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60 Most Important Blood Tests Health Feed

Pre-Surgery Testing - Do You Think It Is Important?

Asg Eye Hospital 87% (10 ratings)
ABC
Ophthalmologist, Jodhpur
Pre-Surgery Testing - Do You Think It Is Important?

Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.

The preoperative assessment consists of -

A test for your existing glasses prescription:

It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.

A full ocular examination: This includes looking at:

  • The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
  • The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
  • The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
  • The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.
  • The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule
  • The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.

Biometry Tests: This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.

Corneal Topography: This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.

Blood Pressure Measurements: It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.

Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients: Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

6426 people found this helpful

Pre-surgery Testing - Know The Importance!

Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade 90% (35 ratings)
MBBS, MS
Ophthalmologist, Navi Mumbai
Pre-surgery Testing - Know The Importance!

Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.

The preoperative assessment consists of--

A test for your existing glasses prescription:

It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.

A full ocular examination: This includes looking at-

  • The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
  • The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
  • The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
  • The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.

The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule.

The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.

Biometry Tests

This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.

Corneal Topography

This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.

Blood Pressure Measurements

It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.

Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients

Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

4340 people found this helpful

The Importance of Pre-Surgery Testing

Dr. Minal Kaur 88% (356 ratings)
DNB Ophtalmology, MS - Ophthalmology, MBBS, Fellowship in Medical Retina, Fellowship in IOL & Cataract Microsurgery
Ophthalmologist, Faridabad
The Importance of Pre-Surgery Testing

Any patient who needs to undergo cataract surgery must be evaluated in a thorough manner so as to establish the requirement, appropriateness, expected surgical problems, expected benefits and co-morbid conditions having an influence on cataract surgery.

The preoperative assessment consists of -

A test for your existing glasses prescription:

It is useful for your cataract surgeon to know your existing glasses prescription in cases where there is a high refractive error (people who are very short or long sighted), in order to plan to correct this error after cataract surgery.

A full ocular examination: This includes looking at:

  • The eyelid anatomy and inflammation.
  • The state of the tear film, dry eye changes could make surgery difficult
  • The presence of abnormalities in the cornea that could make visualisation of the cataract difficult during surgery.
  • The amount of dilation the iris undergoes with dilating drops.
  • The type of cataract. Soft cataracts can be aspirated. Hard cataracts need more ultra-sound energy and surgical time to break up and remove. White cataracts may need trypan blue staining to visualize the capsule
  • The measurement of intra-ocular pressure. With this test, we aim to exclude glaucoma and ensure optimal control of immediate pre-operative and intra-operative eye pressures often with extra eye drops that temporarily lower eye pressure.

Biometry Tests: This is a simple pre-operative measurement. It calculates the correct power of artificial intra-ocular lens. They will be implanted into your eye once your cataract is removed.

Corneal Topography: This is a test to map out the corneal curvature in greater detail. It is used prior to premium IOL Implantation like Toric IOLS either monofocal or multifocal , to ensure avoid postoperative refractive errors. This extra test is only required if the biometry readings show larger than normal differences in keratometry readings.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test allows detailed visualisation of the macula (the central sensitive part of the retina used for fine vision). If the ophthalmologist suspects any macula changes that may prevent a patient from visual improvement after cataract surgery, he always suggest optical coherence tomography.

Blood Pressure Measurements: It is very important to know your blood pressure measurements before your cataract operation. The risk of having a bleed at the back of your eye during cataract surgery (supra-choroidal haemorrhage) is very small (1 in 10000). But is higher if you have uncontrolled blood pressure.

Blood Sugar Measurements in Diabetic Patients: Cataract surgery itself does not affect your blood sugar measurements if you are diabetic. A routine checkup of blood sugars in diabetics before cataract surgery is done and the surgery if often delayed if the levels were greater than 20mmol/L as the risk of post-operative infection is higher.

2590 people found this helpful

Why It Is Important To Get Your Eyes Tested Regularly?

Asg Eye Hospital 87% (10 ratings)
ABC
Ophthalmologist, Jodhpur
Why It Is Important To Get Your Eyes Tested Regularly?

Sight is one of our most important senses. To ensure that your vision is not compromised, regular eye examinations are essential. This is regardless of age and overall health because the only way to diagnose conditions in the eye in the early stages is with a comprehensive eye exam. By arresting them in the early stages, many eye disorders can be easily controlled and treated.

