The thyroid gland, in the lower front of the neck, releases hormones in the bloodstream that affect almost every part of your body, from your brain and heart to your skin and muscles. It also controls metabolism which is the process of changing the food you eat into energy. When the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, it is called hypothyroidism.read more
According to most experts, depression and diabetes have been intricately connected in a vicious cycle. While the prolonged and sustaining nature of diabetes directly makes one vulnerable to the bouts of depression, doctors tend to locate traces of depression in the family history of an individual at least diagnose the roots of diabetes.read more
I am Dr I.P.S Kochar, pediatrics, endocrinologist and diabetologist. Today I will be talkingt to you about Child Obesity which is becoming prevealant and epidermic in India and other countries also. So, it is increasing day by day. More than 65 million of the people are facing Child Obesity under the age of 5 years.
So, if you have any child or infant who is obese. The child will have to suffer from many problems in future.
What do you mean by Obesity?
Obesity means there is an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in the body. So, over weight and Obesity, both are same. Obesity can cause number of problems. There are many types of complications, those are;
- In future, a child can have heart disease. THese are all metabolic problems.
- There are more chances of getting obesity in adulthood.
- Child get more prone to HYpertension.
- Girls get more prone to Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
- Reproductive problems
These are some of the metabolics which can occur. Besides this, the children can have non-metabolic problems like joint pains at early stage, difficulty in walking, sleep apnea problems and there can be other psychological problems. Children may have low confidence level, low self esteem. So these are the problems which are commonly found in such patients.
What should be done to get rid of this Child Obesity?
One of the major factor is lifestyle. People are becoming technically dependent. People are using AC Cars, Children are going to AC schools and buses. The play time in the schools has decreased greatly. This is all aggrevated to cause Obesity.
The food intake has also become different. Children are consuming more of junk food. high fatty food, high salty food which is one of a major cause of Obesity.
Not only people from urban area are becoming obese but also the people from rural area. This problem is required to be solved.
The main thing is that we have to change our lifestyle. People have to change their food habits, they have to indulge in the routine exercise. So, there is a simple formula called 5-3-2-1, where,
- 5 means taking 5 portions of veggies or fruits everyday.
- 4 means taking 4 glasses of water per day.
- 3 means 3 times mil in a day.
If you don't remember this, atleast remember 5-2-1, where,
- 2 means that do not use gadgets for more than 2 hours in a day.
- 1 hour of physical activity in a day.
So, this formula is very helpful if children follow it. So, try to take low carbohydrates, low fat, more protein in the diet. One should try to change their lifestyle because the obesity is causing all these major problems.
Now, we are getting more children of 5 years, 8 years , 10 yeras with non-communicable disease like Obesity, hypertension, diabtes. Diabtes type-2 has also started coming in the children and the adolescence population only because of the lifestyle.
Now you see many girls whop are obese at the age of 12 -18 years. THey suffering problems like impaired glucose tolerance, they are getting black areas in the neck and also they are getting reproductive problems, hair on the face, so all these problems are increasing the complications.
I would recommend to only change the lifestyle, make changes in the food habits and try to indulge in the routine exercises.
If you want to contact me, you can do so via Lybrate or you can visit my clinic which is in Noida. But pelase do follow the above mentioned tips.read more
So, Vit-D is essential to maintain calcium. It basically maintains the bone metabolism of the body and it is done basically through absorption of calcium from the intestine and also from renal tubular absorption of calcium. When VIt-D becomes deficient, the hormone PTH is released which tries to maintain calcium and phosphorus in the body. The deficiency of Vit-D in different groups are different. You can have it in the new born periods, in the childhood period or in the adolescence.
So, in the new born period, children may have some features like staying more tired, the problems related to bones such as bow legs i.e, curving of legs. Then there may be some other problem which is called genu valgum in which they have knock knees. These are some conditions which you can find. These are called as Rickets. And this ricket is responsible for Vit-D deficiency.
