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Overview

Anti Insulin Antibodies Test

Anti Insulin Antibodies Test

also known as: Immunoreactive Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. Insulin plays an important role in energy metabolism. The factors leading to low secretion or absence of insulin cause the condition known as Diabetes. If a person who is suffering from a condition where there is low or no secretion of insulin eat the meat of the animals, the animal insulin enters the bloodstream. The body then starts to secrete antibodies to fight this foreign insulin. These antibodies have the potential to cause insulin resistance or even allergies. The Anti-Insulin Antibody test is therefore done to help detect the presence of these antibodies in the blood.

No special preparation or dietary restrictions are required prior to this test. This is a blood test. This test should not be taken as standalone for determining the condition. This test is suggested to a person who is in the high risk zone for diabetes type 1 or is showing allergic reaction to insulin or if insulin therapy is proving ineffective to control blood sugar levels.

Depending upon the result of the test it can be determined the level of antibodies in the blood sample. The normal result indicates that there are no antibodies against insulin. In case of abnormal results may indicate presence of insulinoma, or resistance to insulin in diabetes.

Blood sample needs to be collected from the vein of forearm. An alcohol swab is used to clean the area from where the blood will be drawn out. Then a needle syringe is inserted into the vein and blood is collected in a container which already has preservative or an anticoagulant added. The needle is removed and pressure is applied on that area

LimitationsThis insulin assay is performed using a 2-site electrochemiluminescent immunoassay on the Roche automated platform.1 This test could be effectively used for those patients not receiving exogenous insulin or those receiving unmodified human insulin. Test 004333, Insulin is highly specific for human insulin, as shown in the table below. This test does not react, for instance, with several of the insulin analogs used to treat diabetes as indicated in Table 1 below. The efficacy of each test depends on the patient treatment and goal of the ordering physician. It is important that the physician ordering and interpreting the results understands the specificity of the test.Table 1: Cross reactivity to insulin analogs1-3• Human insulin: 100%• Insulin aspart: <1%• Insulin glargine: <1%• Insulin lispro: <1%• Insulin glulisine: <1%• Insulin detemir: <1%Notes:• Circulating antibodies to insulin, both autoantibodies and antibodies to therapeutic insulin, can interfere with the immunoassays for insulin.4,5• As with all tests containing monoclonal mouse antibodies, erroneous findings may be obtained from samples taken from patients who have been treated with monoclonal mouse antibodies or who have received them for diagnostic purposes.1 In rare cases, interference due to extremely high titers of antibodies to streptavidin and ruthenium can occur.1 The test contains additives that minimize these effects.
Specimen
Serum
Volume
0.8 mL
Container
Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube.
Type Gender Age-Group Value
Islet Cell Autoantibody
Unisex
All age groups
The antibodies are not normally present.
Insulin Autoantibodies
Unisex
All age groups
The antibodies are not normally present.
Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibodies
Unisex
All age groups
The antibodies are not normally present.
Average price range of the test is between Rs.1800 to Rs.3780 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

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Popular Questions & Answers

In my face More pimples and dark spots, I am Using Dabur Rose Water Daily 2-3 times, is Any Problem?

BHMS, PGDEMS
Homeopath, Satara
In my face More pimples and dark spots, I am Using Dabur Rose Water Daily 2-3 times, is Any Problem?
Please check if your skin is becoming oily after use of gulabari then stop the use. Take proper home care with Anti acne face wash, look for nutritious diet. Take plenty of water.
3 people found this helpful

I have no child after my 4 years married life. I am under treatment since 2 yrs. The report of my anti mullerian hormone test is 1.27 NG/ML. Doctor told me that the egg quality is very low which affects for getting pregnant. Kindly advise me.

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, Fellowship in Infertility
IVF Specialist, Noida
I have no child after my 4 years married life. I am under treatment since 2 yrs. The report of my anti mullerian horm...
Hi. AMH of 2- 4 ng/ ml is optimum .However, this alone is not sufficient to arrive at a conclusion regarding the fertility status. We always co relate it with an ultrasound. Moreover. It is the egg number that can be commented upon and there is no test in the lab for egg quality except to see the fertilisation rate. Therefore. Kindly get ultrasound done too.
2 people found this helpful

Sir am getting full on itching sensation on my both hands and legs. On hands am having small small fungus type and allergy type area! Kindly suggest me.

