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Gynecomastia - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Gynecomastia?

The enlargement of the gland tissue of the male breast is known as gynecomastia. Gynecomastia is common in men who are in the infancy, puberty and also in their middle or old age. However this condition must be distinguished from lipomastia or pseudogynecomastia which is different, and refers to fat deposit in the breast are of men.

Although gynecomastia is the most common reason for medical examination of male breasts, but true gynecomastia is only present in very small percentage of men.Gynecomastia is a condition that happens because of imbalance in the estrogen and androgen hormones in men. When the secretion of estrogen (female hormone) in men becomes relatively high than androgen (male hormone) this condition occurs in the male anatomy. Gynecomastia that happens in boys during their puberty and in normally growing infants often gets resolved on its own as hence is also known as psychologic gynecomastia.

Some of the reasons that causes this condition are:

  • Malnutrition and refeeding while recovering from malnutrition have both shown to have developed hormonal environments in our body that can lead to this disease. Likewise cirrhosis of liver which alters the regular metabolism of hormones can lead to formation of gynecomastia.
  • Disorder in the male sex organs like testes which can impede testosterone production and thus create relatively high estrogen level can even lead to this disease. Sometimes this said disorder can also happen because of genetic disorder such as Klinefelter's syndrome. Testicular carcinoma can also lead to gynecomastia.
  • Other conditions like altered hormonal environment in the male anatomy like chronic renal failure and hyperthyroidism can also lead to gynecomastia.

More About :

Pubertal gynecomastia most often gets resolved by its own and so in very rare cases they persists and require treatment. However gynecomastia that remains present over a long period of time (for 24 months or more) may undergo fibrosis and so it gets hard to be recovered with medications and so is at times a source of social embarrassment. For complicated and severe gynecomastia cases in which the breast tissue has undergone fibrosis and has become scarred, it’s most often surgical techniques that can only bring back normalcy. But, in general gynecomastia in never a long term problem.

Experts are of the opinion, that patients who have true gynecomastia have about five times more risk of developing breast cancer, compared to other men. It is because this condition happens due to hormonal changes in the male body, which enhances the risk of developing breast cancer in adult men.

Treatable by medical professional Usually self diagnosable Lab test not required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Non communicable
Swelling of the breasts Tenderness

Popular Health Tips

Gynecomastia (Male Breast) - Is Surgery The Best Option?

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship Reconstructive Microsurgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Gurgaon
Gynecomastia (Male Breast) - Is Surgery The Best Option?

Are you thinking of undergoing a surgical procedure to get rid of your enlarged breasts? This condition, which involves the enlargement of the breast tissue in men is known as gynecomastia. It is commonly referred to as ‘man boobs’. The condition is not always permanent, but is quite embarrassing for any man to face. Among the various modes of treatment of gynecomastia, surgery is considered to be an ideal method after taking into consideration long-term results.


  1. Usually, this condition requires no treatment. When it occurs because of a certain health condition, professional treatment is required to be carried out.
  2. Surgery is an effective option for restoring your chest shape, which improves your self-image rapidly.
  3. During the surgical procedure, a small incision is made on your breasts and all extra breast tissues are eliminated. This results in smaller and flatter breasts.
  4. Your nipple may also be repositioned during the procedure.
  5. Surgery is considered to be the best long-term treatment measure for gynecomastia.
  6. You need to follow a very healthy lifestyle for maintaining your new breast shape.
  7. An unhealthy lifestyle may lead to the recurrence of gynecomastia, and you should abstain from gaining too much weight and taking drugs.
  8. Can be performed under tumescent anaesthesia.

Pros and Cons of Gynecomastia surgery

  1. Usually, breast reduction surgery is not considered to be a very sensible option for reducing man boobs.
  2. When you are not suffering from a medical condition that demands the surgery, such as having cancerous lumps in the breasts, undergoing a surgery is generally not recommended by a lot of health professionals.
  3. It is quite expensive and many health professionals consider natural ways for reducing man breasts to be more healthy instead of undergoing invasive procedures.
  4. For people who want to get rid of their man boobs as soon as possible, and people who are couch potatoes, gynecomastia surgery is the best way.
  5. In case you are undergoing treatment for gynecomastia for more than a year, and are observing no results or improvements, your gynecomastia may be of chronic type. In such cases, you may need to undergo a surgery for the removal of your glandular breast tissue.