In the country like India which has a plenty of sunlight, why we are still facing Vit-D deficiency?
- One of the reason is that lifestyle ahs changed. We are involved in more of a technical lifestyle. The best time to absorb Vit-D is 9-11 am in which one can absorb maximum amount of Vit-D. But at this time most of us are in teh office, the children are in the schools and the housewives are inside the house. So you are hardly able to absorb Vit-D.
- Secondly. there is lot of pollution which does not allow us to absorb Vit-D
- Covering of the body is another major factor.
- There is a smog which blocks the vit-D
The sources of vit-D are very few. Most of the vit-D is in non veg. But maximum of the Indians are vegetarian. The best sources of Vit-D are fish, eggs. The one important thing all vegetarian must know that they can take mushroom. This will help in maintaining the Vit-D level. So, there are least sources of VIt-D.
There are two types of Vit-D, Vit-D2 and Vit-D3.
Vit-D2 is Ergocalciferol and Vit-D3 is Cholecalciferol. So we can get maximum of the Vit-D from the sunlight which we are not getting. In order to cover up Vit-D deficiency, we need to consume Vit-D. Otherwise children may suffer from Bow legs or genu valgum. In the adolescence, people may suffer from osteomalacia in which there is pain in the legs and bones. So, all these conditions are aggravated.
How to overcome with the deficiency of Vit-D?
Regularly take Vit-D. You can either take it weekly form or in the daily form. Consulting a doctor will be helpful. Also, Vit-D prevents the chances of cancer, hypertension, Diabetes, repeated infection in the children. Everybody should take Vit-D either weekly or daily form.
Thank you very much.read more
Hi, I am Dr IPS Kochar, a pediatric endocrinologist. I’m going to talk about puberty, precautions puberty or early puberty.
Puberty is a time when the child is growing in height and weight along with some feature which comes when a child matures. Now there are conditions when a child starts getting early features. If a girl starts getting breast before the age of 8 or if a boy whose testicle volume increases more than 4 ml before 9 years of age, these children are getting into early puberty. A girl if she starts getting pubic and underarm hair before the age of 8 body odour or there are lots of behavioural changes or she suddenly shot up in height. This child may be having early puberty. So these are the symptoms concerned in a girl.
In boys the testicle volume increases more than 4 ml, increase in height velocity, 6 to 8 to 10 cms in 1 year, hair on the lips and the arm, an underarm or pubic area in less than 9 years of age, behavioural changes, mood swings, the appearance of acne. The child may be going through early puberty or precautious puberty. These things they must keep in mind because there will be a change in growth pattern. Initially, the child will grow more but later the growth will be stunted. The child will not grow up to his final height. If these points are there one should be very careful. if there is early puberty you can always go to the doctor, examine the child. So, if a girl is having breasts before the age of 8 one should definitely find out what is happening with the child and same in a boy if there is an increase in testicle volume or breaking of voice or hair anywhere in his body you should always consult a doctor. There are certain specific tests which are done where lS and FSH when they can only make a diagnosis.
In a girl, you can go for ultrasound and in a boy, you can go for MRI as to know why it is happening. These are certain things that you should keep in mind especially if the boy is having breaking of voice pubic hair armpit hair, appearance of acne one should definitely go and find out what is happening. So in a girl if there is budding of breast, pubic hair and mood swings you should definitely find out what’s happening. Girls are getting early menarche at 9 and a half years and the growth is less.
So if your child has any of these symptoms you should see a pediatric endroconologist. I’m available at lybrate.com or you can come to my clinic.
