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Overview

Kidney Transplant: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

The kidneys are a pair of organs that are in the shape of two beans. Kidneys can be found in the human body in the lower back area. Toxic wastes are eliminated from the body by the kidneys when you are urinating. A person is diagnosed with kidney failure when his/her kidneys cannot remove the toxic wastes from the body like it used to.

Over time various health issues keep damaging your kidneys to a point where they stop working. The reasons that harm the kidney slowly are acute infections or illnesses, extreme dehydration and long-standing exposure to environmental pollutants. Other factors responsible for kidney damage are urinary tract infections, nephrotic syndrome, genetic disorders, heart diseases, autoimmune diseases, an infection such as sepsis, diabetes and hypertension or heartburn.

Symptoms of kidney failure do not show all of a sudden. It is a process much like slow poisoning where these organs are damaged a little every day. Therefore, you will only experience the symptoms when the kidneys are failing. The common signs of the body to indicate this will be itchy sensations, reduced appetite, shortness of breath, difficulty sleeping at night, muscle aches, and inflammation in the limbs. In very severe cases if your kidneys suffer acute failure then you will experience diarrhoea, bleeding, vomiting, back pain, fever and skin rash.

How is the treatment done?

kidney transplantation is generally prescribed to patients who are in the last stage of their chronic kidney failure problem. Kidney transplantation is dependent on a donor. This can either be a dead or living person. When the kidney is gathered from a dead person it is called a deceased donor kidney and when it comes from a living person (usually it comes from a family member) it is called a living donor kidney. In case of the former, only healthy people are allowed to donate their kidneys and they need to be fully aware of the transplantation rules. In case of the latter, the kidney comes from a person who has passed away because of brain death.

Before the surgery begins, blood tests need to be run in order to match the blood type recipient and donor kidney. Next a tissue typing test is run to match the tissue type. Then tests are carried out on the donor to check if he/she has any viruses such as hepatitis, CMV or HIV.

After passing all these tests the patient undergoes surgery in the next stage. The surgery is performed under the administration of general anaesthesia and goes on for about 3 hours. The transplanted kidneys are placed in a location which is different to the location of the existing ones. This is called heterotopic transplantation. Usually the original kidneys will only be removed if they are extreme troubles such as infections or very blood pressure. The artery is surgically connected to the kidney.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

People who are in the last stage of Chronic kidney damage are eligible for treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

People who do not pass in any one of the tests conducted prior to the surgery are not-eligible for this treatment.

Also, people who have had a recent case of cancer, cardiovascular disorders, liver disease or severe infections such as bone infection or hepatitis are should not opt for this surgery treatment.

Are there any side effects?

During the course of your kidney transplantation you may be given certain immunosuppressant to stop the body from rejecting the donated organ. These immunosuppressants could cause long-term side effects such as higher chances of infections, diarrhoea, excessive hair growth or hair fall, bleeding, swelling, abdominal cramps, acne, mood swings, anemia, arthritis, seizures, susceptibility to diabetes, risk of cancers and weight gain.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

As a follow up to the transplantation surgery the patient will be kept under strict monitoring to see if he/she is experiencing kidney rejection or any infection. For this reason the patients will be asked to take various anti-rejection medications in order to prohibit the body to reject the donated kidney and also ensure proper functioning of the transplanted kidneys.

How long does it take to recover?

After the transplantation surgery a person is usually held back in the hospital for about a week to notice any signs of infections or rejection on the part of the body.

After this the patient will be further asked to take rest for about 1-2 months during which time he cannot do any form of rigorous exercises or lift objects that are heavy in weight.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Kidney transplant surgeries in India cost around 2-3 lakhs approximately and the anti-rejection medications prescribed by the doctor will cost you around 300 to 3000 rupees.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Although the success rate of kidney transplantation surgeries are high, there are a few cases where a transplant can fail and not have permanent results. The reasons are formation of blood clots, the formation of an infection in the kidney, certain problems with the donated organ, rejection of the new kidney (this can be either acute or chronic). S, you can see that the results of the treatment are not always permanent.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The alternatives for kidney transplant surgery are haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis or conservative management treatment.