During a routine eye examination, the doctor will look into a number of aspects of your eye's health. An eye examination can also indicate serious health issues like diabetes, macular degeneration and glaucoma. Some of the conditions an eye doctor looks for during an eye exam are:

Refractive error
If you already have a prescription this will be checked. In other cases, the strength of the eye muscles is checked for near sightedness, far sightedness and astigmatism which can be corrected with lasik surgery, spectacles or lenses. The earlier a refractive error is corrected, the lower are its chances of increasing. When it comes to children, they often do not realize signs of vision deterioration and hence, an eye examination becomes essential.

Amblyopia
This is a condition where one eye has a much higher refractive error than the other or where the eyes are misaligned. If this is not treated in time, amblyopia can stunt vision in the affected eye and result in blindness.

Strabismus
Crossed or turned eyes are termed as cases of strabismus. This is caused by the misalignment of the eyes and can cause problems with depth perception. This can lead to amblyopia and eventual blindness if not treated in time.

Focusing and communicative problems between the eyes
An eye examination can also determine problems with focusing on objects. With children this can be a sign of underdeveloped focusing skills while in adults it can be a symptom of presbyopia or age related diminished focusing ability. Your doctor will also check how well your eyes work together. If they do not work in tandem, it can cause headaches, eye strains and problems with reading.

Diseases
By looking at the blood vessels and retina of the eyes, doctors can detect signs of high blood pressure, cholesterol etc. Leaks in the blood vessels or bleeding in the eyes can also be a sign of diabetes or swelling of the macula.

Age related conditions
As with the rest of the body, the eye tissues and muscles also degenerate with time. Cataract is one of the most common age related issues that affect the eyes.

3 people found this helpful

STDs - Why Regular Testing Is Important?

Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta 88% (187 ratings)
MBBS
Sexologist, Jaipur
STDs - Why Regular Testing Is Important?

STIs or sexually transmitted diseases are infections whose transmission to a healthy person from an infected person happens through sexual contact. However, with modern medicine and diagnostic techniques, there are ways to prevent, detect and cure them effectively and quickly.
Not all diseases are curable though and it is best to follow preventive measures. Also, for sexually active adults it is an absolute necessity to get tested regularly for their health as well as the well-being of their partners.
Why do people tend to avoid getting tested for STIs or sexually transmitted infections?
One of the major factors that avert people from regular tests is the social stigma attached with sexually transmitted diseases. It is absolutely imperative for sexually active adults to go for regular checkups so that if they have any infections or diseases, it can be diagnosed quickly and remedial measure can be taken appropriately.
The benefits of regular checkups
Some of the benefits of regular checkups are mentioned here:-

  • Regular checkups can detect problems at a stage when the conditions may not have progressed too much and this will make it easily treatable.
  • With HIV positive patients, the quicker the testing gets done the quicker the treatment can be started. Thus, can prevent the onset of AIDS.
  • Regular checkups can control the progression of the diseases such as Chlamydia, which if left untreated can cause permanent infertility.
  • Getting a prospective partner tested is also a good idea as this can enable one to protect themselves from STIs.
  • Symptoms for certain STIs can be similar to many other non-sexual or non-venereal diseases. Thus getting tests done is the only way to get to know if there is an STI or if it is some other nonsexual disease.
  • HPV or Human Papilloma Virus can be detected easily with regular STI checkups and thus appropriate treatment can be started. If HPV isn't detected early, it can manifest much later in the form of cancer, which makes it more important to get yourself checked early on. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.
7404 people found this helpful

Why Insulin Is Important?

Dr. Jagruti Parikh 89% (325 ratings)
M.D. Internal Medicine
Endocrinologist, Mumbai
Why Insulin Is Important?

Insulin is a hormone that is important for metabolism and utilization of energy from the ingested nutrients like carbohydrate, fat and protein. Insulin is synthesized in significant quantities only in beta cells in the pancreas. It is secreted primarily in response to elevated blood concentrations of glucose. Insulin thus can regulate blood glucose and the body senses and responds to rise in blood glucose by secreting insulin. 

Other stimuli like sight and taste of food, nerve stimulation and increased blood concentrations of other fuel molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids, also promote insulin secretion. Insulin has several broad actions including: 

  1. It causes the cells in the liver, muscle, and fat tissue to take up glucose from blood and convert it to glycogen that can be stored in the liver and muscles 
  2. Insulin also prevents the utilization of fat as an energy source. In absence of insulin or in conditions where insulin is low glucose is not taken up by body cells, and the body begins to use fat as an energy source 
  3. Insulin also controls other body systems and regulates the amino acid uptake by body cells 
  4. It has several other anabolic effects throughout the body as well Since insulin controls the central metabolic processes, failure of insulin production leads to a condition called diabetes mellitus. 

