Hello. Good morning friends, I am Dr Kanu Verma, a consultant dermatologist, practising in Dwarka. Today, I am going to speak about Fungal Nail Infections.
These infections are very common. Normally, they can affect any part of the body. They are not serious infections but very unpleasant. The fungal infection occurring in nails, therefore, it is called Fungal nail infections. In medical term, it is also called as Onichomicosis or Tinea Unguium.
Some amount of fungus is very normal in the skin as the other bacterias. But if this fungus further grows, then it leads to infection.
Nail Fungal Infections
It is a very slow growing infection which is not often noticed. The patient comes to know when the nail plate gets damaged, that is some pain in the nail.
Why does this fungus grow?
Well, the fungus needs warm and moist environment to develop. When some un noticed injury happens to the nail fold or nail plate, it starts developing in the warm and moist environment, as it is a favourable environment to grow. Sometimes the injury is so minor that it often goes un noticed and the patient won't be aware of the infection.
When the nail plate gets discoloured, or some lines start appearing on the nails, crumbled nails, then only patients come to know about the problem and they consult doctor through which they get to know about the nail fungus.
Who develops the nail fungus?
- People who work in a warm moist environment for a long time.
- The housewife may also face this problem while dish washing or gardening or while doing any kind of house work, they may get cut in their nails which will ultimately lead to nail fungus.
- People who are suffering from some diseases like diabetes, psoriasis, elder people, swimmer, people who walk bare foot, tends to suffer from fungal infections more commonly. However, toe nail infection is more common than finger nail infection.
How to diagnose nail fungal infection?
If you have any sort of discolouration of nails, pain or swelling, these are the signs of fungal infections and u need to consult a dermatologist. A doctor can scratch your nail for diagnosing a fungus. The infected nail may look like greenish yellowish in colour, or there may also occur some swollen nail fold, discharge. If it is advanced then the nail may get crumbled, distorted nail plate, or sometimes the nail plate get lifted up due to the fungus deposition. So, basically, these are the symptoms of nail fungal infections. Also, the nail can completely be destroyed if these symptoms are ignored which can not be repaired. There will be complete nail destruction and it will become very difficult to cure.
How the nail fungal infection treated?
The treatment is possible but it takes time for the recovery. The recovery time depends on the amount of damage caused to nail, patients tolerance and the number of nails damaged.
What type of treatments are available?
The oral medication is available and the topical creams. The treatment procedure takes months for the recovery. The finger nails take about 3-4 months for the recovery and for toe nails, it takes 4-5 months. Nowadays, Laser treatment for fungal infections is also available which is fast, effective and especially for those kinds of patients which can not tolerate anti-fungal tablets.
How to prevent nail fungus?
- It depends on how much you take care of your nails.
- The more you go for the regular checkup of your nail injury.
- regular clipping of a nail, go to such salons which do manicure and pedicure with the sterile equipment.
- If you are diabetic, then proper sugar control should be there.
- Don't keep your nails in moisture for long hours.
- If you are required to wear shoes for long hours, then you should apply anti- fungal powder on the toes, in order to keep them dry and does not allow fungus to grow.
These are few tips which can help you prevent nail fungal infection.
Here are symptoms,cause and treatments of Acne and Acne Scars
Hello friends I’m Dr. Kanu Verma. I’m a consultant dermatologist and cosmetologist practicing in the Dwarka, Delhi. Today I’m going to say something about the very common skin problem which is
acne. This is a very common problem which is because of the inflammation of the Pilosebaceous unit of our skin which is attributed to the androgen hormone activities or keratinization problem or related to the bacterial P-acne infection in the gland and so on.
Sometimes, usually the stress environment food habits they don’t have the direct impact on that acne but indirectly they cause the acne. OK now the acne squally of acne is acne scars. Actually the scarring is the problem. Acne scars occurs when the inflammation inflammatory changes and infection in the pilosebaceous unit exceeds the skin repair mechanism. There can be a two type of acne scars hypertrophic or raised scars or atrophic depressed scars. Hypertrophic scars when the bear mechanism is over and excessive so there’s more collagen formation and this scars are raised over the skin. Atrophic or depressed scars it could be when there’s a loss of skin tissue from skin though that causes the skin couldn’t repair it properly and there comes the depressed scars. It could be of ISPECT types of scars, box scars, rolling scars.