Diabetes in children is becoming a big problem in children nowadays. More and more patients are coming up type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Parents are not ready to accept that my child is having diabetes. It’s increasing problems in lifestyle. Obesity is one factor in type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes if the child is losing weight there is excessive urination, bed wetting, excessive thirst, infection or vaginal infection, One must start thinking that the child is having diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, the treatment is only insulin. One should start insulin and there is not any requirement to visit many doctors. In case 1 diabetes you have to take insulin lifelong. The symptoms start becoming better once the child is put on insulin. The urination the excessive thirst all becomes better. Fourth it is not in the family that if the father and the mother does not have diabetes why the child got diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is not genetic, it is type 2 diabetes. There are lots of new devices that have come up lot of new insulin has come up. New insulin pump has come up for children to control diabetes and have a new lifestyle and better flexibility. Diet is a very important thing that plays a myth. Children with diabetes can have a normal diet, they can have sugary things and sweets, but within limits and when they are taking insulin.
Taking a good balanced diet is equally important in children, they are growing they are in puberty and they are more prone to hyperglycemia. They are more prone to have ketoacidosis so that is why one has to be more careful while diabetic. Many of the kids are becoming more over weight and becoming more diabetic. The weight is starting increasing and they are earlier signs that the child is getting into diabetes. Because of the weight epidemic the type 2 diabetes is increasing.
- Controlling of the diet is very important in controlling diabetes.
- The intake of food should be decreased, more careful about the lifestyle, physical exercise, regular diet control, fixing the amount of calorie intake, less sweetened fruits and foods and beverages.
- If you have very sweet fruits also you will have the problem.
- Avoiding all drinks and juices should be made a point especially the intake of milk products should also be decreased.
So in type 2 diabetes, lots of good physical exercise good diet control and may be in some children using some tablet called metformin helps in children to control diabetes.
In type 1 diabetes, insulin is required and must. In some children when they pass urine the ants start collecting it is type 1 diabetes. If the child is losing weight in spite of eating properly there are chances of type 2 diabetes. If the child is feeling tired there are chances of type 1 diabetes. If the child is passing excessive urine and wetting bed, eating food and still losing weight then there is a chance of type 1 diabetes. These symptoms one must keep in mind and always be careful if you find. If the family doesn’t have the child can have diabetes because it is normally an auto known process. If your child has type 1 diabetes you should visit a pediatric endocrinologist.
If you have any queries you can contact me on lybrate.
Common signs of thyroid in children
Hello, friends, I am doctor IPS Kochar, pediatric and adolescent diabetologist. Today I will talk about thyroid.
Parents are concerned about their children getting thyroid. There are a lot of children who are getting thyroid these days, not only that parents also have a thyroid. The parents are concerned whether the child will get thyroid or not. The function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroxin. Day to day metabolism is dependant on thyroxine. Deficiency of thyroxine produces hyperthyroidism. If there is a deficiency of thyroxine there are certain symptoms. Lets us first start with a baby a newborn. There is a universal function of thyroxine done. The baby may be sleeping all the time, not taking the feed properly or in later childhood, the child may be gaining weight, the child may be lethargic, the child may have stunted growth. These are the things in a child when there is thyroid involved. Along with that, the child’s growth will be affected. a
If there are very high levels of TSH there is hyperthyroidism. If there is lot of problems the child will not work properly,
- The child will be chubby.
- Short height and these things will be there.
- Adolescent girls might get menstrual problems.
- you may have less and late period.
- A gain of weight
- Infertility problems.
- Dryness of the skin.
- Loss of hair.
These are symptoms if they are present in the children must be seen by a pediatric endocrinologist. There will be conditions where there will be an excess production of TSH. There TSH is less and thyroxine is more produced in the body. So there is hyperthyroidism, the function of the thyroid is more. The gland is functioning more. Commonly seen in girls overproduction of thyroxine leading to urticaria, preparation increasing, anxiety, weight loss and food stops affecting the body. If a child gets hyperthyroidism he has to take medication lifelong. So there is a myth that this medicine that you are taking it causes problems. It has no side-effect. It is not a disease but deficiency. There is no side effect in the medicine you are taking. If the child is feeling lethargic, and stunted growth is there you should consider hyperthyroidism and go to a pediatric endroconologist.
You can connect with me via lybrate.