Safety: Low Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs. 300- Rs. 3, 00000

Popular Health Tips

Renal Transplant - What Should You Know About It?

MCh Urology, DNB Urology, MS-General Surgery, MBBS, Diploma In Laproscopy & Urology, Basic & Advance Robotic Urology Training
Urologist, Delhi
Renal Transplant - What Should You Know About It?

The kidneys are primarily responsible for filtering blood and removing waste from the body. They also regulate the fluid and electrolyte balance. If the kidneys stop functioning, a patient may need to undergo dialysis or have a renal transplant. Many patients prefer undergoing a transplant as it offers a better quality of life in the long run.

A kidney transplant can be described as a procedure to replace one’s own kidneys with a donor's kidney. In case of kidney transplant, there are two types of donors. The human body can function with one healthy kidney and hence family members and friends of the patient may choose to donate a kidney. Else, a kidney may be sourced from recently deceased donors who have chosen to donate their organs after death. In both cases, it is important that the donor kidney match the patient’s blood and tissue type.

A renal transplant surgery usually takes about 3 hours. The donor kidney is placed in the abdominal cavity and connected to the patient’s arteries, veins and bladder. Usually, the donor kidney begins functioning immediately. The patient’s own damaged or diseased kidneys may not be removed unless there is a severe infection, cancer or a diagnosis of large polycystic kidneys.

The patient will need to be hospitalized for a few days after the surgery. In some cases, dialysis may be needed if the kidneys are unable to produce urine. In addition diuretics and other medication may be needed to remove excess water and salt from the body. Medication will also be prescribed to suppress the immune system so that the patient’s body does not reject the donor kidney. These medications typically need to be taken for the rest of the patient’s life.

A renal transplant is considered a relatively safe procedure. Less than 20 out of 100 people reject a donor kidney. However, there are a few other risks involved. These include:
• Bleeding
• Severe infection
• Failure of the donor kidney
• Reaction to anesthesia
• Increased risk of infections due to suppressed immune system

Kidney transplant is not advised for people suffering from diseases such as cancer or any significant lung or heart disease. If the patient is suffering from an infection, he or she may be advised to wait until the infection subsides before undergoing a renal transplant. A renal transplant may seem to be an expensive procedure but in the long run, this can work out to be more budget friendly than dialysis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2930 people found this helpful

Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology, DNB (Nephrology)
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Transplant - Know The Risks & Procedure!

When function of both kidneys are lost, Renal transplantation is needed. Kidney transplantation is performed by making use of a donor kidney and replacing the diseased one with it. Kidney transplantations are not conducted on patients suffering from other severe infections or life threatening diseases such as cancer, major lungs or heart condition. Diabetic or obese people usually cannot donate their kidneys as they bear a risk of malfunctioning in future. 

Procedure of Kidney Transplant 

  1. Kidney transplant surgery takes about 3 hours time. 
  2. Tests are conducted to make sure tissue typing match with the new kidney. This decreases the chance of the body rejecting the donor kidney and causing serious complications. 
  3. Thorough evaluation of the medical history is made for both the receiver and the donor. This is to make sure that the donor kidney is healthy, functional and free of disorders. 
  4. The procedure of the surgery includes placing the donor kidney in the lower abdomen. The blood vessels, important arteries are connected to the donor kidney. The bladder will also be connected to the ureter from the donor kidney. 
  5. The new kidney generally begins to function immediately after the surgery is completed successfully. 
  6. The blood begins to flow through the kidney, and it begins to function normally. It filters the blood, collects the waste that is then passed through the bladder as urine. 
  7. A patient who has had a kidney transplantation surgery will need to remain in the hospital for a few days under intense care and observation. 
  8. Medications to prevent the body from rejecting the new kidney will be prescribed. It is important that you continue with these medicines for the rest of your life. 