One more thing sometimes is no scarring over the skin but acne heals leaving behind the pigmentary changes over the skin that we call hyper pigmentation or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. There are many type of treatment for the acne scars not only the medicine but chemical peels, microdermabrasion, micro-needling processes, micro-needling includes derma rollers, derma pens, then laser treatment. All these treatments you have to go through a sequel of treatment so that the skin and this skin become smooth and the scars fade away.
There are some do’s and don’ts for the acne and acne scars. You should not pick and prick the acne or pimples when they are. There is very good temptation be that squeeze of the white puss from the acne so it won’t leave us scar. Don’t keep on touching the acne, don’t pricking them, pressing them, squeezing them, don’t wash them frequently, cover your face always when while going out of the house, wear the sunscreen, cover your face with the dupatta or scarf, so that it prevents for your skin from the pollution. This is normal ways from which you can prevent the acne scar to an extent. Drink lots of water. Have a healthy lifestyle. More of the fruits and veggies in your diet. Avoid junk food.
If you need any further consultation or details about the treatment then you can go contact me through the Lybrate.
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Patient Review Highlights
Dr. Kanu Verma provides answers that are very helpful.
When it comes to COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, not many people are aware of this condition. COPD is a chronic medical condition characterized by the inflammation of lungs. The inflammation interferes with the functioning of the lungs resulting in breathing problems. An early diagnosis and timely medication can improve the condition to a great extent. However, lack of proper knowledge and myths surrounding COPD often make the situation worse. In this article, we will discuss some myths and facts related to COPD to help people understand the condition better.
Myth: COPD is an incurable chronic lung disease mainly affecting the aged people (above 60 years).
Fact: There is no denying the fact that COPD is indeed a chronic disorder that severely affects the lungs and its functioning. However, with timely diagnosis and treatment, the condition and the deleterious consequences can be managed and controlled significantly. Since COPD triggers breathing problems (the airflow from the lungs gets obstructed), the use of bronchodilators, oxygen therapy or corticosteroids can be highly beneficial. Though COPD is rare among young adults, the condition can affect people in their late 30's or early 40's as well.
Myth: COPD only affects people who smoke.
Fact: Smoking is one of the triggers for COPD, but the condition can also affect people who have never smoked in their lifetime. Factors such as neonatal chronic lung disease or prolonged exposure to substances that cause lung irritation and damage (toxic industrial fumes and chemicals) can play a pivotal role in triggering COPD. COPD can also be a genetic predisposition.
Myth: People with COPD should avoid exercise and physical activities.
Fact: Mild to moderate exercise (especially breathing exercise) are indeed helpful and go a long way in the effective management of COPD. Exercising regularly (for 20-30 minutes or as the doctor recommended) help to lower the blood pressure and improve the circulation that provides fruitful results for people with breathing problems. However, doctors do advise people with shortness of breath to avoid strenuous exercise.
Myth: COPD only affects the lungs.
Fact: With time and left unmanaged and untreated, COPD acts as a catalyst making a person more susceptible to heart ailments. In some cases, the condition can also trigger depression and anxiety.
Myth: In the case of COPD, giving up on smoking will not produce any positive results.
Fact: Giving up on smoking may not help to reverse the damage that has already been caused by COPD. However, quitting smoking along with proper medications and lifestyle changes does help to control the condition better. In some instances, there were also significant improvements in the associated symptoms (such as shortness of breath, fatigue, wheezing, a chronic cough).
Myth: COPD is another name for Asthma.
Fact: Many people confuse COPD with Asthma. Though some symptoms may appear identical (such as wheezing, shortness of breath), the conditions are different and so are their treatments. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Infertility is the incapability of a couple to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex multiple times over a long period. It can also be referred to as the biological inability of a man to cause conception or a woman to conceive as well as being unable to carry the pregnancy for the whole duration. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases.
Causes of infertility in include:
Ovulation Disorders – This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), Premature ovarian failure, poor quality of eggs, overactive or underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus – Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to conditions like Endometriosis, previous sterilization treatments or surgeries to correct past problems.
Medications or Treatments – There is a possibility of some treatments affecting infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
Usually, the initial steps for diagnosing infertility involve a review of the complete medical history of the patients as well as a physical exam. Post this check-up, some diagnostic tests are conducted for infertility. This might include-
Blood and Urine tests: For checking hormone levels.