However, there are several side effects that are associated with a gynecomastia surgery. Although there are many options for the management of gynecomastia, such as following a strict diet plan, working out regularly, and making other lifestyle modifications, a surgery is effective for a fast removal of the breast tissues. It is more long-term than any other treatment when followed properly.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3503 people found this helpful

Male Breast (Gynecomastia ) - Why It Is Important To Get It Corrected?

MCh - Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Delhi
Male Breast (Gynecomastia ) - Why It Is Important To Get It Corrected?

Although the breasts are one of the most significant contributors of a woman’s physical beauty, a man with breasts not only looks awkward but feels clumsy and graceless as well. An individual who is suffering from such problems which are referred to as gynecomastia in medical terms, should not neglect the problem but consider opting for male breast reduction surgery. In this surgical intervention, a qualified doctor would help in restoring your natural masculine looks around the chest. And there is nothing to be anxious about as there are advanced techniques which would help you recover quickly and result in virtually invisible scars.

What is gynecomastia?
Gynecomastia can be described as an enlargement of male breasts which can be effectively removed with the aid of male breast reduction surgery. This process helps in removal of excess fat as well as glandular tissue for the restoration of a flatter and firmer contour to the chest of the male.

Although it may appear strange, there are some men all over the world who have such development due to genetic conditions or side effects of certain medicines or some other unspecified reasons. Gynecomastia can happen at any age, and the male breast reduction surgery can be safely performed on both teenagers and adult men.,

Why is it important to have male breast reduction surgery?
Though weight loss can assist the reduction of the appearance of male breasts for some individuals, in some instances it has been speculated that the excess glandular tissue which may result in noticeably large breasts even in men with a lean body. In the present scenario, the male breast reduction surgery is the only method for alleviating the problem with long-lasting results. Most individuals who have undergone this surgery report that they feel comfortable without the shirt and also experience enhanced self-confidence.

If an individual is uncomfortable or self-conscious regarding the appearance of the chest or when he is compelled to avoid certain activities where he may have to go shirtless, the male breast reduction surgery is an option that deserves consideration. When there is an experienced and professional surgeon to carry out the process, the affected individual would be able to see dramatic improvements with nominal scars.

Liposuction is yet another option that deserves special mention in this respect. This is owing to the advancement of liposuction technology which has proffered the surgeons with a wider selection of comparatively less invasive methodologies. The recovery period is shorter compared to conventional surgeries, and the patients are given a compression garment which they are required to wear for the first few couple of weeks which helps in reduction of swelling and offer support for the healing tissues.

It is important to note here that vigorous exercises must not be performed within three weeks after the treatment. But it is crucial to understand that each and every person heals at a unique pace, the cosmetic surgeon would give the patient insight into the treatment so that he can set realistic expectations.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2492 people found this helpful

Prolactinoma - All You Need To Know About It!

MBBS, MD - General Medicine, DM - Endocrinology, DNB Endocrinology, MNAMS, Speciality Certificate (Endo. & Diab.) (MRCP, UK), Fellow of American College of Endocrinology (FACE)
Endocrinologist, Delhi
Prolactinoma - All You Need To Know About It!

The body functions are controlled by hormones which are produced by various endocrine glands (named so because these glands secrete hormones directly into the body). There are various endocrine glands, and these are controlled by the master endocrine gland which is the pituitary gland.

The pituitary gland is attached to the base of the brain. It also produces prolactin which helps regulate milk production when a woman is breast-feeding. To a smaller extent, it also has some effect on other hormones.
Prolactinoma is a benign tumour of the pituitary gland which produces large amount of prolactin. The cells in the pituitary gland multiply to produce large amounts of prolactin. In people with prolactinoma, there are reduced amounts of oestrogen in females and testosterones in males.

