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Overview

Swollen Lymph Nodes: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Lymph Nodes being one of the component of the immune system in your body swells on getting exposed to infection, encountering injuries or if a tumour develops near to the lymph node. Amongst several groups of lymph nodes present your body, the one that mostly gets swollen or enlarged is the lymph nodes around the neck. Lymph nodes present in the abdomen and chest also experience enlargement. Enlargement caused as a result of infection or injury is often painful whereas no pain indicates the presence of a tumour or increase chances of cancer.

If you are suffering from an infection, your body stimulates the number of white blood cells that leads to increase the response to the foreign substance in the body. For instance, if you get a swollen lymph node right under your arm, it is perhaps the result of injury or infection in hand or the arm. Also, in cases of breast cancer, you might have a swollen lymph node under your arm. Again, swollen lymph nodes in the groin are often the result of an injury in leg or foot and even in genitals.

You are supposed to face symptoms like tenderness along with pain in the lymph nodes, a unique swelling that shapes like a kidney bean, high fever, excess night sweat or enlargement in lymph nodes throughout the body. However, if these enlarged nodes do not seem to get normal within few days, you must consult a doctor. The treatment would include thorough examination and health test to diagnose the cause further accompanied by medication.

How is the treatment done?

Swollen lymph nodes or swollen lymph glands generally get normal with time if caused by infection or injury. If you experience a swollen lymph node that continues to get enlarged with days, you must get an advice of a doctor. Some more symptoms that call for the necessity of doctor’s advice are enlarged lymph node with no apparent cause, the area feels hard and rubbery in nature and it is accompanied by high fever, drastic weight loss and night sweats.

Doctor primarily would conduct a thorough research on your recent medication and medical history. You should provide detailed information regarding how the swell emerged and its effect on your health. A proper check of the area and health situations would help in diagnosing the underlying cause for it. Further, the doctor would recommend you to undergo multiple blood test. These blood test mostly includes complete blood count (CBC) that helps the doctor to conduct a proper diagnosis and detect range of disorders like leukaemia and severe infections in the blood. You might be asked for an X-ray (chest) or Scan to make sure if any tumour is present. Some of the common infections that gives rise to swollen lymph glands are measles, infected tooth, ear infection, HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus), Tuberculosis, severe skin infection or injury. Besides infections, cancer like leukaemia and lymphoma may result in swollen lymph nodes.

For infection related swollen lymph nodes, doctors generally prescribe antibiotics. In case of enlargement of lymph nodes due to immune disorder, doctors implement treatment based on the condition of the patient while in case of cancer treatment, patients may undergo surgery, chemotherapy or radiation.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

Swollen lymph nodes involve several underlying causes. Therefore, treatment is entirely dependent on the cause. The first step is to diagnose the cause and further implementing the most effective treatment. Generally, antibiotics are prescribed for infection related swells whereas immune disease and cancer require specific treatments like radiation and chemotherapy. Therefore the eligibility to undergo swollen lymph nodes treatment is entirely based on the diagnosis of the cause.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Treatment of swollen lymph nodes glands depends on the diagnosis of the cause. There are no such eligibility criteria. People experiencing enlargement in lymph nodes are required to treat the swell with home remedies for few days and further take doctors’ advice if it seems to get worse.

Are there any side effects?

Side effects of treatment for swollen lymph nodes are the adverse effects of medicines prescribed by the doctors. In regard to, woollen lymph nodes caused due to infection, patients get to face adverse effects of antibiotics like vomiting, vaginal discharge or itching, allergic reactions, white patches in tongue and many more.

On the other hand, if swollen lymph nodes occur due to diseases like cancer and immune disorders, treatment of chemotherapy and radiation produces an adverse effect on health like excess hair loss, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, blood disorders, diarrhoea and malfunction in the nervous system.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Swollen lymph nodes are very common and mostly takes places due to infection or injuries. If you have undergone treatment of swollen lymph nodes, you must avoid a situation that would create further swollen lymph nodes probabilities.

In this regard, you should avoid getting infected and getting hurt or injured. This would avoid the occurrence of swollen lymph nodes further.

How long does it take to recover?