BHMS
Homeopath, Chennai
Sir am getting full on itching sensation on my both hands and legs. On hands am having small small fungus type and al...
In Allopathy, anti-histaminics or immunosuppressant medicines like steroids are used which only give temporary relief, with the problem returning once the medicine is stopped. On the other hand, during Homeopathy treatment of allergy is cured by strengthening the immune system and the symptoms subside on their own. At the same time, it needs to be understood that this is purely natural allergy treatment. No steroids or anti allergic medicines are used. The immunity is strengthened by Homeopathy instead of being suppressed as happens with allopathic treatment. You can easily take an online consultation for further treatment guidance and permanent cure without any side effects

Popular Health Tips

Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) - Know Its Treatment!!

BPTh/BPT, MPT - Orthopedic Physiotherapy
Physiotherapist, Gurgaon
Cervical Spondylosis (Arthritis of the Neck) - Know Its Treatment!!

Cervical spondylosis is fast becoming the bane of modern life. An age-related wear and tear problem affecting the spinal discs in your neck, cervical spondylosis is increasingly affecting the young because of the use of cell phones, laptops and the like.

Cervical spondylosis is a general term used to define shrinkage of discs in between vertebrae in the neck region. Along with disc degeneration, bony projections also form in the area and are called bone spurs.
Other causes of cervical spondylosis are dehydrated discs. Discs are thick, pad-like cushions in between vertebrae that act as shock absorbers. They are made of a gel- like material that can dry over time. This causes the spinal vertebrae to rub together causing pain. The discs also crack which allows the internal gel-like material to spill out and impinge on spinal nerves causing symptoms.

There is a narrowing of the space required by the spinal cord and nerves that emanate in the upper spine to go to various parts of the body. Pinching of these nerves can cause alarming symptoms like:

  1. Numbness and weakness in your arms, hands, legs and feet
  2. Lack of coordination and difficulty in walking
  3. Loss of bladder or bowel movement
  4. Stiffness and pain in neck

Treatment and management
Usually, cervical spondylosis doesn’t cause any symptoms. But when you start experiencing pain, stiffness and weakness of muscles, it’s best to go to a doctor who will diagnose the problem and then treat it.
Treatment for cervical spondylosis depends on the severity of your symptoms. Its goal is to get rid of pain, allow you to carry on your daily activities and prevent any permanent damage to your spinal cord and nerves.

Medicines

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation. Example Ibuprofen.
  2. Corticosteroids are oral medications to get rid of the severe pain. If these don’t work, your doctor can suggest steroid injections.
  3. Muscle relaxants medicines relax the muscles in the upper part of the spine and help in curing neck pain and stiffness
  4. Anti-seizure medications are also prescribed to dull the pain of damaged nerves in the spine. These include epilepsy medications, such as gabapentin and pregabalin.

Physiotherapy

  1. Non surgical treatments are usually very effective in treating cervical spondylosis and surgery is usually not required. Physiotherapy is a bulwark for patients as it helps manage the condition very well.
  2. Neck exercises that help stretch and strengthen muscles in your neck and shoulders can help manage debilitating symptoms of cervical spondylosis.
  3. Few patients also benefit from traction, which can help provide more space for nerve roots within the spine.

Surgery

  1. Surgery is the last resort for treating cervical spondylosis.
  2. It is suggested when non-surgical treatments fail and the pain and neurological signs such as weakness in your arms or legs get worse.
  3. It is done to create more room for your spinal cord and nerve roots.

Cervical spondylosis surgery typically involves removing:

  1. Herniated disk
  2. Bone spurs
  3. Part of a vertebra. 

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Physiotherapist.

3454 people found this helpful

Know The Ayurvedic Approach To Reversing Diabetes!!

Graduate of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (GAMS)
Ayurveda, Delhi
Know The Ayurvedic Approach To Reversing Diabetes!!

Glucose is the primary ingredient within the body which is turned into an energy source. This is what we use when we move, walk or make the slightest movements. To metabolize glucose into energy, your body needs insulin, which is a hormone produced within the pancreas. However, if the body doesn't react to the insulin or the pancreas is unable to produce enough, glucose cannot be converted into energy and thus results in type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

  1. Sudden or gradual weight loss despite increased hunger - Many people complain that they feel hungry and eat more, but despite this, tend to lose weight. This occurs as the body cannot metabolize glucose and uses energy reserves from fat or muscles leading to weight loss.
  2. Frequent infections and slow healing - If you are afflicted with Type 2 diabetes, then it might affect your immune system and you may be prone to infections. Also, any cuts or bruises on your body will take much longer to heal than normal.
  3. Irritability and fatigue - Another common symptom of type 2 diabetes along with the other symptoms mentioned here is quick irritability and fatigue. This is because most of the body is deprived of sugar and thus lacks the energy needed to function normally. 
  4. Constant thirst and increased urination - If you feel constantly thirsty despite drinking ample water and urinating frequently, this may be a tell tale sign of type 2 diabetes.
  5. Skin darkening in folds and creases of the body - Also known as acanthosis nigricans; this is a darkening of the skin where it also becomes velvety to the touch. It usually develops in the folds on skin in areas such as the neck and armpits and is a direct result of insulin resistance.

Causes of Type 2 diabetes

Some of the most common causes of Type 2 diabetes could be:

  1. Being overweight
  2. Lack of physical activity
  3. Genetic predisposition or family history 
  4. If you are more than 45 years of age
  5. Hormonal problems such as Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Reverse Diabetes

There three major factors that can help you prevent and reverse pre- and type II diabetes: proper diet and appropriate nutritional and herbal supplementation, exercise, and weight management.

  1. Diet: Proper diet is critical for both preventing and treating pre-and type II diabetes. One of the most important dietary precautions you can take is to eliminate all refined sugars and sugar products from your diet. Also reduce or eliminate your intake of alcohol and caffeine; avoid fast, processed "junk" foods and soda, altogether; and eat protein snacks between meals.
  2. Eating According to the Glycemic Index: Another important dietary tip is eat meals that contains an abundance of low-glycemic (low-sugar) foods. By doing so you can significantly improve your body's ability to maintain low insulin and blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic foods include raw, organic leafy green vegetables, fruits that contain pits, sweet potatoes, yams, organic whole-grain breads and cereals, most legumes and nuts, skim and buttermilk, poultry, white fish, shellfish, and lean cuts of beef and veal.
  3. Nutritional and Herbal Supplements: In addition to a healthy diet, many people at risk for or who already have pre- or type II diabetes will also benefit from various nutritional and herbal supplements.
  4. Exercise: Regular exercise should be part of every diabetic's daily routine. Exercise in combination with a weight loss program has been proven to reduce the odds of developing diabetes by 58 percent among people who are at risk for the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.
4517 people found this helpful

Tips For Monsoon!

BHMS
Homeopath, Bahadurgarh
Tips For Monsoon!

Monsoon is the season that brings happiness to our life as it makes the environment cool after the hot and scorching sun rays during the summer. But, even after having the cool splash of monsoon rain, there are some flaws and negative effects from which you need to protect yourself.  There are certain health risks that are brought by monsoon from which people needs to be really careful. If you have kids and elderly people at home, they will be really susceptible and are affected with the health conditions like allergies, cough, cold etc.  Even when you are having your diet, it will be really important to be cautious about meal and choose the adequate type of meal that won’t make you sick.

The first water droplets of the monsoon make us relieved and joyous. This season can be a remedy of rashes we got due to prickly heat during the summer. But, we too need to be really careful during monsoon with regards to the food we intake and the activities we perform.  There are certain health risks we can suffer due to monsoon. Especially kids are very susceptible during monsoon. This is the season where waterborne bacteria can attack us and we can get reduction in our immunity level. Normally people suffer from indigestion, allergies and several types of infections. Let us find out some tips that will keep us healthy during monsoon.

Be healthy throughout the monsoon season in India needs particular care to be taken. The rainfall and water lying around makes it very simple for mosquitoes to type and rises the risk of mosquito conveyed infections, such as malaria and dengue high temperature with fever. Viral infections are also spread easily during the monsoon season.

Tips stay healthy in monsoon season

  • If desired to eat road side food, the rainy season isn’t the time to indulge. water and raw vegetables is  are not hygienic during  the monsoon.
  • Use a powerful insect repellent to hold mosquitoes away and prevent getting bitten. It’s furthermore good concept to take anti-malarial drug during this monsoon.
  • Where likely, try to avoid walking through rainy water. It can lead to numerous fungal diseases of the feet and heels.
  • Keep the items like Umbrella, rain coat etc when you are going out.
  • Take moderately hot food and drinks in this monsoon.
  • Keep away the children to play in the rain and rainy water.
  • Also avoid walking where water is lying on the street, as traffic will propel by and spray it all over you.
  • Dry your feet when they get wet.
  • Avoid colds and coughs by keeping your body moderately hot and dry.
  • Don’t go in air conditioned rooms with wet hair and damp apparels.
  • If you suffer from asthma or diabetes, avoid residing any place with wet walls. It encourages the development of fungus and can be especially hurtful.
  • Drink many of heating herbal teas, particularly those with antibacterial properties.

Choice of diet during monsoon

During the monsoon season, it is advised not to consume fast food and the snacks from the roadside stalls. This can give rise to stomach infection.  Most of the time people suffer from the problem of indigestion during the monsoon season as the airborne bacteria are very well active in the environment and can easily get inside your body with the food you eat.  Since during the monsoon season, humidity is really high in the environment, the ability of body to digest comes down. It will be better for people to avoid the oily food which are prepared in street. Only the healthy food prepared at home must be considered.

1. Fruits

It is really essential for you to consume adequate fruits during the monsoon season as this helps you restore energy.  But there is also choice of fruits as well.  Go for the items like pears, mangoes, apples and pomegranate. Even there are some fruits that helps bringing out pimples on your face. On order to remove pimples from your face, you need to avoid the fruits like muskmelon and water melon. Even consuming excessive mangoes can give rise to pimples.

2. Dry food

It is better not to go for the watery food during the monsoons such as juices available outside, lassi ad other watery fruits. Instead go for the dry category of food such as pea, flour, corn etc. As consumption of too much watery food during monsoon can give rise to swelling in your body. So, it’s better to avoid.

3. Increase your immunity

One of the major problems suffered by people during the monsoon season is reduction of immunity level in body. Today, there are ways in which you can easily increase your immunity level through home remedies. Whenever you are preparing soup, add a clove of garlic at the beginning ones the oil is hot. This will increase immunity level of an individual during monsoon.

4. Water

Since water borne diseases are quite common during the monsoon season, try not to drink water that is not purified. Even after filtration, it is better to drink the boiled water as this will kill all germs and bacteria that have formed in water.

5. Stay away from high blood pressure

If you have a problem of high blood pressure, it will be better to consume very little salt in meal or else this will give a boost to the problem of high blood pressure. Thus, it is important to avoid those food items that have good amount of salt.

6. Bitter vegetables

You should definitely have a dish of bitter vegetables in your meal such as neem, bitter gourd etc to avoid skin infections and allergies. If you don’t like to consume it in a boiled form, make a fried form to add taste in your tongue. This is a wonderful remedy to stay away from all types of skin infections.

7. Stay away from stagnation

During the monsoons, stagnant water will be very well available at your home and outside. It is really important to avoid stagnant water as this will give rise to diseases like malaria and dengue. You should always throw away the water inside the unused tank, flower pots as well as water coolers.  Since stagnant water is a place where the mosquito can breed, avoiding such stagnant water will be an important consideration when you are living in monsoons. Also don’t forget to place mosquito net or a repellent when you are asleep at night.

8. Medium low salt food

During monsoons when you are preparing meal for your family, it will be important for you to include low salt. During the monsoons people can get high blood pressure level due to salty food. Water retention is again another problem which can be checked with the help of low salt food.

9. Prefer dry fruit

Not all foods are good for all seasons. For example the watery fruits and juices are good during summer as we get dehydrated. But, during monsoons this can be a reason for trouble. The food such as watermelon, lassi, rice etc can create swelling in your body during monsoons. It is better consuming the food that is dry in nature.

10. Other forms of milk

During monsoons it is better to avoid milk. Rather, it will be good to consume other forms of milk in condense form such as yogurt, curd, sweet etc. If you want to drink milk, it is better to boil it in 100 degree Celsius and then drink it. This will help you stay away from the harmful germs that are likely to attack your body.

11. Avoid spicy food

During monsoon since the weather is not too hot or too cold, you will be inclined towards the spicy foods. But this will be absolutely a wrong step for you. You must avoid having spicy food during the monsoon season. It can lead to skin allergies and irritation.

1 person found this helpful

Pain killers and Heart Attack Risks!

FRHS, Ph.D Neuro , MPT - Neurology Physiotherapy, D.Sp.Med, DPHM (Health Management ), BPTh/BPT
Physiotherapist, Chennai
Pain killers and Heart Attack Risks!

 

  •  Doctors have found the use of pain relievers to treat respiratory infections like cold flu may increase the risk of heart attack.
  • For the study, researchers analyzed insurance claims from taiwan's national health insurance program from 2005 to 2011 with data from roughly 10, 000 patients who were hospitalized for a heart attack.
  • The purpose of the study was to assess whether cardiac risk factors from an acute respiratory infection and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, pain relievers combine to further increase the risk of heart attack.
1 person found this helpful

Myths And Facts About Diabetes!

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Dharwad
Myths And Facts About Diabetes!

 1) Diabetes is curable :

Diabetes is  mainly due deficiency of Insulin (hormone produced by Beta cells of pancreas), plus resistance to action of insulin, overweightor obesity  and inactivity. Therefore, to treat diabetes we need drugs that initiate insulin secretion, reduce insulin resistance. In some cases  insulin itself. Plus dietary control and regular exercise to maintain normal weight or reduce excess weight. Hence it can only be effectively controlled. Cure is not possible.

2) Eating Sugar or Sweets causes Diabetes :

It is incorrect to say that eating sweets and / or sugar causes diabetes. Basically excess food intake will lead to excess production of glucose. That puts excess load on insulin producing cells in pancreas due glucotoxicity. Also due to central obesity  the fat around internal organs causes lipotoxicity affecting the beta cells. Therefore, excess food intake in general and weight gain  are the reasons for diabetes.

3) Jaggery is better or safe in diabetes :

Jaggery and sugar both are essentially same. Both contain sucrose, as they are prepared from sugar cane juice. Hence eating either of these will increase blood glucose considerably. In jaggery there are some vitamins and a few antioxidants. But both are bad for a diabetic person.

4) Rice should not be eaten in diabetes :

Not really true. Because in south India this is the major or at times only main food. Rice has a high glycemic index so gets converted to glucose rapidly. So polished rice is not good. Brown rice is better. Quantity should be regulated. All other cereals  also are converted  glucose after digestion. 

5)Allopathic Medications Damage Kidneys, so go for either Ayurvedic or Homeopathic Drugs :

In fact diabetes itself affects kidney, particularly the filtering membrane of glomerulurous  (a filtering unit in the kidney).   Even when diabetes fairly well controlled, kidney does get affected. The drugs used to treat diabetes  help in overcoming kidney damage. Therefore it is wrong to think that modern drugs cause kidney damage. In fact some of the other drugs contain heavy metals (Bhasmas), which can be harmful to the kidney.

6) Sugar intake is essential for body :

Some people keep asking that eating sugar is very necessary for getting energy for the body tissues. This is not at all true.  Because all the cereals like rice, jowar, wheat, ragi, bajra and other millets, contain starch as the main ingredient. Hence intake of each of these foods  provides glucose after digestion. So there is no separate need for taking sugar.

Few things to be remembered and practiced are :

  • Always use whole grain flour, as it contains a good amount of biber content for making chapati or roti.
  • Consume more of green leafy vegetables and salads with every meal.
  • Consider fruits and green leafy vegetables as part of regular snacks
  • Take small meals on more number of occasion to avoid glucose surge.
  • Avoid Maida and foods made from it. It is probably worst kind of food that one can consume.
  • Form healthy food habits.
4 people found this helpful