Causes: Though the cause is unknown, a genetic connection believed to exist. Also, people who are hypothyroidic, pregnant, and/or breast-feeding have a higher chance of developing this condition. They can develop in men as well. Interestingly, this is the most common form of pituitary gland tumour.

Types: Depending on the size of the tumour, the tumour is of two main types—microprolactinoma (when the tumour measures less than 10 mm) and macroprolactinoma (when the tumour measures more than 10 mm).

Signs and symptoms: Though the most important function of prolactin is the regulation of breast milk production, it also has various other functions in both men and women. The symptoms, therefore, would depend on the gender and the age group.

Men: Reduced libido, erectile dysfunction, reduced fertility, and gynecomastia and sometimes even production of milk.

Women: Menstrual disorders, including lack of periods or irregular periods, reduced fertility, reduced libido, increased facial hair, and spontaneous leakage of milk from the breasts.

If teenagers are affected, there could be reduced growth and delayed puberty.
In addition to the above symptoms, as the tumour continues to grow, there could be pressure on the surrounding nerves, leading to headaches, blurred of vision, and even double vision. As the tumour grows, the normal pituitary functioning may be affected, and other hormones may not be produced and accordingly the symptoms would appear.

Treatment: One of the main reasons it gets diagnosed is infertility. When ruling out causes for infertility, prolactinoma is suspected and to rule this out blood tests are done. Increased amounts of the hormone would lead to undergoing MRI scans and other tests to confirm the diagnosis.

Once confirmed, the treatment would depend on the symptoms and the patient. It causes reduced amounts of oestrogen and testosterone, which is usually harmless. Unless required, some people can choose to go without any treatment. Hormone supplements can be used to restore the normal hormone levels. Dopamine antagonists can be used to suppress the production of prolactin from the pituitary gland. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Endocrinologist.

2111 people found this helpful

Treating Gynecomastia (Enlarged Breasts in Men) With Surgery

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M.Ch - Plastic Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Visakhapatnam
Treating Gynecomastia (Enlarged Breasts in Men) With Surgery

Swollen breast tissues in men or boys caused by hormonal (testosterone and estrogen) imbalances is called gynecomastia. Both breasts or one breast, can be affected by gynecomastia. At any point in life, from birth to puberty, even in adulthood, you might develop gynecomastia. Most of the times, gynecomastia is caused by hormonal imbalances, but there might be some underlying causes as well.
Gynecomastia is normally not a serious condition, but it can be difficult to deal with the pain and embarrassment.

It can be cured with surgery or medication, if it doesn't go away on its own.

Symptoms and signs of gynecomastia include:

  • Enlarged glands in the breast tissue
  • Tenderness in the breast

The causes that trigger gynecomastia include:

  1. Hormonal changes: Testosterone and estrogen control the sexual development in men and women respectively. Estrogen is not a hormone that only women produce; men produce it too. When the production of testosterone and estrogen are thrown out of balance, gynecomastia occurs.
  2. Medication: Certain medications such as anabolic steroids, androgens, HIV/AIDS medicines, antibiotics and chemotherapy can cause gynecomastia.
  3. Drugs and alcohol: Substances such as alcohol, marijuana, amphetamines, heroin and methadone cause gynecomastia.
  4. Health condition: Certain factors, such as aging, hypogonadism (hormonal disorder), hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid gland), tumorskidney failure, cirrhosis, liver failure, malnutrition and starvation can lead to gynecomastia.
  5. Herbal products: Essential oils derived from plants such as lavender or tea tree, used in lotions or shampoos, have weak estrogenic actives. They have been said to cause gynecomastia.

Gynecomastia can be cured either with medication or surgery. Surgical options for gynecomastia are, however, limited.


There is no definitive medical treatment. The main answer for Gynecomastia is -SURGERY. It is a daycare procedure in most situations. It is done by a Surgeon, usually, a Plastic surgeon does a better job.