Swollen lymph nodes that occur due to infection or virus concern generally tend to increase in the first 2 to 3 days. However, proper treatment reduces it to normal condition within 3 to 4 weeks of time.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Treatment cost of swollen lymph nodes in India remains dependent on the cause. For lymph nodes enlargement due to infection or virus, costs are minimal and are limited to doctor consultation fees and few medicines. However, if swollen lymph nodes suspect growth of cancer or a tumour, the cost is equal to the treatment involved in cancer treatment procedure. This would include chemotherapy and radiation that involves huge cost.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Treatment to swollen lymph nodes caused by infections or viruses generally meets permanent recovery. However, in case of swollen lymph nodes caused due to cancer growth in the body, the risk definitely increases. Basically, the swollen lymph nodes caused due to cancer acts as an indicator of risk. In other words, a swollen lymph nodes treatment would make sure if you are suffering from cancer or not.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are several natural ingredients which act vigorously in recovering swollen lymph nodes in the body. If you are experiencing swollen lymph nodes, you can definitely try these remedies in the primary days and observe the result at home. However, if symptoms increase with time, you are advised to consult a doctor.

Some of the home remedies include intake of raw garlic, manuka honey, apple cider vinegar, more consumption of products rich in Vitamin C, use of essential oil and tea tree oil. Added to that, warm compress and message are of huge help to swollen lymph nodes.

Safety: Very High Effectiveness: Very High Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Time For Recovery: Low Price Range:

Rs 10,000 - Rs 20,00,000

Popular Health Tips

Swollen Ankles - 5 Homeopathic Remedies For It!

B.Sc(hons), Physics, B.H.M.S., PGDIT (software Engg)
Homeopath, Delhi
Swollen Ankles - 5 Homeopathic Remedies For It!

Swollen ankles are very common among older people. Sometimes even young people suffer from this disease. There can be many possible reasons for swollen ankles. Some of the main and most relevant causes for swollen ankles are as follows:

  1. Trauma
  2. Injury on ankle
  3. Sprained ankle
  4. Venous insufficiency
  5. Lymph edema
  6. Arthritis
  7. Heart disease
  8. Kidney disease
  9. Liver disease
  10. Infection
  11. Tumor
  12. Some medications, including calcium channel blockers, steroids or even antidepressants

Homeopathic treatment for swollen ankles
The main treatment for swollen ankles actually requires a great deal of investigation in the field of homeopathic genre. Each and every case is investigated thoroughly and also analysed to a huge depth before prescribing any kind of homeopathic medication. The swollen ankles which are caused due to injury, sprain and arthritis can be independently handled by a homeopathic treatment. But in case of any other serious organ injury, homeopathic medicines are mainly used for treatment along with other kinds of advanced medications. Homeopathic medication should be considered only after consulting a good physician. Self-medication must be strictly avoided.

Some of the homeopathic medicines for treating swollen ankles include the following:

  1. Apis Mellifica and Apocynum: Apis Mellifica and Apocynum are considered to be the best medicines for dropsical swollen ankles, also referred to as edema. Here the swelling is caused due to excess water retention or even due to water accumulation in the tissues.
  2. Ledum Pal: If you are experiencing swollen ankles due to arthritis, Ledum Pal is your go-to homeopathic medicine. In such cases, the affected person usually experiences painful and hot swollen ankles.
  3. Arnica: Another medicine of all times, especially for swollen ankles, is Arnica. It is the most effective medicine for swollen ankles caused due to an injury. Arnica works in a wondrous way to reduce the pain and the swelling of the ankles from injury which are bruised and feel sore to touch.
  4. Ruta: Ruta is primarily prescribed for swollen ankles resulting from sprain. A sprain is defined as the overstretching of the ligaments, mainly in the area of joints.
  5. Hamamelis: This homeopathic medicine, which is highly effective in treating swollen ankles, primarily caused due to varicose veins or venous insufficiency, is Hamamelis. It is the best rated medicine among its category.

If you are suffering from a swollen ankle, neither be indifferent it to, nor delay its treatment for long. It is recommended that you consult an experienced homeopathic practitioner to get the best medicine for your condition.