Tips for growth of your child-
Hello friends, I am doctor IPS Kochar, pediatric and adolescent diabetologist. Today, I will be giving you some health tips first of all on growth. Growth is a very important parameter for children who are growing. A lot of parents are concerned if my child is growing well or not. When a newborn is born his height is around 50 cm and around two years his length is around 75cm at the age of approximately 1 year. When a child is 50 cm he grows by 25 cm first year and grows around 12.5 cm in the next year and another 6 cm every year. So he is about 100 cm at 4 years of age. If a child is growing less than 5 cm a year that is a little concern and the parents should worry about. If child is not gaining height properly in the sense the child is not having a change in dress in the last 1 year or if the shoe size is not increasing in the last 2 years, he is shortest in the class, he is being checked by the doctor and it is found that the growth is less. So these are the ways to pick up children who are not growing. There might be the complaint from his peer group that he is not being able to play with the rest of his friends. These are things one should be little concerned of if growth is not occurring properly.
Growth is also dependant on many factors. It depends on nutrition, sleeping pattern, parent’s height and other factors like hormones. If a child is not growing properly he should be consulted a pediatric endocrinologist, why he is not growing properly. The role of the parents in this is to make sure that the child is getting good nutrition, good sleep, good physical exercise will help a lot. When you are finding out that the child is not growing properly then you should measure and see if the child is growing less than 5 cm a year, that is a big concern. This is one parameter where the child is not growing.
There may be other reasons to it, may the parents are short, the child is short. It may be possible because of constitutional delay, that is when you have parents also who had their late bloomers, periods in the girl's matter came late in the mother or the beard and the moustache might have come late in the father. this is then called as a constitutional delay but the other factor is that the child having a systemic disease like a lung disease, git disease, growth hormone deficiency. So it is very important from the point of view of growth, one should monitor the child’s growth and the parents should be concerned whether my child is growing properly or not because people have only 1 to 2 children nowadays and they all want their children to grow tall and good. Height makes a lot of differences.
If your child is not growing properly you should consult an pediatric endocrinologist.
You can contact me via lybrate.
Doctor in Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals
Treatment of Child and Adolescent Problems
Thyroid Problems Treatment
Thyroid Disorder Treatment
Paediatric Critical Care
Treatment of Childhood Infections
Child Nutrition Management
Growth And Development Including General Paediatri
Management of New Born Care
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Congenital Ear Problem Treatment
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Treatment of Thyroid Disease in Children
Cleft Lip Treatment
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Sometimes, the groin and scrotum swell due to the buildup of water like fluid in one or both the testicles. This is known as hydrocele. This condition is not at all painful, but can be uncomfortable at times. In newborn babies, there is an opening between the abdomen and the scrotum; it naturally closes with the passage of time, therefore it’s generally nothing to worry about.
Symptoms of hydrocele:
Scrotum can get enlarged at times
Swelling and redness are common in hydrocele
Also, pressure can be felt at the base of your child’s penis
Pain doesn’t normally occur but in some cases, might occur as your child gets older
How does in occur in babies?
When you are in the last stage of your pregnancy, the baby’s testicles descend from its abdomen to the scrotum. So the fluid in the sac stays within the scrotum and the opening closes naturally after some time.
Can it be treated?
This condition is not usually hazardous to health and is treated usually, if there is immense pain. It can also cut out the blood supply; in this case, it has to be treated as soon as possible. If your child experiences such symptoms, you should take him to a doctor for a physical examination. During this examination, the doctor will shine light near the scrotum.
If it appears as a solid mass, then the assumption is that there is no watery fluid; hence, hydrocele has not occurred. There is a procedure in which the hydrocele is burst open with a small needle, but sometimes, it might relapse. In such a case, surgery is the only reliable option. These symptoms can also persist if your child is diagnosed with hernia. Hence, in such a situation, a surgery would solve both the conditions.
Iron is an essential nutrient and mineral that is required by adults and children alike. Iron helps move oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and helps muscles store and use oxygen. It is especially important for children because it aids development and prevents anaemia. Untreated iron deficiency in children can cause physical and mental delays. It can lead to less healthy red blood cells in the child's blood stream which will cause a delay in the growth of physical and mental faculties.