Pap smear:For checking the health of your cervix.
X-ray: For outlining the internal shape of the uterus so that blockages in fallopian tubes can be identified.
Age – Increasing age tends to lower the quality as well as the quantity of a woman's eggs
Smoking – Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage. It is also believed to deplete your eggs at a premature stage, thereby reducing your chances of pregnancy.
Weight – Normal ovulation is hindered by being overweight or even significantly underweight. This is because lower levels of BMI (body mass index) reduces the frequency of ovulation, reducing the chances of pregnancy.
Sexual history – Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and Chlamydia can cause damage to the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility.
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
Intrauterine insemination (IUI): deliberately introducing sperm into the uterus of a woman for achieving pregnancy.
Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs.
Surgery to restore fertility.
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve a pregnancy. It is any form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperm are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Involuntary and sudden urine loss in women is termed as urinary incontinence. Some of the contributory factors to urinary incontinence are menopause, pregnancy and childbirth.
There are seven types of urinary incontinence.
- Stress incontinence: If normal physical movements like sneezing, coughing and exercising cause small amounts of urine to leak out, it is called 'stress incontinence'.
- Urge incontinence: If large amounts of urine leak out during unexpected and at odd times, like during sleeping, it is called 'urge incontinence'.
- Overactive Bladder: This is characterized by frequent and urgent urination, along with urge incontinence or not.
- Functional incontinence: If external deterrents or physical disabilities like not being able to find a toilet, leads to sudden leakage of urine, it is called 'functional incontinence'.
- Overflow incontinence: A full bladder, at times, leads to unexpected leakage. This is called 'overflow incontinence'.
- Mixed incontinence: Whenever urge and stress incontinence occur together, it is categorized as 'mixed incontinence'.
- Transient incontinence: When urine leakage occurs due to temporary situations like infections or new medications, it is called 'transient incontinence'.
Urinary incontinence is not a disease; it is a symptom. Infections, diabetes, or other medical conditions can cause incontinence. If incontinence is temporary, the causes might be any or all of the following:
- Urinary tract infection
- Over consumption of alcohol
- Too much caffeine intake
- Consuming carbonated drinks
- Decaffeinated coffee and tea
- Use of artificial sweeteners
- Foods which are too spicy, acidic or sugary
- Corn syrup
- Being on sedatives, muscle relaxants, blood pressure and heart medications
- High doses of vitamin B and vitamin C
However, if incontinence is persistent, the symptoms might be different:
- Pregnancy: During pregnancy, hormonal changes and weight gain in the body can cause incontinence.
- Childbirth: Normal vaginal delivery weakens muscles that control the bladder, thus leading to incontinence.
- Age: The bladder muscles weaken with age which, in turn, affects the bladder urine holding capacity.
- Menopause: The levels of "oestrogen" hormone drop with the onset of menopause. Oestrogen keeps the lining of the urethra and bladder healthy. The gradual damage of the bladder tissues leads to incontinence.
- Hysterectomy: The bladder and uterus are supported by the same ligaments and muscles. Surgery deteriorates the pelvic floor muscles, thus removing the uterus can lead to incontinence.
- Obstruction: Tumours in the urinary tract can block the normal urine flow. This causes overflow incontinence.
- Neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumours, strokes or spinal injury can cause incontinence. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A menstrual cramp is something which every woman complains of for a day or two every month. Menstrual cramps are usually the pains felt in the lower abdomen which can occur both before and during a woman's menstrual period. These cramps are caused by a hormone called prostaglandin that causes the uterine muscles to contract during menstruation. When the uterus contracts to shed its natural lining during your period it releases a hormone called prostaglandins which causes pain and inflammation. So higher the level of prostaglandins more severe the menstrual cramps.
It might be just a minor discomfort for some, but for others it can be severe. The symptoms of menstrual cramps include pain in the abdomen, pressure in the abdomen and pain in the hips, lower back, and inner thighs as well. However, if the cramps are severe you might have an upset stomach, loose stools and vomiting too. Three out of four women experience menstrual pains and every one out of 10 women experiences severe cramps.
Here are few remedies that might help in relieving the pain:
- Exercise, brisk walking or any type of physical activity can help to ease your belly pain as by being physically active your body pumps more blood, which helps to release endorphins to counteract the prostaglandins and reduce your cramps.
