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Hyperthyroidism - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Last Updated: Nov 12, 2019

What is Hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a medical condition where the thyroid glands (a butterfly shaped gland situated in the front region of your neck) start producing excessive hormones. The thyroid gland facilitates metabolism by the release of two types of hormones called triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4). Treating overactive thyroid can also treat hyperthyroidism.

What are the early symptoms of hyperthyroidism?

There are some early possible symptoms of hyperthyroidism that cannot be experienced by all. The symptoms vary and depend on the age, production, and duration of the thyroid.

  • Fatigue, Insomnia
  • Increased perspiration, weight changes
  • Hair falling, brittle hair and nails
  • possible increase in blood sugar
  • Nervousness, muscle weakness
  • Changes in the menstrual cycle
  • Tremor, shakiness, changes in vision
  • Dyspnea, dizziness
  • Hives, itching and other skin troubles
  • Intolerance to heat
  • Frequent bowel movement
  • Increased hunger
  • Constipation
  • Trouble in concentration
  • Depression

Causes of hyperthyroidism:

  • Some medical conditions contribute to hyperthyroidism such as Graves’ disease which is an autoimmune disease that stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete excessive hormones. This is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
  • It can also be caused due to excessive iodine in the body, thyroiditis (inflammation in the thyroid glands), cysts or tumors of the testes (male) or ovaries (female) benign tumors of the pituitary gland or thyroid, consumption of excessive amounts of a hormone called tetraiodothyronine taken through diet supplements.
  • In severe cases, the thyroid gland can start to swell into a goiter which can be one-sided or symmetrical. Some symptoms which require immediate medical attention include irregular & fast heart rate, loss of consciousness, shortness of breath and dizziness. Sometimes, hyperthyroidism can also cause artial fibrillation which can lead to congestive heart failure and strokes.

What are the effects of hyperthyroidism?

Hyperthyroidism is a thyroid condition. The thyroid is an endocrine gland that produces tetraiodothyronine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) which are two key hormones control the usage of energy used by the body cells. It controls the metabolism through these hormones release. The condition hyperthyroidism occurs when the gland makes excessive T3, T4 or both.

Excessive thyroid levels can shoot-up metabolism and hike the risk of other health issues such as cardiac diseases such as hypertension, cardiac arrest, arrhythmia, cardiac dilation, problems in conception. The untreated hyperthyroidism will lead to osteoporosis where the bone will start to lose its mineral density as the condition can cause the body to pull phosphate and calcium out of the bone and to expel too much phosphorous and calcium through the stool and urine.


How is hyperthyroidism diagnosed?

A physical exam and a medical history is your first step in diagnosing hyperthyroidism. The specialist can also diagnose it by checking common signs like enlarged thyroid glands, protruding eyes, higher than normal blood pressure, rapid pulse and immense weight loss. Other tests such as cholesterol tests, thyroid stimulating hormone level test (the test results should be lower if the thyroid levels are high or normal, a very low test can be a sure sign of hyperthyroidism), Triglyceride test (low triglycerides can be a sign of high metabolic rates), thyroid uptake and scan, ultrasound (measures the entire size of the thyroid gland and masses within the glands), MRI and CT scans.


Hyperthyroidism can be medically treated by the following ways:

  • Medications- Medicines such as methimazole are prescribed to cure hyperthyroidism. This medicine prevents the thyroid glands from making excessive hormones.
  • Radioactive iodine- This destroys the cells that produce thyroid hormones. Side effects of radioactive iodine therapy include change in taste, sore throat, dry eyes and dry mouth. The radiations might spread to others so proper precautions should be taken for a few days.
  • Surgery- This is considered in severe cases, all or just a section of your thyroid gland is surgically removed and hormone supplements need to be taken to bring the thyroid levels back to normal. This treatment is affective to generally a lot of people.
Graves disease

What vitamins are good for hyperthyroidism?

Vitamin B12 is one of the best vitamins for thyroid issues that play a vital role in RBC metabolism. It helps in increasing energy, strengthening the nervous system. It has been reported that most people who suffer from hyperthyroidism have Vitamin B12 deficiency. The deficiency may lead to dizziness, fatigue, and weakness.

Many vitamins and supplements including Vitamin D, Iodine, Selenium, Zinc, Thiamine, Probiotics, tyrosine, Iron and thiamine maintain the thyroid level healthily. A multivitamin containing nutrients and follow minerals, for example, Vitamins A, C, E, and B-complex underpins hindering the hyperactive thyroid.

What are the home remedies of hyperthyroidism?

Effective control over the food will be quite helpful in maintaining the thyroid level optimally. Eating berries will help to keep the immune system strong as they are rich in anti-oxidants. Intake of cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, kale, cauliflower, and cabbage helps in decreasing the thyroid amount. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient that works with calcium to shield bone loss.

Salmon fish carries a huge amount of omega-3 fatty acids that keep healthy. Since the body does not produce these fatty acids, it must be taken from the food only. If you are not a fish eater, eat mushrooms, eggs, walnuts, flaxseed, and olive oil regularly to elevate the vitamin D levels. Adding dairy products such as cheese, yogurt, and milk will help in improving weak bones.

What are the easy and effective natural remedies hyperthyroidism?

1. Lemon analgesic, a plant from mint family hinders the thyroid incitement hormones (TSH) from appending to the receptors. The synthesis of T4 is blocked by the lemon balm and it prevents T4 to T3 conversion, dilutes the TSH effects and shields antibodies from speeding up the thyroid function. At least 500 mg lemon balm everyday intake helps in normalizing the thyroid gland.

2. Bugleweed decelerates the iodine digestion and diminishes the hormone made by the cells in the influenced thyroid organ. Presence of the lithospermic acid in the herb reduces the thyroxine level and brings great relief from the symptoms. This herbal supplement additionally takes out sporadic palpitations.


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Written ByDr. Neeraj Garg MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery,MD - Medicine,DM - EndocrinologyEndocrinology
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