Risks of Kidney Transplantation 

  1. Rejection of the new kidney by the body. Acute rejection in the initial days of surgery can be treated with medications and injections. However, chronic rejection is a serious condition that causes gradual loss of kidney function. 
  2. There can be severe infections caused by the immunosuppression. It can also occur during the course of surgery, due to the inclusion of foreign tissues 
  3. Reaction to the drugs or anaesthesia used for the purpose of transplantation surgery 
  4. Excessive bleeding or haemorrhage caused due to injuries during surgery 
  5. Any kind of leakage from the ureter or blocking of the ureter tubes, causing an obstruction in the smooth functioning of kidneys 6.    The anti rejection drugs may lead to a decline in calcium, causing osteoporosis and other calcium deficiency infirmities 
  6. Fluctuations in blood sugar, blood pressure levels 
  7. Increased risk of cancer 
  8. Infections in internal organs 
  9. Obesity

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2114 people found this helpful

Kidney Donation - Things You Must Know About It!

Interventional Nephrology, DM - Nephrology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Nephrologist, Bangalore
Kidney Donation - Things You Must Know About It!

Whenever we choose to undergo a surgery, there are a lot of questions that we try to seek answers for. Here's a list of things one must know before he or she opts for kidney donation!

What is the rate of recovery?
The recovery period of the donor is usually in the range of 5-7 days. However, it depends on how fast an individual recovers and what is the kind of procedure performed on the patient. It can greatly vary from person to person. The donor might feel an itching sensation and experience pain as the incision heals. Activities such as contact sports and heavy lifting are not advised, post 6 weeks of surgery.

How does the transplant affect the donor?
Living with one kidney is not unusual and it is possible to lead a normal life with some to no problem at all. The donor’s kidney has a tendency to increase in size after the transplant. This happens to make up for the lost kidney. While some physical exercise is healthy for the body, activities that require heavy body movement should be avoided. Donors are required to go through extensive medical check every six months to avoid any possible complications.

Does donating a kidney affect life expectancy?
Life expectancy does not decrease after kidney donation and the chance of the existing kidney failure is limited too. Studies have revealed that a donor has a tendency of developing a high level of blood pressure. Having said this, a thorough discussion with the transplant team should be done to discuss any possible complications that might occur post the surgery.

Mental state after kidney donation:
A donor can go through a mixed set of emotions after donating a kidney. Overwhelming joy, depression, relief and anxiety are some of the common emotions a donor goes through. Studies have shown that less than 1% of all donors show any signs of regret. On the contrary, more than 80% donors reveal that they would have done the donation anyways. The donation experience is generally positive. If, however, a donor is going through emotions he cannot handle, he should join a self-help group or report to a doctor.

Is there any side effect of kidney donation?
Apart from the scar a patient receives after the surgery, there aren’t too many complications. Having said this, there are tendencies to develop high blood pressure, proteinuria and a reduced functionality of the kidney, resulting in pain. Long-term diseases such as nerve damage, obstruction, and hernia can catch up as well.

Is there any dietary restriction?
It is entirely possible to go back to your old and regular diet. However, in the case of any complications, a patient might have to skip few things from the diet. It is a good idea to get a clear picture about the dietary requirements from the kidney transplant team.

Does donation hinder in getting pregnant?
The medical advice from a doctor is that it is not a good idea to become pregnant till at least six weeks post the surgery. However, it is entirely possible to get pregnant after kidney donation. But it should be ensured that a patient receives very good prenatal care to reduce any possible complications. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

3657 people found this helpful

Kidney Transplant - What To Expect From It?

MD, MBBS, FRCP - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi
Kidney Transplant - What To Expect From It?

The kidneys are responsible for the elimination of waste from the body. The blood is filtered in the kidneys and all toxic wastes are filtered out and excreted through urine. When this filtration does not happen effectively, a lot of waste can be found in the blood, which affects normal body function.

Kidneys may lose their functioning either due to age, injury, or disease conditions. Whatever the reason, when kidney function is hampered, the body suffers. If there was an injury or congenital problem, it could be unilateral and the non-affected kidney could still do the function. However, if it is infection or old age, normally both kidneys are affected and then replacement should be looked for externally. This is where a kidney transplant comes into the picture.

What is it?

It is a surgery where a healthy, functioning kidney is placed into the body. The donor could be

  1. Living: These donors have to be related or unrelated. Related is often termed someone, who is a family member and is willing to donate one kidney (one kidney is sufficient for normal, healthy individuals) to the diseased person.
  2. Cadaver: If a person is willing to donate kidneys post death, these are used for transplant, within a specified time.