There are two major types of diabetes – type 1 and type 2. 

Type 1 diabetes, occurs when there is no or very low production of insulin from the pancreatic beta cells. Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on external insulin (most commonly injected subcutaneously) for their survival. 

In type 2 diabetes, mellitus the demands of insulin are not met by the amount produced by the pancreatic beta cells. This is termed insulin resistance or ''relative'' insulin deficiency. These patients may be treated with drugs to reduce their blood sugar or may eventually require externally supplied insulin if other medications fail to control blood glucose levels adequately.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3243 people found this helpful

Trying To Have A Baby - Get These Basic Tests Done!

MBBS, DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), FNB
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Trying To Have A Baby - Get These Basic Tests Done!

One of the best news what a couple can have is to expect the arrival of a baby. With changing lifestyles, most people have chosen to have a baby much later in life, with education and career taking priority. However, when the couple is ready and it does not happen, there can be a lot of anxiety and stress.

It is normal for couples to take about 4 to 6 months to conceive, and there are various factors which can affect this. It is important to consider that the issue could be with either partner and so both need to be involved in testing to find out the underlying reasons.

When you have decided to check with a doctor, the following will be considered.

  1. The health conditions of both parents including lifestyle (tobacco, alcohol, diet patterns, weight, etc.)
  2. Medical history including medications
  3. Any history of infertility that runs in the family
  4. Sexual history including sexual health, STDs, painful sex
  5. Gynecologic history of female including any menstrual disorders or pelvic diseases like endometriosis
  6. Any issues with the male partner including erection or ejaculation
  7. Reproductive history including prior children, prior pregnancies, miscarriages

Some of the most common tests that would be done are listed below, separately for women and men.
Women: A physical exam will also include checking the pelvic area for any obvious signs of fibroids, cysts, PID, or endometriosis. This is followed by one or more of the following tests as required for the diagnosis of the underlying cause.

  1. A cervical smear test to test the vaginal and cervical environment
  2. Blood test to test for rubella infection, varicella or chickenpox
  3. Blood test to check for ovulation. This is done 7 days before the period and evaluates both whether ovulation is happening and other correlated factors like temperature, cervical mucus, quality of the egg
  4. Blood test to check for hormonal levels including FSH, prolactin, thyroid hormone, testosterone, and progesterone. Each of these plays a vital role in the entire pregnancy cycle, and so should be evaluated
  5. Urine test for chlamydia, which can cause infertility
  6. Scanning to check for the internal structures like fallopian tubes, uterine lining, and cervix.

Men:

  1. The first step is to understand if there is a sexual problem including erection and/or ejaculation
  2. A physical exam is done to look for swellings in the scrotum
  3. Blood test to check for hormonal levels, especially testosterone.
  4. Sperm analysis including quantity, quality, and motility of sperms. This is one of the easiest tests to do and should be done even before more elaborate tests are done in the female.

Involving both the partners is very important to solve this problem. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

3888 people found this helpful

Torsion Of Testes - Causes And Symptoms

Dr. Sumit Sharma 90% (451 ratings)
MCH-Urology, M.S. (General Surgery) , MBBS
Urologist, Gurgaon
Torsion Of Testes - Causes And Symptoms

The testes are an important part of the human reproductive system and are susceptible to injuries as well as internal problems. One such problem which is known to afflict younger men mostly from the age of 12 to 16 is testicular torsion. It can affect older men, but is commonly seen in the aforementioned age group. It is a painful condition that will require medical attention and if left untreated might even result in removal of the organ in rare cases.

What is testicular torsion?
There are many intricate functions performed by multiple blood vessels within the scrotum that supply the testes with blood. However, one of the testicles might rotate and thus end up twisting the spermatic cord. This cord brings blood to the testicles and if twisted, will reduce the flow of blood significantly. Thus the scrotum may swell up and also become quite painful.