3171 people found this helpful

5 Homeopathic Medicines To Manage Swollen Ankles!

BHMS, VLIR Belgium, Canadian Academy Of Homeopathy
Homeopath, Navi Mumbai
5 Homeopathic Medicines To Manage Swollen Ankles!

Swollen ankles are very common among older people. Sometimes even young people suffer from this disease. There can be many possible reasons for swollen ankles. Some of the main and most relevant causes for swollen ankles are as follows:

  1. Trauma
  2. Injury on ankle
  3. Sprained ankle
  4. Venous insufficiency
  5. Lymph edema
  6. Arthritis
  7. Heart disease
  8. Kidney disease
  9. Liver disease
  10. Infection
  11. Tumor
  12. Some medications, including calcium channel blockers, steroids or even antidepressants

Homeopathic treatment for swollen ankles
The main treatment for swollen ankles actually requires a great deal of investigation in the field of homeopathic genre. Each and every case is investigated thoroughly and also analysed to a huge depth before prescribing any kind of homeopathic medication. The swollen ankles which are caused due to injury, sprain and arthritis can be independently handled by a homeopathic treatment. But in case of any other serious organ injury, homeopathic medicines are mainly used for treatment along with other kinds of advanced medications. Homeopathic medication should be considered only after consulting a good physician. Self-medication must be strictly avoided.

Some of the homeopathic medicines for treating swollen ankles include the following:

  1. Apis Mellifica and Apocynum: Apis Mellifica and Apocynum are considered to be the best medicines for dropsical swollen ankles, also referred to as edema. Here the swelling is caused due to excess water retention or even due to water accumulation in the tissues.
  2. Ledum Pal: If you are experiencing swollen ankles due to arthritis, Ledum Pal is your go-to homeopathic medicine. In such cases, the affected person usually experiences painful and hot swollen ankles.
  3. Arnica: Another medicine of all times, especially for swollen ankles, is Arnica. It is the most effective medicine for swollen ankles caused due to an injury. Arnica works in a wondrous way to reduce the pain and the swelling of the ankles from injury which are bruised and feel sore to touch.
  4. Ruta: Ruta is primarily prescribed for swollen ankles resulting from sprain. A sprain is defined as the overstretching of the ligaments, mainly in the area of joints.
  5. Hamamelis: This homeopathic medicine, which is highly effective in treating swollen ankles, primarily caused due to varicose veins or venous insufficiency, is Hamamelis. It is the best rated medicine among its category.

If you are suffering from a swollen ankle, neither be indifferent it to, nor delay its treatment for long. It is recommended that you consult an experienced homeopathic practitioner to get the best medicine for your condition.

5 people found this helpful

Lymphedema - Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer Surgery!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship in Vascular Surgery, Ted Rogers Fellowship
Vascular Surgeon, Delhi
Lymphedema - Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer Surgery!

Lymphedema is a condition that typically affects the arms and legs. The most common cause of this condition is damage to the lymph nodes or their removal as part of a cancer treatment program. There is no known cure for this condition. However, surgeries such as Vascularized lymph node transfer surgery may help deal with it better.

Vascularized lymph node transfer surgery involves replacing the affected lymph nodes with healthy lymph nodes from other parts of the body. This allows blood to flow more easily and restores or augments the lymphatic drainage system. In most cases, the healthy lymph nodes are harvested from the patient’s groin. This procedure is relatively new, and its limits are still being explored by doctors. In cases of breast cancer that causes lymphedema in the upper limbs, this procedure may be performed along with breast reconstruction.

To be a viable candidate for this procedure the patient must have maximized control over lymphedema through other forms of lymphedema therapy. This therapy will need to be restarted after the surgery to ensure good results. The lymphedema diagnosis should also be less than 5 years old such that the patient’s lymphedema is in its early stages.

