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Overview

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae IgG Antibody

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae IgG Antibody

also known as: Atypical Pneumonia , PPLO Antibodies

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a unique bacterium that does not always receive the attention it merits considering the number of illnesses it causes and the degree of morbidity associated with it in both children and adults. Two types of antibodies produced in response to an M. pneumoniae infection may be measured in the blood, IgM and IgG. The Mycoplasma testing is also known as Mycoplasma by PCR, Mycoplasma culture and Ureaplasma culture. The formal name of the test includes Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG and IgM Antibodies, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Culture and Mycoplasma DNA Testing. In order to diagnose pneumoniae combination of IgG and IgM test is ordered so that the change in the amount of IgG can be evaluated and because some people, especially infants and those with compromised immune systems, may not produce expected amounts of IgG or IgM.

A mycoplasma culture is the traditional method of detection, but it can be challenging and is not always successful. The testing does not require any special preparation. The doctor should obtain sufficient information from the patient pertaining to their health and the medicines that are being taken by them. He should also direct the patient regarding the tests he/She will have to undergo and prepare them to face the different kind of tests required to obtain the results.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae detection involves finding the microorganism in the respiratory secretions, blood, fluid, or tissue sample,This can be done either by culturing the mycoplasma in a supportive environment or by detecting its genetic material (DNA). Occasionally, testing may be used to determine if Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, or Ureaplasma urealyticum is the cause of an infection of the genital or urinary tract. This test may also be used to help diagnose a systemic infection that is thought to be due to mycoplasma.

IgM and IgG testing are performed when a health practitioner suspects that a person has an active M. pneumoniae infection. Another IgG test may be performed 2-4 weeks later to document a rise in antibody levels in response to an infection. A mycoplasma culture is the traditional method of detection, but it can be challenging and is not always successful. The test involves inoculating a nutrient media with the patient's sample and incubating the culture in a specialized growth media. There are specific nutritional needs that must be met to promote the growth of the microorganisms and they can be slow to grow.

Specimen
Serum
Volume
1 mL
Container
Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube.
Type Gender Age-Group Value
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Antibodies Igg Elisa Blood
Unisex
All age groups
The antibodies are not normally present
Average price range of the test is between Rs.1800 to Rs.3030 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.
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Popular Questions & Answers

Dear doctor I have a one problem about sex, meri gf virgin he and humne sex karneka faisla kiya, hum koi risk nahi Lena chahte iss liye humne condom use kiya. But jesehi me sex karneki koshish karu to condom break ho jata he. Aur meri gf ko takleef bhi hoti he. So what can I do?

MBBS, D.P.H
General Physician, Gurgaon
MR SAURABH YOU ARE DOING UNPROTECTED SEX WITH A UNMARRIED GIRL IF SHE GOT PREGNANT DUE TO YOUR THIS ACT THEN YOU MAY BE IN LEGAL TROUBLE SO AVOID IT IF YOU HAVE PERFORMED WITH TEAR CONDOM THEN CHANCES OF CONCEPTION ARE THERE IF ANY OF YOU ARE HIV +VE THEN YOU MAY GIVE INFECTION TO EACH OTHER SIMULTANEOUSLY YOU MAY BE EXPOSED TO SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE WITH UNPROTECTED SEX OR WITH TEARED CONDOM , IF IT WILL HAPPEN THE LIFE OF BOTH PERSON WILL BE RUINED BECAUSE IN HIV INFECTION THE SYMPTOMS USUALLY APPEARS AFTER 10 YEARS, AND ANTIBODY APPEARS IN THE BLOOD AFTER 3 MONTH NOW THE DECISION IS YOUR'S

If unprotected sex with in how days HIV test should be done and with in how many days HIV antibodies produced. please tell me for that

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
If unprotected sex with in how days HIV test should be done and with in how many days HIV antibodies produced. please...
HIV proviral can be positive after 15 days HIV antibody can start produce after 2 to 3 weeks but some case it can take upto 6 months
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Botox Injections - What You Can Expect?

MD-Hom., BHMS, Dip. in Cosmetology & Trichology
Cosmetic Physician, Mumbai
Botox Injections - What You Can Expect?

Are you planning on undertaking a botox treatment? Botox is a drug which is made from a neurotoxin. This is produced by the bacteria called Clostridium botulinum. Botox is used for medical purposes, commonly for treating muscular conditions. It is also used for cosmetic procedures, which help in removing wrinkles. This process is carried out by paralyzing the facial muscles temporarily. Botulinum toxin is also sold commercially under certain names.

Medical and Cosmetic Uses-

Botox is most commonly used as a treatment procedure for reducing the appearance of facial lines and wrinkles in middle-aged adults. It is also used for medical purposes, for the treatment of conditions such as eye squints, excessive sweating, leaky bladders and migraines. Botox is used for treating more than 20 medical conditions.

How Does Botox Work?