- Apply heat on the lower abdomen or the area where you feel the pain as it helps to relax the contracting muscles in your uterus.
- Improve your diet by reducing fat and increasing vegetables. However, avoid foods that contain caffeine and salt.
- Take a warm bath as it may also provide some relief.
- Add ginger in your food as it helps in lowering the levels of the pain-causing prostaglandins.
- Drink chamomile tea at least three times a day.
- Take fish oil supplements, vitamin B1 or both.
- Make sure to get enough vitamin D.
- Have an orgasm as it releases endorphins which has a pain-relieving effect and helps in boosting your mood as well.
- Include more dietary magnesium such as dry almonds and boiled spinach as it helps to ease the pain of cramps.
- Acupuncture also has an anti-inflammatory effect.
- Take a safe painkiller to reduce pain.
- Birth control pills may help relieve painful cramps, but they do come with side effects which may include spotting, breast tenderness, nausea and low sex drive.
- Refrain yourself from smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Finally, have appropriate rest.
Note that the medications for such cramps are to be taken after consulting a Gynecologist.
If you still do not get any relief despite trying some of these options then you must visit your doctor to rule out more serious health issues as the menstrual cramps are sometimes caused or worsened by other conditions.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My mom age 51 years is suffering from diastolic dysfunction stage 2. Doctor gave her telmikind 40 mg in morning and amtas-AT 25 in evening for high bp. But after taking amtas she feels like vomiting and dizziness. Doctor then stopped amtas. But now after telmikind her bp is still 150/90. Now doctor suggest to take amlong 2.5 mg in evening along with telmikind in morning. I want to ask is it safe to take amlong 2.5 mg as she is suffering from diastolic dysfunction stage 2. Will it increase heartbeat? She is taking cordarone 300 mg. Should we start amlong 2.5 mg?
I am suffering from herpes for past 5 days. Small rashes and blisters developed at the back. I am on medication as prescribed by doctor. What is the reason behind it? Zovirax 200 mg for 5 times a day. nurokind for once a day. And herpex ointment for 2 times at the affected areas. Is the medication proper.
The skin on your scalp renews its cells like every other skin cell on your body. They restore every twenty-four days by forming new types skin cells underneath the old cells to reveal the new ones eventually. Dry skin and dandruff are caused due to many reasons, however, are different than each other. Here are a few signs and causes that separate the two:
Dandruff is not caused by dryness but instead an excessive amount of oil. In a few people, the yeast begins to feast upon the excessive oil and dead skin cells on the scalp, making the skin cells shed off and form flakes on the head. Here are a few reasons why dandruff is caused:
- Excessive intake of sugar, fat, starch
- Improper nourishment
- Heredity problems
- Allergies or sensitive skin
- Lack of rest
- Emotional anxiety
- Hormonal changes
- Poor well-being
Dry scalp is caused because of loss of oil and moisture from the skin and can be caused because of certain shampoos, cleansers, climate, water, or even your eating routine. Signs and side effects include itching and tingling and little white flakes that fall off excessively.
Here are a few ways in which you can fight dry skin:
- Dry scalp can be dealt with by using normal cures, for example, apple cider vinegar since help in normalizing the pH on your scalp and remove the flakes and residue left behind by shampoos, conditioners, and other hair items.
- You can likewise do a light scalp message using regular oils, for example, additional virgin olive oil, jojoba oil, and so on.
- Yogurt and honey can help the hair recover by hydrating them and adding dampness to your scalp to fight the dry scalp.
Here are a few ways in which you can treat dandruff on your scalp:
Wash your hair consistently with a delicate shampoo to decrease the amount of oil on your scalp. qIn case that your dandruff is more serious or a normal shampoo doesn't work, try an anti-dandruff shampoo. Most dandruff shampoos contain solutions like Pyrithione zinc and Selenium sulfide that kill the fungus on your scalp or evacuates flaky skin.
- Pyrithione zinc: It contains antifungal properties that kill the bacterial growth on your scalp that causes the flakes to appear.