As with any other surgical procedure, there are certain risks associated with this procedure. These can include

  1. Reaction to anesthesia
  2. Bleeding
  3. Infection
  4. Scarring at the site and poor healing
  5. Damage to adjacent blood vessels
  6. Nerve damage that can cause a temporary loss of sensation
  7. Muscle weakness
  8. Numbness ta the sites from where healthy lymph nodes were harvested
  9. Risk of Lymphedema in the area where the lymph nodes were harvested from

After the surgery, the patient will need to keep pressure off the site where the lymph nodes have been transferred. The surgery site may be bandaged but compression garments will not need to be worn. On being discharged the patient may resume normal activities such as driving and work. High-intensity exercises that involve the use of the operated limb should be avoided for at least a month after the surgery. Compression garments should not be used until recommended by the doctor or a minimum of 2 weeks post-surgery. They will also need to schedule review consultations with the doctor. The schedule followed usually involves check-ups after 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 1 year. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3111 people found this helpful

Did You Know Rosacea Can Cause a Swollen Nose?

Dermatology Backed Expert Skin & Hair Care Solution
Dermatologist, Nashik
Did You Know Rosacea Can Cause a Swollen Nose?

Rosacea is a skin condition that is characterized by redness and the appearance of pus filled red patches on the face. Small bumps that are red in color and filled with pus may also be present on the skin. This condition can last from a few weeks to a few months. However, because of its appearance, this condition may be mistaken for acne or other allergic reactions.

It mostly affects women who are middle aged or have a fairer skin tone. This disorder does not have a cure but treatments can help in limiting the symptoms of rosacea.

The symptoms of rosacea are:

  1. Swollen red bumps: Bumps that look like pimple and contain pus can develop on the skin; the skin tends to feel tender and hot.
  2. Facial redness: Facial redness is caused by swelling of blood vessels on your cheeks and nose.
  3. Problems in the eye: This disorder may lead to problems in the eye such as irritation, dryness and swelling in the eyelids.
  4. Enlarged nose: The skin on your nose may become thick and swollen, making it look enlarged.

Causes of rosacea:
There is no exact known cause of rosacea. Contrary to popular belief, poor hygiene does not cause rosacea. There are certain factors that trigger increased blood flow to the skin, them being:

  1. Exercise
  2. Environmental factors
  3. Spicy foods
  4. Various medications that dilate the vessels that carry blood
  5. Chemicals present in cosmetics

Treatment options available for rosacea are:

  1. Oral antibiotics: Antibiotics are used to fight bacteria and reduce inflammation resulting from rosacea.
  2. Medications that reduce redness: Certain medications which come in the form of gels, when applied on the affected area, help in constricting blood vessels thus reducing the redness.

There are certain measures that you can take to prevent rosacea, some of them are:

  1. Use sunscreen: Use a sunscreen to prevent damage from sun exposure, make sure the sunscreen has a SPF count of 25 or more. However, the SPF measure should be determined by your skin texture.
  2. Use gentle products on your skin: Use a mild cleanser to clean your skin and make sure to moisturize on a daily basis. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
5621 people found this helpful

How To Deal With Swollen Legs In Pregnancy?

secondary DNB, DGO, fellowship in minimal access surgery, observership in advanced reproductive technique
Gynaecologist, Patna
How To Deal With Swollen Legs In Pregnancy?

Pregnancy is a normal life function that many women go through. Yet, this is a part of life where one has to take special care of one’s health and condition as there are many biological changes that happen in one’s body. Swollen legs and ankles are a common part of one’s pregnancy. This condition is most commonly known as edema and it usually occurs when fluid collects in the tissue. This, in turn, happens when the blood chemistry changes and the fluid get routed to the tissue. This is a common occurrence due to the hormonal changes that one goes through during pregnancy. The condition usually troubles pregnant ladies during their third trimester.

Read on to find out the various ways in which one can deal with it.