Botox or botulinum toxin is a very poisonous substance, and a single gram of it is capable of killing more than one million people. It is considered to be an effective therapeutic protein when used in ideal dosage, and frequency. It is used in several medical procedures and treatment therapies.

How is Botox Procedure Undertaken?

Botulinum toxin is administered by diluting the power in saline. It is injected directly into your neuro-muscular tissue. A duration of 24 to 72 hours is required for it to take effect. This time reflects the time required for disruption of the normal synaptosomal process of the body. It may take over five days for experiencing the full effects of botox. Botox must not be used in women who are pregnant or lactating, or by people having a previous allergic reaction to it.

Risk and Side-Effects:

Injections which contain botox are usually well tolerated. They have several side effects as well.

  1. In some cases, a person may have a genetic predisposition which causes a mild, transient and unusual response to Botox. Some people who are receiving botox type A injections may develop antibodies to the toxins, which may make the treatment ineffective. In people who are using botox type B for cervical dystonia, antibody development may occur.

  2. Along with the effects intended, botulinum toxin may lead to several other undesirable effects. They may include conditions such as transient numbness, headaches, malaise, mild cases of nausea, mild pain, local edema and erythema on the site of injection.

  3. Temporary tiredness, fatigue or the paralysis of nearby musculature may also be experienced because of the reaction of the toxin.

  4. Drooping or temporary upper lid and brow ptosis are also indicated.

Among the two types of botox treatments, the results from abobotulinum toxin A is considered to be more effective than onabotulinum toxin A treatment. Better results are experienced when the muscles are contracted instead of being at rest. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Cosmetic Physician.

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What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

MD - General Medicine
Sexologist, Delhi
What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

It can be disheartening to find out that you're infertile, especially when you thought that everything was normal. There are many reasons why a man is not able to contribute to the conception process and, consequently, there are options that can assist with male infertility.

Here are the treatment options available for male infertility.

1. Vasectomy Reversal
In recent years many men are opting to have children after a vasectomy. Luckily, a vasectomy is not necessarily a permanent issue anymore. It can be reversed. It takes a simple surgical procedure that restores the flow of sperm. There are certain factors that affect the success rates of vasectomy reversals such as your age, the presence of antisperm antibodies, time elapsed since the vasectomy and the age of the woman. Although this procedure is an option it is generally not encourage.

2. Sperm Aspiration
This is a group of procedures which is used to get viable sperm from the man. The sperm is used with Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). This option is suitable for men who have severe types of male infertility. For example, if there is no sperm in their ejaculate, where sperm is dead or there is no motility. With this group of procedures there are four techniques that can be used to obtain the sperm. It is important to keep in mind that each technique is not suitable for everyone. These techniques are mentioned in the next four points.

3. Testicular Sperm Extraction
In this technique the fertility doctor removes a small piece of testicular tissue through a half inch skin incision. Sperm is liberated from the seminiferous tubules (where they are produced). This procedure can be performed in the doctor's surgery or the operating room and a mild sedation is recommended for comfort. The sperm harvested with this technique can be stored for later use.

4. Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration
If you have a reproductive tract blockage then this technique is an option. During this technique an operating microscope is used to examine the tubules that contain sperm. The fluid containing the sperm is collected and the quality is examined. Thereafter it is taken to the IVF laboratory for use.

5.Testicular Sperm Aspiration
This technique uses a needle biopsy of the testicle. The procedure is performed under local anaesthesia in a doctor's surgery. The sperm is extracted through the testicle but the amount obtained can be low because the needle cuts a thin layer of the tissue. This procedure is usually quite successful and less invasive than other methods.

STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

DNB (Obstetrics and Gynecology), MBBS
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
STD Testing - Why You Should Never Delay?

In most diseases, early detection of the disease is the key to control the symptoms, cure, reduce progression and improve prognosis. This holds true for sexually transmitted diseases too. As soon as there is a mild degree of suspicious of having contracted a sexually transmitted disease, it is advisable to go for a test. Most of the STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) can develop into serious complications over a period of time, ranging from infertility to even death.

Complications: Why early diagnosis is important: When left undiagnosed and untreated, most STDs progress to cause severe damage from sterility to cancer to even death. Listed below are some complications associated with each of the common STDs.

  1. Chlamydia: If left untreated, can lead to epididymitis and testicles shrinking and infertility in males. This is a condition where there is pus formation in the scrotum. In women, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease which is deep-seated and unable to cure completely. This brings with it symptoms ranging from abdominal pain to uterine infections to sterility.
  2. Syphillis: Undiagnosed syphilis can lead to blindness and deafness. It can also be passed onto the newborn and lead to severe disabilities.
  3. Gonorrhea: If diagnosed early, it can be cured completely with antibiotics. However, if left untreated, it can lead to infertility.
  4. HIV/AIDS: Early diagnosis can help in curtailing the disease. If detected late, then the damage is quite extensive and treatment is both expensive and cannot help restore a lot of functions. 

Symptoms of Sexually transmitted diseases: If there is a doubt of having contracted an STD, then it is very important to get tested for the same. Some of the most common symptoms are listed below.

  1. Women: The most common symptoms in women including painful urination, burning sensation, abnormal vaginal discharge (sometimes bleeding), warts, and abdominal pain.
  2. Men: Testicular pain, urethral pain, painful urination, pain and inflammation in the prostate, sores, fever, and abdominal pain.

Prevention: Always practice safe sexual practices. When in doubt, refrain from sex until diagnosis and treatment is complete.

Testing for STDs: Some of the standard tests include:

  1. 1. Herpes- HSV I & II - 
    2. Testing HIV-- Kits and ELISA available for testing 
    3. Blood test for syphilis antibodies 
    4. Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea - from urine as well as swabs for culture

It is understandable that getting tested for STDs is an embarrassing situation. However, there are options available where anonymity can be maintained when getting tested for STDs. This is a wise choice to make as the risk is not just for the person affected but for the partner and in some cases even for the fetus. Early testing can help prevent complications like infertility and cancer. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

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4 Causes Of Pneumonia!

DTCD (TDD), C-HIV
Pulmonologist, Pune
4 Causes Of Pneumonia!

Pneumonia is a type of lung infection that may affect one or both lungs. In this condition the air sacs, also known as alveoli, fill with pus or fluid, which makes it difficult to breathe. Moreover, pneumonia is known to cause inflammation in the air sacs. This disease may range from mild to life threatening and the severity depends on cause of inflammation, the organism fostering your infection, your age and general health. 

Symptoms:
Most common symptoms associated with the condition are:

  1. Chest pain
  2. Difficulty in breathing
  3. Shaking chills
  4. Rapid heartbeat
  5. Fever
  6. Rapid breathing
  7. Dry cough
  8. Vomiting
  9. Wheezing
  10. Nausea 
  11. Muscle aches
  12. Bluish skin tone due to oxygen deficiency 
  13. Blood in sputum that is coughed up mucus
  14. Labored breathing
  15. Confusion 
  16. High fever

Causes

  1. Bacteria: One of the most common causes of pneumonia is the bacteria named as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia may occur after you have had flu or a cold or maybe even on its own. Moreover, it may affect only one part of the lung i.e. the lobe and is also known as lobar pneumonia. 
  2. Viruses: Viruses are one of the main reasons why children below 5 years of age suffer from pneumonia. Viruses that cause pneumonia may also cause cold or flu. Viral pneumonia is usually mild and may be treated at home itself. However, in some cases, it may be very severe and life-threatening. 
  3. Mycoplasmas: Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria that doesn't have a cell wall around the cell membrane which is why they are usually unaffected by most antibiotics which target cell wall synthesis. The symptoms of pneumonia caused by mycoplasmas are mild and the patient does not require bed rest. This type of pneumonia is known as 'Walking Pneumonia'. 
  4. Fungi: People with weakened immune systems or chronic health problems usually develop pneumonia due to fungi. You may also develop fungal pneumonia by inhaling large doses of it mainly found in soil or bird droppings. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
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8 Signs You Are Suffering From Celiac Disease!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery , DNB - Surgical Gastroenterology
Surgical Gastroenterologist, Delhi
8 Signs You Are Suffering From Celiac Disease!

Also called gluten-sensitive enteropathy and celiac sprue, celiac disease is an autoimmune digestive disorder, wherein the consumption of gluten-based foods leads to damage of the tissues that line the small intestine. This hinders the ability of your body to absorb the essential nutrients from the foods you eat.

Causes
Under normal conditions, the immune system of the body offers protection against external intruders. When individuals diagnosed with celiac disease consume gluten-based foods, gluten resistant antibodies are formed by the immune system. This causes them to attack the linings around the intestines, thus causing irritation in the digestive tract and harming the villi (hair-like structures on the covering of the small intestine which absorb nutrients from the food). This impairs the nutrient absorbing capacity of the individual, thus increasing chances of malnourishment.

Symptoms
Celiac disease has symptoms that vary from patient to patient. Some of the common symptoms include:

  1. A severe skin rash called dermatitis herpetiformis.
  2. Digestive problems such as:
  3. Musculoskeletal problems such as bone and joint pain as well as muscle cramps
  4. Seizures
  5. Aphthous ulcers which are basically sores occurring in the mouth
  6. Tingling sensation in the legs which are caused by low calcium and nerve damage
  7. Growth issues in children since they cannot absorb the required amount of nutrients
  8. Irregular menstrual cycles

Other complications associated with celiac disease

  1. Miscarriage or Infertility
  2. Osteoporosis. This is a disease which weakens the bones and causes fractures. It is caused because of a deficiency of Vitamin D and calcium.
  3. Intestinal Cancer
  4. Other birth defects: Such as irregular spinal shape because of the deficiency of certain nutrients, especially folic acid. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gastroenterologist.
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