Risk factors for iron deficiency in children
Infants and children at highest risk of iron deficiency include:
- Babies who are born prematurely or have a low birth weight
- Babies who drink cow's milk before age 1
- Breast-fed babies who aren't given complementary foods containing iron after age 6 months
- Babies who drink formula that isn't fortified with iron
- Children ages 1 to 5 who drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of cow's milk, goat's milk or soy milk a day
- Children who have certain health conditions, such as chronic infections or restricted diets
- Children ages 1 to 5 who have been exposed to lead
- Adolescent girls also are at higher risk of iron deficiency because their bodies lose iron during menstruation.
Symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia
The signs and symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia in children may include:
- Pale skin
- Fatigue or weakness
- Slow cognitive and social development
- Inflammation of the tongue
- Difficulty maintaining body temperature
- Increased likelihood of infections
- Unusual cravings for non-nutritive substances, such as ice, dirt or pure starch
Prevent iron deficiency in children
Take steps to prevent iron deficiency in your child by paying attention to his or her diet. For example:
- Breast-feed or use iron-fortified formula. Breast-feeding until your child is age 1 is recommended. If you don't breast-feed, use iron-fortified infant formula.
- Encourage a balanced diet. When you begin serving your baby solids, typically between ages 4 months and 6 months, feed him or her foods with added iron, such as iron-fortified baby cereal. For older children, good sources of iron include red meat, chicken, fish, beans and dark green leafy vegetables. Between ages 1 and 5, don't allow your child to drink more than 24 ounces (710 milliliters) of milk a day.
- Enhance absorption. Vitamin C helps promote the absorption of dietary iron. You can help your child absorb iron by offering foods rich in vitamin C, such as melon, strawberries, kiwi, broccoli, tomatoes and potatoes.
- Consider iron supplements. If your baby was born prematurely or with a low birth weight or you're breast-feeding a baby older than 4 months and he or she isn't eating two or more servings a day of iron-rich foods, talk to your child's doctor about oral iron supplements.
Make sure that you watch out for the tell tale signs of iron deficiency and take the necessary precautions to avoid the same.
An infant is usually called a bundle of joy and with good reason. There are simple and carefree, and bring a smile to your face with their antics. However, the mood and health of an infant can be tarnished due to an issue which is known as galactosemia.
What is Galactosemia?
When a baby has galactosemia, he or she will have a problem when it comes to digesting galactose, which is something that is present not only in milk but in all milk products. Galactose is a sort of sugar, just like fructose and glucose is. As a matter of fact, lactose, which is what milk has, is, in fact, a combination of glucose and galactose. Also, when lactose is processed, it is broken down by the human body into its constituents.
The condition is something that is passed down through the genes of the parents of the baby. The condition would occur if the gene which causes a tendency for a baby to have galactosemia is present not only in one parent but both of them. A baby who has the condition will be lacking an enzyme which is known as the GALT enzyme. The enzyme could also not be functioning as it should be under normal circumstances.
When it comes to the problem, it is very important, to say the least, to detect it sooner rather than later as if there is a build-up of unprocessed galactose which is allowed to occur, it can affect the baby adversely and in some cases, it can also be threatening to the life of the baby!
How does it affect a baby?
The problems which can erupt due to galactosemia include issues which affect organs such as the brain, eyes, liver and kidneys. It is interesting to take note of the fact that these are all organs which either have something to do either processing the blood or are heavily dependent on it. While a baby is not in the position in which he or she can communicate the issues that are being faced, when keeping an eye out for galactosemia, the signs which are displayed include an irritability of the baby as well as lacking consumption of the milk of the mother.
Even though galactosemia may not be the case, a doctor should be consulted as the exacerbated issue can include seizures and jaundice. It is to be kept in mind that galactose is something that can be found not only in the milk of the cow but also human milk as well as the milk of other animals such as goats.