  1. When to call a doctor: Call a doctor or a midwife for a thorough check up if you happen to see any puffiness or swelling in your face and eyes. This could point at a more serious problem like the onset of preeclampsia. Also, if you happen to notice that one leg is more swollen than the other, then you may want to see a doctor about it, as it could mean that there is a blood clot in the leg.
  2. Put your feet up: This is especially important if you are at a desk all day. The best way to deal with such swelling is to put your feet up every once in a while, so that the swelling may reduce. You can use a foot stool or even a pile of books for this purpose.
  3. Breaks: If you are constantly sitting or lying down, it would be a good idea to give it a break and walk around a little so that there is better blood circulation. This also keeps the blood from pooling into the lower regions of the legs, which can prevent an increase in the swelling.
  4. Comfortable footwear: One should stick to flat and comfortable footwear with an even elevation as well as foam soles so that the comfort level while walking and standing is optimum. Choose your shoes so that they can accommodate your swelling instead of pinching your feet. Also, you can choose to wear snug socks and stockings, which will form a band around your feet. This will ensure that the swelling does not increase to a painful level. At the same time, you must avoid socks that have bands, which are too tight as this may lead to blood pooling and subsequent swelling in the legs and ankles.
  5. Water: Drinking plenty of water ensures that there is less fluid retention. This is one of the best ways of fighting edema whether or not you are pregnant.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

 

2625 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Please suggest lymph node tb Is lymph node tb painful? Had cervical lymph node tb at age of 10. Completed full ATT. Had chickenpox with urti with b/l enlarged retroauricular (just below auricle) 1.5 month ago. Working as MBBS intern in government hospital. NO PAIN/no fever/no malaise/no cough/no symptoms at all Except big grapes sized enlarged nodes at same site. Is it lymph node tb again? Or it must/may be painful for tb diagnosis? Or its just reactive enlargement due to chickenpox history? When to suspect tbLN? Can CRP, ESR diagnose?

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
OBJECTIVE: The currently recommended treatment for lymph node tuberculosis is 6 months of rifampicin and isoniazid plus pyrazinamide for the first 2 months, given either daily or thrice weekly. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of a 6-month twice-weekly regimen and a daily two-drug regimen. METHODS: Patients with biopsy confirmed superficial lymph node tuberculosis were randomly allocated to receive either a daily self-administered 6-month regimen of rifampicin and isoniazid, or a twice-weekly, directly observed, 6-month regimen of rifampicin and isoniazid plus pyrazinamide for the first 2 months, in Madurai, South India, Patients were followed up for 36 months after completing treatment. RESULTS: Of 277 enrolled patients, data was available for analysis in 268. At the end of treatment, 116 of 134 [87%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 81-93%] patients in each treatment group had a favourable clinical response; 14 (11%; 95% CI 6-16%) and 17 (13%; 95% CI 7-19%) patients had a doubtful response, and 4 (3%; 95% CI 0-6%) and 1 (1%; 95% CI 0-2%) patients had an unfavourable response among those treated with the daily and twice-weekly regimen, respectively. During 36 months after completion of treatment, five patients [2 (2%; 95% CI 1-3%) and 3 (2%; 95% CI 1-3%) patients treated with the daily and twice-weekly regimen, respectively] had relapse of lymph node tuberculosis, of 260 assessed. Adverse reactions probably attributable to the treatment regimens occurred in 1% of the patients treated daily and in 11% of those treated twice-weekly (P < 0.001). At the end of 36 months after treatment, 126 of 134 (94%; 95% CI 90-98%) and 129 of 134 (96%; 95% CI 94-98%) of the patients treated with the daily and twice-weekly regimen, respectively, had a successful outcome. CONCLUSION: Both the self-administered daily regimen and the fully observed twice-weekly regimen were highly efficacious for treating patients with lymph node tuberculosis and may be considered as alternative options to the recommended regimens.

Dear sir. What is the best time to opt for radiation therapy after hormonal injection .i have been diagnosed with stage 4 prostrate cancer spread to the lymph nodes but not to bones. And have recently taken my second shot of hormonal injection in April first week. My doctor suggested that I take the second shot since the PSA had fallen to 3.5 after the first injection. Can you advise if I can delay going for radiation till the time my PSA is being controlled by hormonal injections.

MD (Radiation Oncology), DNB (Radiotherapy)
Oncologist, Noida
Radiation therapy is the definitive treatment for this condition bringing the survival up to about 50 percent from 25 to 30 percent. It should have started by 2nd month. The benefit of delaying RT is the fact that volumes of target decrease and that decreases the doses direction and thereby toxicity. No other benefit of delaying RT per se. Since you are already getting him second injection. Please start soon.