- Selenium sulfide: This helps in diminishing the signs of dandruff growth and keep an excessive number of skin cells from being killed along with it. In case you have coloured hair, ask your specialist before using the dandruff shampoo containing selenium sulfide. It can change the shade of your colour.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
If there is a recurrent pain in the lower pelvic and the lower abdomen region of the body, chances are you might be suffering from pelvic pain. In women, severe pelvic pain can be a warning sign of some internal damage in the reproductive organs (ovaries, fallopian tube, uterus, and vagina) present in the pelvic region or the digestive system of the body. Although not common in men, pelvic pain might be indicative of an infection or severe pain in the colon region or the pelvic bones. Pelvic pain might be acute or chronic in nature and the pain might spread to the thighs and buttocks of the body.
The causes of pelvic pain differ among the genders, which are as follows:
1. For women, pelvic pain can be an indication of more serious disorders in the internal reproductive organs such as uterine cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cysts, ovarian cancer and other pelvic inflammatory diseases (when the sexually transmitted bacteria spread to the reproductive organs and causes infections).
2. In women, pelvic pain might also occur due to endometriosis (a disorder wherein the internal endometrial tissues grow outside the uterus resulting in severe pain), adenomyosis (a disorder wherein the endometrial tissues which line the wall of the uterus start growing within the uterus), severe pain during ovulation and miscarriages.
3. The causes of pelvic pain in both men and women include sexually transmitted diseases, a disorder in the pelvic region or the bladder, kidney stones, urinary tract infection, colon cancer, and chronic hernia.
If you suffer from the following symptoms, chances are you might be suffering from pelvic pain:
1. Severe pain in the hips and the groin
2. Sudden fever along with the presence of blood in the stool.
3. Severe menstrual pain
4. You might feel severe pain while urinating or in the middle of a sexual intercourse
5. Bloody vaginal discharge might be indicative of pelvic pain in women
6. Recurring episodes of constipation or diarrhoea
7. Pain resulting from stress and intense physical movements
If the pain is chronic, doctors might suggest prescribed a dosage of birth-control pills, antibiotic (especially for blood in the stool and pain due to infection) and anti-depressants. In extreme conditions, the doctor might prescribe laparoscopic surgery (operation by making minor incisions performed far from the actual source).
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Scratching dandruff or a flaky scalp is a common problem that can be quite embarrassing for the person concerned. You comb your hair only to find white flakes all around your shoulder (more visible, if you are wearing a dark colored dress). Men as well as women, can both suffer from a flaky scalp. The characteristic white flakes associated with the condition are nothing, but the dead skin cells that your scalp sheds from time to time.
The trigger for a flaky scalp can be due to myriad of reasons ranging from from stress, to unhealthy lifestyle and eating habits. A flaky scalp can also be an outcome of using harmful hair styling products, hormonal imbalance or certain medical conditions.The condition, though annoying, can be treated successfully. There are certain do's and don'ts associated with a flaky scalp, which if followed diligently, will ensure better and faster results.
The most common mistake that people with a flaky scalp make is scratching their scalp vigorously. The temporary relief is sure to aggravate the condition more, with the possibility of a scalp infection. Resist the temptation, no matter how itchy it gets.
- Avoid self-medication. Just because someone with a flaky scalp benefited from certain medications does not guarantee success in your case. The trigger in your case may be different. It would be foolish on your part to try any medication without consulting a physician. It is better to be cautious now than to regret later.
- Stress can affect your life in more ways than you can think. In many cases, stress has been found to be a contributing factor resulting in a flaky scalp. Try to live a stress-free life as much as you can. Do not compromise with your sleep for anything. A sound sleep can work wonders to keep stress at bay. It is important that you maintain a healthy sleep cycle (a daily sleep of 6-8 hours is a must). Meditations, yoga, exercise, or physical activities are known to be great stress busters.
- Your diet may have an important role to play in a flaky scalp. Fast and processed foods, foods rich in sugar or simple carbohydrates are what most people drool over. However, these foods can spell doom for the overall health. In addition to the many harmful effects, most of these foods are known to trigger an elevated production of sebum by the sebaceous glands. Increased levels of sebum can worsen the dandruff problem. Include more fruits and vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables and those rich in vitamins and Omega-3 fatty acids in your diet. Keep your body well hydrated. Drink water and healthy fluids (fresh fruit juice, coconut water, soups, to name few) at regular intervals of time.
- Follow a healthy hair care routine. Oil massage (warm oil) your hair at least twice a week. Use mild shampoos or those recommended by the doctor. Avoid over shampooing. Also, avoid the extensive use of hair styling products.
Why you should not take Antibiotics without consulting a doctor?