Influenza is more commonly known as the flu. It is an infection that affects the respiratory system and is caused by the influenza virus. This injection is recommended for kids who are under the age of 6 months. It ensures that the baby is safeguarded from the virus during an influenza outbreak. Since the nature of virus changes year on year, the immunity doesn’t last for more than 1 year. This vaccination is ideally taken during the month of October and November. The effect of the vaccination typically lasts for 6-8 months.
Ideally, kids who have never had a flu vaccination should take 2 vaccinations within 4 weeks. Kids who have received a shot of flu should undertake this vaccination once in a year. This arrangement is ideal up to 9 years of age. Flu shot is extremely important for a kid due to the following reasons:
- It saves a kid from chronic lung and heart disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis
- Kids suffering from immune deficiency, cancer, and HIV should take this vaccination to avoid further complication of the existing disease
- Kids suffering from diabetes, kidney diseases, and metabolic disorders should go for this vaccination without a second thought
- Kids suffering from a neurological disorder, haemoglobin deficiency, and anaemia should take this vaccination to refrain from the risk of aggravation of the present disease
- Pregnant women should ideally take it for the safeguarding the fetus
Flu shot should not be taken be taken if:
1. A baby is under the age of 6 months.
2. The baby has thimerosal allergy.
Is flu shot safe?
The flu shot is considered to be very safe. It does not result in flu. Few side effects include:
a. Soreness of the place where the needle is injected. This doesn’t last for more than a couple of day.
b. Body ache and mild fever for the first couple of days after the vaccination is done.
c. There is little to no pain in the place where the injection is injected by the doctor.
What is nasal flu vaccine?
This is an influenza dose that is not injected into the body, but given in the form of nasal spray. Healthy kids above the age of 2 years are fit to get this injection. For those kids who have a history of chronic illness should check with their doctor to go ahead with nasal spray. Each dose is given in each nostril. Like the influenza vaccine, nasal flu vaccine should be undertaken once for those who have already taken this dose once. Kids who have not undergone this vaccination are eligible for 2 dosages each 4 weeks apart from each other.
Weakness of the muscles due to a genetically inherited condition is known as muscular dystrophy. This condition prevents the body from producing the required protein that can help in building muscles. This protein is also responsible for making the muscles strong and stable. This is most commonly seen in children who may seem clumsy as they begin to grow up and indulge in varied kinds of movements. Let us learn more about this condition and the ways in which it may be treated.
- Symptoms: In order to better understand the ways of treating this condition, it is important to take stock of the varied signs and symptoms that are associated with the same. The main symptom of this condition includes difficulty in walking as well as constant slips and falls that may be endured by the child. Also, the children suffering from this condition will have trouble in lifting the leg and foot in a normal way.
- Other Complications: This condition can also affect the heart and lungs by making the muscles in these regions weak. Also, this condition can lead to a number of serious breathing problems that will need immediate medical intervention so that it does not become fatal. It may also lead to accelerated heart beats and affect the hands and feet of the patient in an adverse manner. This condition can be found in different types, each of which will affect the patient in a different manner.
- Physical and Occupational Therapy: One of the most effective ways of dealing with condition in the long run is to indulge in physical and occupational therapy. With the help of a physiotherapist and other specialists, the patient will be taught to move in a more deliberate and normal manner without falling too often. Also, the patient will be eventually trained to go about life and various functions with certain kinds of movements that will be limited to the issues that the patient may be facing. Bracing will also be required so as to help the child cope better in the physical sense.
- Prednisone: This medicine may be prescribed by the Pediatrician to ensure that the progression of the heart issues may be slowed down. This will ensure that the heart may function in a more normal manner despite the muscle issues that it may be facing. The doctor will usually recommend that the medicine should be started when the child is around five or six years old.
- Spinal Fusion: This surgery can lessen the pain and reduce the severity of the symptoms, which can lead to better chances of moving in a normal manner. This will also give the child better posture so that the child may breathe normally.