Anesthesia- Either Local or General anesthesia is given to make it painless.

Procedure-Through a small incision in the areola, the swelling is removed by both Liposuction of the Fat part and Excision (removal) for Breast gland part. As the incision is through the areola, the final scar is hardly visible. In extensive swellings, skin also needs to be removed, where in a scar around the areola border is visible.

Recovery- usually can go back to work in 2-3 days time. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon.

3750 people found this helpful

Enlarged Male Breast Problem - Is Surgery Helpful?

MBBS, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Cosmetic Physician, Trivandrum
Enlarged Male Breast Problem - Is Surgery Helpful?

The development of breasts is one of the most prominent physical difference between the structure of a man and a woman. In some cases, hormonal imbalances can cause enlargement of the male breast gland, which is known as gynecomastia.  Apart from being a cause for embarrassment, it is also associated with a number of medical conditions such as kidney failure and liver cirrhosis. However, there is little need to worry if you have been diagnosed with such a condition as it can easily be treated with dietary changes, medication and surgery. Among these, surgery is the only method of treatment that guarantees a permanent and immediate solution to the problem. 

Surgical treatment for gynecomastia is of two types

The type of surgery suitable for you will depend on a number of factors including the extent and type of gynecomastia.

Liposuction involves the removal of fat from the breast, but does not touch the breast tissue itself. For this surgery, a surgeon makes a small incision on either side of the chest or along the edge of the areola. Excessive fat is then removed through these incisions and the skin and remaining tissue is then restructured. Liposuction can take anywhere between a week and 3 weeks for complete recovery. In the meanwhile, the patient must wear a compression garment to minimize the swelling and support the chest tissue as it heals. 

A mastectomy on the other hand is used to remove the breast tissue. A mastectomy is performed endoscopically and hence is less invasive. In this case, the incisions are located around the edge of the areola or in the natural crease of the chest. A mastectomy requires a shorter recovery period. In some cases, a combination of the two techniques may also be used. 

The results of both surgical approaches can be seen immediately after the surgery. Slight soreness and pain is a common side effect of this procedure and can be relieved with pain medication. Some men may also experience a temporary loss of sensation over the treated area. 

Though the results of both types of surgeries are permanent, it is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle after the surgery. Unhealthy eating that leads to significant weight gain can make the problem recur. Use of steroids or medication that affects the testosterone levels in the body and certain medical conditions can also lead to recurring gynecomastia. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a cosmetic physician.

3732 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, I have gynecomastia problem on my chest to last 2 years please give some advice to get rid for gynecomastia problem.

American Board of Plastic Surgery, , American Board Of General Surgery, MS - Dermatology, M.B.B.S
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Delhi
Dear Mr. lybrate-user, The only options to remove Gynecomastia is surgery. I would request you to please consult an experienced Board Certified Plastic Surgeon in your area who will examine you and give you the treatment options. Regards.

I do not know what it is but its been 4-5 years, I have got puffy nipples. I do nots know what it is but after searching on net I got to know that it is gynecomastia, I anyone could tell me the possible treatment for it and the cost of treatment. I would prefer non surgical remedies.

American Board of Plastic Surgery, , American Board Of General Surgery, MS - Dermatology, M.B.B.S
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Delhi
Dear Mr. lybrate-user, The best treatment to treat Gynecomastia is surgery, where excess fat is removed which is followed by removal of breast tissue or glands. For best results VASER liposuction can be used to remove the excess fat. This can be done on a daycare basis. Please make an appointment with an experienced Board Certified Plastic Surgeon who can examine you and give you the treatment details. Regards,

HI, I am suffering from enlarged chest like breast from my puberty. How to resolve this problem it's becoming serious for me, I need a good medicine for it.

DNB (Surgical Oncology), MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Oncologist, Vadodara
This is called Gynecomastia. Some hormonal medicines do help but the surgery is the only curative intervention. Please consult some endocrinologist/breast surgeon.
6 people found this helpful

Hi, I have problem with Gynecomastia (man breast) and is the tablet Clomiphene is effective for reduce the Gynecomastia Please advice.