Symptoms of testicular torsion
1. Significant swelling of the scrotum
2. Mild to extreme pain in the scrotum.
3. Abdominal pain, especially in the lower abdomen
4. Unusually positioned testicle such as one significantly higher, behind, or in front of the other one.
5. Fever
6. Feeling nauseated and may be accompanied by vomiting
7. Pain during urination
8. Inability to sleep or waking up in the middle of the night due to the constant pain

What causes testicular torsion?
In certain cases, testicular torsion may occur and then go away on its own when the testicle rotates, resulting in the untwisting of the spermatic cord (which is also known as de-torsion). However, it is still advisable to visit a doctor and ascertain what caused it so that the risk factor could be eliminated as torsion and de-torsion could keep happening frequently. Some of the common causes for testicular torsion are mentioned below.

  1. Hereditary factors: If someone in your family has suffered from this condition, you could be susceptible to it.
  2. Injuries: If you receive minor trauma such as the one during playing any kind of contact sports, outdoor activities or even while doing house work, it can be a reason of this condition as well.
  3. Activities that put stress on the scrotum: Heavy exercising or running in an unbalanced or improper manner can cause torsion as well.
  4. Improper sleeping positions: This can also cause torsion and is a common cause behind frequent torsion and de-torsion.
  5. Other factors: These factors can include excessively cold temperatures wherein the scrotum contracts rapidly and prolonged contraction can cause torsion. Even the rapid growth of the scrotum during the adolescent years after puberty may cause this. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
1812 people found this helpful

My right side testis are paining ?so what should I do n how we can improve our penis size n testis?

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Sexologist, Faridabad
My right side testis are paining ?so what should I do n how we can improve our penis size n testis?
1.do yoga exercises regularly which increase your blood in body particular to those organs involved in sex.in addition 2-eat healthy nutritious diet like fresh green salad with meal 1 tomato 1 onion 1 cucumber daily use 3.avoid fried food like chicken fish egg spicy food 4-drink warm milk before sleep consisting with walnuts or dry dates 5-may take ayurvedic remedies for fast effective result 6-stop masturbation don't watch porn video 8-do abdominal crunches, leg raises, push ups 20 nos each and yoga. 9-do kegel exercises daily.
1 person found this helpful

STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

Dr. Nishita 92% (153 ratings)
DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

In most diseases, early detection of the disease is the key to control the symptoms, cure, reduce progression and improve prognosis. This holds true for sexually transmitted diseases too. As soon as there is a mild degree of suspicious of having contracted a sexually transmitted disease, it is advisable to go for a test. Most of the STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) can develop into serious complications over a period of time, ranging from infertility to even death.

Complications: Why early diagnosis is important: When left undiagnosed and untreated, most STDs progress to cause severe damage from sterility to cancer to even death. Listed below are some complications associated with each of the common STDs.

  1. Chlamydia: If left untreated, can lead to epididymitis and testicles shrinking and infertility in males. This is a condition where there is pus formation in the scrotum. In women, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease which is deep-seated and unable to cure completely. This brings with it symptoms ranging from abdominal pain to uterine infections to sterility.
  2. Syphillis: Undiagnosed syphilis can lead to blindness and deafness. It can also be passed onto the newborn and lead to severe disabilities.
  3. Gonorrhea: If diagnosed early, it can be cured completely with antibiotics. However, if left untreated, it can lead to infertility.
  4. HIV/AIDS: Early diagnosis can help in curtailing the disease. If detected late, then the damage is quite extensive and treatment is both expensive and cannot help restore a lot of functions. 

Symptoms of Sexually transmitted diseases: If there is a doubt of having contracted an STD, then it is very important to get tested for the same. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below.

  1. Women: The most common symptoms in women including painful urination, burning sensation, abnormal vaginal discharge (sometimes bleeding), warts, and abdominal pain.
  2. Men: Testicular pain, urethral pain, painful urination, pain and inflammation in the prostate, sores, fever, and abdominal pain.

Prevention: Always practice safe sexual practices. When in doubt, refrain from sex until diagnosis and treatment is complete.

Testing for STDs: Some of the standard tests include:

  1. 1. Herpes- HSV I & II - 
    2. Testing HIV-- Kits and ELISA available for testing 
    3. Blood test for syphilis antibodies 
    4. Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea - from urine as well as swabs for culture

It is understandable that getting tested for STDs is an embarrassing situation. However, there are options available where anonymity can be maintained when getting tested for STDs. This is a wise choice to make as the risk is not just for the person affected but for the partner and in some cases even for the fetus. Early testing can help prevent complications like infertility and cancer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

2722 people found this helpful