Identifying the right donor and recipient:

  1. Blood type and tissue type should be matched; a good tissue type match improves the chances of success
  2. Overall health of the donor to ensure there is no heart disease, lung disease, or diabetes
  3. The recipient also should be healthy

What to expect during surgery?

  1. Once a donor is identified, in living donors, the surgery to remove the kidney and to transplant it are done simultaneously
  2. The surgery usually takes about 3 to 4 hours
  3. Antibiotics are given prior to the surgery to prevent infection
  4. The blood vessels and ureter are connected back to the kidney after the transplant
  5. Hospital stay can range from 5 days to 2 weeks, depending on the overall health of the patient and the anticipated risk of rejection.
  6. Most transplanted kidneys work effectively almost immediately. A kidney stored from a cadaver may take a little longer compared to a fresh kidney from a living donor
  7. People who have had transplants are put on immunosuppressants on a chronic basis to reduce chances of rejection. The new kidney will always be recognised by the body as a foreign body, and so this is essential.

Kidney transplant success rates are quite high, and more and more people are opting for transplants as opposed to dialysisIf you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a nephrologist.

2541 people found this helpful

Renal Biopsy - Things You Must Know!

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Bangalore
Renal Biopsy - Things You Must Know!

Kidneys play an important metabolic role and are essential for balancing salt, minerals and water in the body. They also play a significant role in removing waste products from the body. They make urine, which contains all the waste materials that are eliminated from the body. They also play an important role in blood pressure regulation and in maintaining the balance of various minerals in the body. Any suspected kidney damage should be confirmed by a kidney biopsy, which will reveal the exact disease, thereby directing towards the appropriate treatment. 

Why and when is it done? 

A renal or kidney biopsy is done in the following situations: 

  1. When there is abnormal protein in the blood or urine, which is indicative of a kidney disease, and the exact cause needs to be found out
  2. When kidney failure is suggested by blood tests but cause is not clear 
  3. To find the cause of bleeding in the urine (haematuria) 
  4. To identify and/or confirm diagnosis after a CT scan or ultrasound 
  5. To check how well a transplanted kidney has been received 

Know about the procedure 

A renal biopsy is mostly done as an outpatient procedure and is a type of biopsy known as percutaneous biopsy (biopsy where a needle is inserted through the skin into the renal tissue). Very rarely, it may be combined with the CT scan or ultrasound and be done in the radiology department. This may be done on inpatients. The patient is made to lie on his/her back and a local anesthetic is used on the area of the injection. A thin, long needle is directed towards the area of the kidney from where some kidney tissue is removed for sampling.

In some cases, the direction of the needle may be decided by a CT scan or ultrasound. While this is a closed biopsy procedure, in some cases, as a part of the surgery, open biopsies may also be obtained, where a sample of tissue is extracted for analysis. 

Recovering from a biopsy 
The person would need some time to recover from the procedure, as there would be some discomfort at the site of a needle insertion. Vital signs would be monitored for the next couple of hours during which the person would also be monitored for internal bleeding. A pain reliever can be used if required. Haematuria or blood-tinged urine can be seen disappearing within the next 12 hours. Very rarely the bleeding can be severe and require angiography and further procedures. The person should also avoid strenuous activities for the next few days. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a Nephrologist.

3152 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My kidney transplant done last 1.5 years now am all right today I do a mistake I am take panimun dose 2 hours earlier what I do know.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. Nothing goes wrong by single dose alteration of sometime Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL https://www.Lybrate.com/gandhinagar/doctor/dr-bhagyesh-patel-general-surgeon Regards take care.

I had a renal Transplant since 17 years, where my levels are 1. 3 for all these years. Now from dec 2017, I have got BK virus +ve with a viral load of 1840 copies/ml. Now Creatinine Levels is 4.4, biopsy results shows mild tubular atrophy & intestinal Fibrosis. Is this can be treated in allopathy.

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi
Hello... BK virus can cause renal dysfunction in post transplant patients. However, from your biopsy finding it is not very clear whther those findings are due to the virus or the Immunosuppressant medications which you are taking. The best approach would be to taper your immunosuppressant medications and regularly monitor the bk virus level to see for response
5 people found this helpful

I have a query regarding the kidney transplant. If an individual has AB+ blood type, which other blood group will be the match for him for the transplant. Also, what other factors apart from blood type does kidney transplant is based on. Kindly revert me as soon as possible.

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Nephrology
Nephrologist, Delhi
AB blood group can accept kidney from any blood type. There are a number of investigations which need to be done apart from blood group to assess the fitness of recipient and donor.
1 person found this helpful

Hello sir, my kidney transplant done 1.5 years ago know am all right all blood test are normal can I take tetanus vaccine.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. Yes sir can take for sure without problems. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL https://www.Lybrate.com/gandhinagar/doctor/dr-bhagyesh-patel-general-surgeon Regards take care.
1 person found this helpful

Renal Transplant recipient in 2006 Recently started having problems and s.creatine rose to 8.2, urea 100. No dialysis presently. Is stem cell therapy available for patients like me? Want to avoid second transplant.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. There are no cure from stem cell therapy in these issues. Dialysis or renal transplant are only 2 choices for you. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL https://www.Lybrate.com/gandhinagar/doctor/dr-bhagyesh-patel-general-surgeon Regards take care.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Kidney Transplant

Here are basic tips of Kidney Transplantation (Renal transplantation)

Friends good after noon I am DR. Aditya Pradhan. I look after the department of urology and kidney transplant at the BL Kapoor hospital. In my department major activities are kidney transplant, kidney cancers we do the constructive urology we also do a lot of stone surgery and prostate surgery so literally, we cover the whole spectrum of urology practice as it is done today in most centers around the world to speak briefly about kidney transplant which is the focus of our activity so as you must be aware India has a large number of patients with kidney failure on an average in India about to lac patients are diagnosed with kidney failure every year. Unfortunately out of these two lac patients barely 3,000 patients get your kidney transplant done every year so there is a large number of patients who don t get a kidney transplant done in spite of the facilities being available in most major cities in the country.

There are many reasons why a kidney transplant is not easily available-

The first and most forms, of course, is the availability of donor so there are stringent laws governing the rules of a kidney transplant and it is mandatory for every patient to get his own donor and these donors have to be live related which means first-degree blood relatives. They could be the patient s parents they could be a sibling, could be his own children who are above 18 years of age or they could be his spouse so amongst these family members, he has to get a patient of the same blood group or of O blood group. Many families do not have relatives with these conditions and that is why there is a big problem for the patient to get a donor for him. So, this is one of the main problems that you have, that you don t have an adequate number of donors.

The second problem is even when donors are available within the family they are not willing to donate their kidneys. There are some reasons which are their most of them are misconceptions that patient was donated his kidney may not be able to function normally after the operation. So, these are absolutely unfounded doubts every patient who is going to be tested for kidney donation. All his tests are done to confirm that he is healthy the operation is usually a very safe operation and after the surgery, the patient can lead absolutely normal life.

These misconceptions must be discarded by the donor. They must come to the transplant surgeon and once they counseled and I am pretty sure that they will understand that they are doing a life-saving deed for their near and dear ones. This is the second problem where donors are available but they are not willing to help their relatives because of this misconception about the operation now the third reason is that we don t have many cadaver donations.

In India now some of you may be aware that there is a concept called brain stem death these are patients who died in the ICU. Before their patients are declared dead their relatives are counseled that they can help the community by donating organs. These are what other problems which are faced when we are doing kidney transplants today but the scenario in India is changing, we have become increasingly better in our techniques we have got good drugs available so in most instances, a kidney transplant is a successful operation in this hospital.

Our results are more than ninety-nine percent which is as good as world standards we are doing all kinds of transplants the kidney donor operation between laparoscopic ally so that the recovery is very quick and most donors can be discharged by the third day to go back home. we are also doing abo incompatible transplant which means that if the blood groups are not matching the donor can be still be taken up for the transplant.

so friends this was a brief about kidney transplant and if you would like any more details about any of the aspects which I talked about you can reach out to me at the lybrate.com website.
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