BHMS, Diploma in Dermatology
Homeopath, Hyderabad
In some less severe cases, Letrozole can fully reverse partially developed gyno. Nolvadex on the other hand can fully reverse gyno. SERMs can be used to reverse existing gyno, but it does nothing for preventing Estrogen from continuing to exacerbate the issue.

I am 30 years old and suffering from male breast enlargements since my puberty age. Is it treatable by medicine or only solution is surgery? Please recommend good hospital in delhi.

MCh - Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
Cosmetic/Plastic Surgeon, Bangalore
Hello sir. Definitely you can go for the surgery. The liposuction with gland excision gives you the best result for gynecomastia treatment. The surgeon will go for the surgery only after ruling out other underlying factors. It again depends upon the grade of gynecomastia you are having and the associated factors. Cost again depends upon the same factors. U can text me with the pictures to know anything more online.

Table of Content

What is Gynecomastia?

Some of the reasons that causes this condition are:

More About :

Play video
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a non-cancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs. The condition commonly resolves on its own and conservative management of gynecomastia is often all that is necessary.
Play video
Myth Behind Male Breast Reduction
Good morning, I am Dr Vijay Kakkar, a senior consultant cosmetic and plastic surgeon. I am working in Kakkar health care group which is a clinic of long standing and have been doing all kind of cosmetic surgeries. We will be discussing Gynecomastia or a male surgery today.

As we know Gynecomastia is a problem in the young adult in which the male breast starts increasing. The problems start in the teenagers. Once there is little bit of problem in hormones. In the case of Gynecomastia, there must a slight elevation of the female hormones during the developing period. If the female hormone is more in the developing period of say,13-17 years of age. This gets hypertrophic and increase in size. There may not be any investigating factors.

In certain cases, it may be associated with some other diseases also. In such cases we have to find the cause of Gynecomastia. Where as in most of the cases we do not find any cause for increase the size in male breast. Once the patient of male breast comes to us, we examine him and analyse what kind of grades of gynecosmastia the person is having.

IN most of the boys or young adults are going to gym due top which muscle size increase, in such cases the gynecosmastia becomes more prominent. It is a myth that going to gym decreases the gynecosmatia, rather it increases. Once these people go in the society, they can not remove the t shirt and there are lot of problems and pressure that they can not go for swimming or they can not go to common public places wearing white t shirts. In such cases, the young adults suffer from psychological pressure. So we need to correct these problems.

It is a very simple surgery and a day care kind of surgery. We call the patient in the morning. We give an anaesthesia which is either local or general anaesthesia. Most of the fat can be removed with the process of Liposuction. It is a very minor surgery. We make a 2-3 mm size of cut and put a kind of cannula and lot of saline into the breast and suck all the fat. After sucking all the fat, we analyze if there is any breast gland left behind. If there is any breast gland left behind then we excise that breast gland with the help of a small cut which ios given in the infra cellular plane and that scar is also not visible.

After the surgery, the patient is given garment to wear for the month approximately. The swelling will go down within a week to 10 days time. The patient will be fine within a 6 days of time and patient will be back to normal. It is a permanent procesdure where no scar no cuts are left.

If you have any query about Gynecomastia, you can contact us or you can e mail at or contact us at 9811079483.

Thank you.
Play video
Gynecomastia (Enlarged Male Breast)
I am Dr. Rajesh, associate professor in the Department of plastic surgery in Deccan Medical College, also consulting plastic surgery various hospitals in Hydrabad. Today we are going to discuss about one of the most common complaints which I come across in my daily routine practice, that is gynecomastia.

Gynecomastia is a condition of non cancerous growth of the male breast. These conditions generally observed in infants and adults age and old age. The condition is observed in about 1 million population of India. In infants. this condition arises mainly due to the abnormality in the hormones. That is, the male hormones which are supposed to be increased and the female hormones which are supposed be decreased by their abnormal ratio. There is a change in the ratio of the hormones, then this condition is used to observe the mothers womb from the glass filter, that is, some of the hormones are injected to the child. So that's why we usually see there is a minor swelling of the childr's breasts this is called physiological.

