. We can estimate the amount of money which can be saved by just remaining away from alcohol.

Apart from that, liver damage recommends multiple tests such as blood test, urine test and ultimately the huge socio-economic burden needs to be evaluated just because of alcohol giving trouble not only in the family but also in the society. A simple measure by lessening your alcohol intake or abstaining from alcohol may be a fair idea but it is not recommended at all when a person gets to know the liver has roughly damaged because of the alcohol. Now, that day onwards, he has to abstain from alcoholism.

For any other further alcohol related or liver damage inquiries, please contact on
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Female Pattern Hair Loss
Causes and treatment for Hair Loss

Hello friends. My name is Dr. Rohit Batra, and I am from Derma World Skin and Hair Clinics in Rajouri Garden and New Rajendra Nagar. Today we are going to talk about female pattern hair loss.

Many females of any age suffer from female pattern hair loss or alopecia. Now they are very worried that they are going to lose their hair and they lose hundreds of hair every day. But there is no need to worry, we have the answer. Females never go bald, so if you are suffering from any sort of hair fall, and you re a female, no need to worry, we can help you. There are various sorts of hair fall causes that affects the female. If you are having some hormonal problem, the menses are not normal, if you are dieting, if you are suffering from any sort of disease, say jaundice, typhoid, or dengue or chikungunya, or if you are having thyroid imbalance, you can suffer from hair fall.

Hair fall in females re of various kinds. Sometimes it is linked to your hormone imbalance, sometimes it is linked to your nutritional status. We need to examine what is the real cause and most of the time we are able to get an history and that only depicts what you are suffering from, whether it is normal female pattern hair loss, whether it is telogen effluvium, whether it is anagen effluvium, and once we get few tests done, you can get an answer to your problem. Female pattern hair loss can be treated effectively. We have many sort of medicines that are oral, that are used topically, and to the myths that are involves that hormones are given, steroids are given, none of them are required in most f the cases, and steroid is never ever used for female pattern hair loss.

So if you are suffering from any sort of hair fall problem and you are a female, don t feel shy, just visit us at Derma World Skin and Hair Clinics, and we can give you an answer to your problems. There are many sort of topical things like topical minoxidil, we have peptides, we have treatments like platelet rich plasma, we have hair extensions, we can help you getting mesotherapy, we can help you get in a UV light that will control your hair fall. And in approximately 100 days or 3 and a half months, you can get back your lost confidence.

The hair fall decreases, new strands start erupting, and you can get back your voluminous hair, if you are suffering from any sort of hair problem. So, visit us either at our Lybrate profile at Derma World Skin and Hair Clinics, or you can call us by getting in touch at Rajendra Nagar, or Rajouri Garden branch. Thank you.
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Gallbladder Stone
How laparoscopy can help in treating gallbladder stone and prevent you from severe medical conditions, which can happen because of it.

Hello I am Dr Sudhir Kalhan. I am senior consultant and the CO chairman of the department of minimal access metabolic and bariatric surgery at Sir Ganga Ram Hospital. Sir Ganga Ram Hospital is a multispeciality tertiary care centre having reference from all over India. Power department specialising in treating diseases of the gallbladder appendix and hernia and diseases related to obesity. Today I am going to discuss common diseases like gallbladder stone disease. Gallbladder as we all know is a small organ in the liver bed. It stores about 30 ml of bile and whenever we have a heavy fatty meal, this extra bile is secreted into the stomach.

Very commonly especially in North India where we take a fat rich diet which is high on lipids and cholesterol we have what is known as gallbladder stone disease. So what happens is that whenever we take a fat heavy meal this gallbladder contracts and produces pain the upper abdomen which radiates it to the back. Gallstone disease can be very very dreadful if these those fall into the common bile duct it can produce jaundice. If did stones pass into the pancreas they can produce inflammation of the pancreas and dreadful disease of pancreas which can later cause diabetes mellitus. Also one of the most dreaded complications of gallbladder stone disease is that 10% of longstanding gallbladder stone disease can go into cancer of the gallbladder which is a near fatal disease.

On the other hand gallbladder disease can very easily be tackle now using a technique known as laparoscopic surgery. Yes Kotak surgery commonly known as keyhole surgery or Telescopic surgery or loosely also as laser surgery requires making small tiny holes into the abdomen 5 millimetres of size which insert a telescope which is connected to a camera. Using this telescope and camera we put and ancillary instruments and bisect the gallbladder of the liver bed and using metallic clips this is then dissected of and removed from the gallbladder. The disease gallbladder is then sent for biopsy.

This whole surgery normally takes about 20 to 30 minutes and most of the patients can start moving around 1 to 2 hours after surgery and typically with 24 hours the patients are back to the normal routines. That means they can move around the can climb stairs they can eat there normal diet and they can go back to the normal works within 3-4 days. So my suggestion to all of you is that gallbladder disease is a very dreadful disease. We should not wait for the disease to advanced.

An early treatment leads to early recovery. Thank you.
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