The thyroid gland, in the lower front of the neck, releases hormones in the bloodstream that affect almost every part of your body, from your brain and heart to your skin and muscles. It also controls metabolism which is the process of changing the food you eat into energy. When the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, it is called hypothyroidism.
According to most experts, depression and diabetes have been intricately connected in a vicious cycle. While the prolonged and sustaining nature of diabetes directly makes one vulnerable to the bouts of depression, doctors tend to locate traces of depression in the family history of an individual at least diagnose the roots of diabetes.
Diabetes refers to a particular state of the body where the ability of the body in producing the insulin hormone is damaged. As a result of such impairment, the glucose level in the blood starts to increase due to the carbohydrates’ abnormal metabolism. It is through proper diabetes management that restoring the carbohydrate metabolism to its normal state becomes possible.
The medical procedures of managing diabetes have come a long way and have met many advancements recently. A few of the recent advances in the management of diabetes are:
- Oral Drugs: Oral medications had always been available for controlling diabetes. But, as a recent addition, various latest drugs with more effective results have been introduced. Medications and tablets become necessary after a period, generally for treating the blood sugar levels of the Type 2 diabetes patients. And the introduction of new powerful drugs has shown the diabetes patients dependent on tablets a new ray of hope.
- Insulin products: The term insulin refers to the peptide hormone that is produced by the pancreatic islets' beta cells. Regulating to the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate, it is used for treating diabetes for years. But, with the progress of diabetes management procedures, various newer insulin products have become available now. Utilized by the type 1 diabetes patients and sometimes by the Type 2 ones, these preparations come with different levels of onset and duration of effectiveness.
- Insulin Injector Devices: Gone are the days when injections used to be the only quick way of inserting insulting in the body. As a hopeful result of the recent advances in diabetes management, there are now various insulin delivery devices found. As a replacement for the insulin pen devices, there are now insulin pumps and insulin patch, inhaled insulin liposome-entrapped insulin, etc. for better managing the severity of diabetes. People suffering from severe insulin deficiency, find the insulin pump helpful.
- Surgical Solutions: For a long time, weight loss surgery used to be associated with treating obesity only. However, a relation has been found between this surgery and treating diabetes. Recently, studies have shown that by performing weight loss surgery, Type 2 diabetes can be put into remission. Though an experimental treatment, there is also the Islet transplant option for treating Type 1 diabetes for preventing the severe hypos.
Causing a considerable rise in the blood sugar levels, diabetes is a lifelong physical condition. However, it is through following the modern diabetes management procedures, that controlling different types of diabetes has been possible. As a result of recent medical advances in the management of diabetes, more physiological and individualized therapies are now possible so that diabetic patient can lead as close to a normal life as possible.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
To understand about hypothyroidism, it is essential to first understand the thyroid gland. Thyroid is an endocrine gland situated in the neck and produces the thyroid hormone. This hormone is then carried through the blood to different cells of the body. It helps the organs to function properly maintain the temperature of the body. The two thyroid hormones are Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4). They regulate protein, fat, carbohydrates and vitamins in the body along with the metabolism. They are also responsible for the proper differentiation and development of cells.
Hypothyroidism or underactive thyroid or low thyroid
This is a condition where the thyroid gland is underactive and produces a low amount of the thyroid hormone. To help the thyroid gland produce the required amount of T3 and T4 hormones, the pituitary gland will make additional thyroid stimulating hormone called TSH. Due to this additional secretion of TSH, one also develops chance of thyroid gland enlargement and in some cases, it can form a goiter.
The major cause of the low level of thyroid hormones is considered to be iodine deficiency. Hence the addition of iodine to the common salt has always been considered to be a safe method to prevent goiter. There can be several other causes of hypothyroidism such as weak immune system, radiation, surgery, Hashimoto’s disease, hormonal changes etc. It can be caused due to pregnancy and is called postpartum thyroiditis.