Physiological normally occurs in most of the children and it's a common condition. Since something which is not common is non physiological, which is an abnormality. The next physiological condition where you see is in adult age and children are developing the male secondary sexual character. That time the male hormones which are supposed to be increase, when they are not increased and the female hormones which are supposed to get reduced . At that time, there is a change in the ratio game again you will see gynecomastia usually around 10 or 11 or 12 years of age. This will subside usually and 1 or 2 years of age and the next condition is again in the later age that is in the old age. There the testosterone hormones in the body comes down in the male then again you may see these are all these are physiological other.

Causes in the adults are mostly with the drugs are chronic. Diseases associated will be liver or kidney. Like liver in a sense of chronic sclerosis of the liver also where in the hormone which is supposed to get deleted is also one of the reason we're in developer gynecomastia and in a chronic renal problems with is undergo adolescence is also this. We can see all this kind of problem and there are very rare conditions like in a Klinefelter syndrome. There are some syndromes and some cancers are also associated with this condition but there are extremely very rare conditions. Where you see a gynecomastia syndrome for them, the evaluation is different to manage. There is long prove of medical management for this, like the drugs will not treat the cause. There are some drugs which are not even FDA approved but there are some drugs where we can give especially the adult causes but not for the physiological causes.

Physiological causes as I mentioned earlier after certain time or age they should subside and the body becomes normal like any other person but if it still doesn't subside then the option would be surgical. We do a lipo a small hole is made at the little side of the breast through that we suck out the fat if there is any fat. We suck out the fat and only the glandular tissue is delineated and then through a small incision in the area like nothing. But that pigmented skin around the nipple makes a small incision trhough which we take out the gland. That is most commonly followed treatment throughout the world and it has very great results.

for more information, you can contact me directly in my clinic that is Dr. Chandra Semalty Speciality clinic.
Play video
Treatments for Gynecomastia
Hello viewers, I am Anubhav Gupta and I am a consultant plastic surgeon. Today, I am going to talk about Gynecomastia.

Gynecomastia basically is the abnormal enlargement of the male breasts. It is nowadays been seen very commonly in the young adult population and the common causes of gynecomastia are there is an imbalance of hormones at the time of puberty. Then there is a knowingly or unknowingly abuse of steroids for body building, then there is obesity and apart from that, there are certain rare causes also like lynfilton syndrome or prolonged intake of certain drugs that cause abnormal fatty deposition in the breasts. These are the common causes but the most common cause which we are seeing nowadays is that at the time of puberty there is a sudden urge and young patients in the age group of 16 to 20 come to us for abnormally enlarged breasts.

So now the question is, who are candidates for surgery?

As we know and as we understand that gynecomastia is not a disease, it s a condition of abnormal deposition of fat or enlargement of the male gland. Now it s more related to the person s understanding of own body image so the usual candidates for this surgery are somewhere people between the age 18-25, 26 and up to 30 are the common candidates and these candidates are suggested surgery so that they have a more wholesome feeling of their own body image so they want to have a more comfortable chests so that they can go out if they want to go out for swimming and wear tight t-shirts so the surgery is more or less indicated to help them achieve an equilibrium about their body image. So usually I avoid a surgery between 16-17 years. But in certain cases the teasing and the effect on the confidence of the child is affecting his personality in some cases we have to take a decision to operate even in early stages.

What do we exactly do in the surgery?

A few tips of what we do. Basically, it s a day care surgery and is done under general anaesthesia. The patient comes, gets operated, wakes up, goes back on the same night and to expect the result you can see the result within 24 to 48 hours. To get the results, to improve the results, we require the patient to wear a jacket around 3 to 4 months and basically, the person goes back to work within 2 to 3 days.

So this is all about the surgery and if you want to know more about what is the exact sequence, what do we do. You can get in touch with me on lybrate.

Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice