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Cancer is an extremely debilitating illness. Only early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the only cure in later stages it is difficult to treat. So kindly proceed for periodic screening.
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Cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth of cells in an area of our body. It can be due to loss of function of tumor suppressor genes or due to increased function of oncogenes. Screening is recommended for a few cancers to help in early detection and cure. Breast Cancer: screening mammography from age 45 years every 2-3 yearly. Cervical cancer: Pap smear (3 yearly) or HPV (5 yearly) from age 26 to 55 Prostate cancer PSA level every 2 years from age 50. Oral cancers: visual inspection in high risk individuals Lung cancer: low dose ct scan in high risk individuals Colon cancer: Fecal occult blood test (colonoscopy for high risk) Stomach cancer: OGD scopy for high risk Some tests which may be done, but not standard recommendations are: Ovary: usg and CA 125 Pancreas: Ca19. 9 and usg Skin and cancer: examination Blood cancer: CBC There are many cancers and that many causes of cancer. If localised, it may form a lump or swelling. Usually painless. If it has spread i.e. Stage 4, then symptoms due to the affected site or organ can occur. E.g. Breathlessness or hemoptysis in lung, jaundice in liver, ascites with abdominal distension in peritoneum, bone pain or fracture in bony mets, convulsion, vomiting and signs of raised intracranial hypertension in brain mets. It is not possible to write about all cancers and all it's symptoms. I will enumerate a few causes and symptoms of common cancers in non metastatic settings. Please note that most cancers donot have any cause and are asymptotic 1) Oral cavity and laryngeal cancers Symptoms: ulcer, Leukoplakia or erythroplakia rarely pain, neck node swelling, hoarseness of voice Cause: tobacco, alcohol, smoking, HPV, sharp tooth or ill fitting dentures with chronic trauma 2) Breast Cancer Symptoms: lump, nipple discharge especially blood stained, armpit swelling, nipple retraction, skin redness or thickening, skin dimpling Cause: increasing age and female sex are the most important non modifiable risk factors. Others include obesity, increased estrogen exposure due to early menarche, late menopause, no breast feeding, no children, OC pills, HRT, obesity. Familial due to BRCA genes 3) Colon or rectal cancer: Symptoms: bleeding per Rectum, alternating constipation or loose motions, lump in abdomen, intestinal obstruction Causes: Age, low fibre diet, Familial in AFP or HNPCC 4) kidney cancer Symptoms: Pain, lumbar swelling, hematuria Cause: Smoking, familial 5) urinary bladder cancer Symptoms: Hematuria, urinary retention Causes: smoking 6) lung cancer Symptoms: cough, hemoptysis, breathing difficulty, hoarseness of voice Causes: smoking 7) esophageal cancer Symptoms: difficulty in swallowing food, Causes: smoking, smoked fish 8) stomach cancer Symptoms: black stools, hematemesis, lump in abdomen, obstruction with vomiting Causes: smoking, alcohol 9) liver cancer Symptoms: lump in abdomen Causes: hepatitis B infection with cirrhosis, toxins 10) gall bladder cancer Symptoms: asymptotic, lump in abdomen, jaundice Cause: gall stones, cholesterosis 11) prostate cancer Symptoms: urinary retention, hematuria Cause: age, androgens 12) penile cancer Symptoms: ulcer Cause: HPV related 13) ovarian cancer Symptoms: mass in pelvis Cause: familial 14) endometrial cancer Symptoms: post menopausal bleeding or inter menstrual bleeding Cause: hormonal 15) cervical cancer Symptoms: bleeding pv Cause: HPV related 16) pancreatic cancer Symptoms: jaundice, lump in abdomen Cause: smoking 17) bone cancers: Symptoms: swelling, pain, fracture Cause: multifactorial 18) skin cancer Symptoms: ulcer or black lesion Cause UV rays 19) brain tumor Symptoms: neurological deficit, vomiting, visual deficit Causes: multifactorial 20) blood cancer Symptoms: bleeding, infections Cause: genetic, multifactorial 21) Testicular Cancer Symptoms: testicular painless swelling, abdominal lump Cause: genetic, multifactorial.
Suggestions offered by doctors on Lybrate are of advisory nature i.e., for educational and informational purposes only. Content posted on, created for, or compiled by Lybrate is not intended or designed to replace your doctor's independent judgment about any symptom, condition, or the appropriateness or risks of a procedure or treatment for a given person.
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