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Whatever be the cause of hypothyroidism, it can show the following mild symptoms:
- Increased sense of fatigue or tiredness
- Sudden increase in weight with puffiness on the face
- Hoarse voice
- Muscle weakness with aches, tenderness and stiffness
- Joint pain or stiffness
- Increased sensitivity towards cold thus causing dry skin
- Constipation due to slow metabolism
- Decreased heart rate
- Elevated blood cholesterol level
- Irregular menstrual periods
- Decreased concentration and depression too
However, it is important to understand that you may show no symptoms or show some mild symptoms that can be easily confused with some other condition. Hence, a proper diagnosis is a must to confirm hypothyroidism.
Diagnosis of hypothyroidism
The most common tests to determine if you have hypothyroidism are TSH Testing and T4 Testing. In case the low level of TSH is due to a defect in the pituitary gland, your doctor may request for another test called TRH. Also, Anti-thyroid Microsomal Antibodies Testing or thyroid peroxidase test (TPO) helps in identifying if the thyroid gland is damaged.
Treatment of hypothyroidism
Hormone replacement therapy is the best form of treatment available today. It involves the use of synthetic Levothyroxine (T4) or liothyronine (synthetic T3). Before these synthetic hormones were used for several years, however, prescribing thyroxine tablets is the most common mode of treatment and they are generally given for a really long period of time, although the dosage may vary. It is only in rare cases of severe decompensated hypothyroidism that one requires hospitalization.
Apart from the above treatment options, it is best advised to avoid soy products, sugary processed foods and alcohol to keep a check on hypothyroidism. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Thyroid is an endocrine gland situated in the neck and produces the thyroid hormone. This hormone is then carried through the blood to different cells of the body. It helps the body organs to keep working as they should and also helps maintain body temperature. The two major thyroid hormones regulate protein, fat, carbohydrate and vitamin metabolism and are also responsible for proper differentiation and development of cells. In simple words, if this gland is underactive all the bodily functions slow down and if it is hyperactive it causes increased metabolism. Apart from these two issues of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, there can be structural abnormalities to the gland or it might have tumors (benign or cancerous) affecting its normal functioning and in turn the whole body. Hence a healthy thyroid gland is of prime importance for a proper functioning of the body and a healthy life.
Management of Thyroid
Depending on the condition of thyroid, it requires different ways to manage it. Let us first have a quick look at the common issues of thyroid…
- Structural abnormalities caused due to nodules, swelling and inflammation
- Congenital disorder
Hence the first measure to manage thyroid is to have a proper intake of iodine. Having iodine rich salt if you are deficient in iodine is a common way to avoid the swelling of the thyroid gland to form goiter. It is also important to not have salt in excess as it may lead to other autoimmune diseases. Having the right amount of iodine can go a long way in the management of thyroid.
One needs to put extra emphasis on the diet as a healthy diet is the means to a healthy body. Soy products, processed & packaged foods, high sugar foods and aerated drinks and caffeinated beverages need to be avoided when on the road to recovery from thyroid. No need to make changes in cruciferous food like cabbage, broccoli once you are on thyroid medicine.
Smoking and Alcohol
A regular need to smoke or have drinks can impair the healing process of the thyroid gland. Hence it is best to stop smoking and drinking and stay sober.
The most important aspect in the management of thyroid is its medication. Depending on the issue there might be lifelong hormone replacement medicines needed for some patients. In such cases, it is important to take them regularly and on an empty stomach each morning half an hour before any food intake or as advised by the doctor. This treatment needs to be well supervised by a specialist to see if the levels of thyroid hormones are improving accordingly.
In rare cases of structural disorder or cancerous thyroid, the patient might have to undergo a surgery to remove the entire gland or just cancer-causing nodule or lobe.
Since thyroid has grown to be one of the most common problems that people suffer from all over the world, it is best not to ignore and see a specialist. The condition may be common but the effects can in most cases do irreparable harm to the body. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!