Hi am 21. I had small lump on left side of my neck. Its very soft and moveable also not painful. I had this last 5 days but it didn't do away now it's 6th day. What was it. Is that cancer? i am very scared please tell something.

FHNS, MS ENT
Oncologist, Indore
A soft movable mass in neck for 6 days is unlikely to be cancer. Get a sonography with FNAC done. It will give diagnosis. Do not worry.
7 people found this helpful

I have enlarged lymph nodes for 4 months. I consulted my doctor and then he said 1 month ago that it's nothing. please help me. It is not painful and I have mri and x ray report anf it also says nothing. Mri says infected nodes. I suffered Dengue 4 months ago but I noticed a swollen lymph node 1 week before dengue took place.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly. Kindly give lymph node details as size, shape,location. Other symptoms as fever, cough,weight alterations, diet,appetite All reports as scanned copies to evaluate precisely and guide accordingly rather than writing xyz things. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
2 people found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
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Chronic Rhinosinusitis
Chronic sinusitis is a common condition in which the cavities around nasal passages become inflamed and swollen for at least 12 weeks. You may refer to an allergist or an ear, nose and throat specialist for evaluation and treatment.
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Major Causes Of Piles In Daily Lifestyle
Piles are inflamed and swollen collections of tissue in the anal area.These are caused by increased pressure in the lower rectum.The tendency to develop piless may also be inherited.
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Throat Pain
Here are cause symptoms and treatment of Throat Pain

Hello, I'm Dr. Varun Gupta, a Senior ENT consultant. Dr. Bindu Kumari, our speech language pathologist and Mr. Rajesh, our audiologists. Today we are discussing in brief, a very common clinical condition, on our day to day clinical practice, which is a throat pain.

The common causes of throat pain are viral infections, bacterial infections, acid reflux, smoking and food irritants. It leads to a difficulty in swallowing, irritation and itchiness in the throat. It may lead to a swelling of lymph nodes as well. It is very important to visit your doctor, if you are having some pain in the throat, because it is a very annoying symptom and though it is not a very serious ailment and we can get it control with the use of simple antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, and anti-histamines along with if there's an acid reflux we can start with some anti-acidity medicines also.

Many times in case of throat pain it can lead to hoarseness of voice as well means the voice of the patient also deteriorates. I would like to introduce Bindu Kumari to talk about something about the voice hygiene. When you have throat pain, you need to maintain some vocal hygiene tips, don't clear throat frequently, don't whisper, take adequate amount of voice taste, don t scream, use some humming relaxation exercises. Throat pain due to viral infection can lead to involvement of ear.

So I will request Mr. Rajesh to mention about this. Viral infection can lead to hearing loss. The symptom can be ringing sound, buzzing sound, blocking in the ear and is also is can be hearing loss. So please do not hesitate to come visit the audiologist and go for the hearing screening. As it can prevent permanent hearing loss. So regarding the management of throat pain, as you have just seen it lead to all kinds of symptoms like voice problem, a throat pain and it can affect the hearing also.

So any clarification if you want you can consult us through Lybrate by any of the methods like text consultation or your video consultation.
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Cirrhosis of Liver
Hello, I am Dr. Somasekhar Rao, gastroenterologist and hepatologist at the Apollo Hospitals, Jubilee Hill, Hyderabad. I would like to talk about cirrhosis of liver and its complications and how to manage those things. Basically cirrhosis of liver is nothing but the liver get shrunken and it becomes nodular and hard so the functions of the liver comes down. The functions which are there are 600 vital functions that a liver does normally in a human being and all these functions are compromised in a patient with cirrhosis.

Most important cause for cirrhosis is always alcohol and next comes viruses called hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The evolving most increasing cause no is nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fatty liver disease which we see on ultrasound can cause cirrhosis. Any patient in early cirrhosis may not present with any symptoms. The initial symptoms of decompensations would be:-

There will be swelling in the fluid
Swollen feet
There will be distinction of abdomen because of accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
Patients may have jaundice.
Sometimes they may present with a history of passing black color motion that means this patient is having bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. It can be most common because of the swollen blood vessels called viruses in the esophagus.
So other presentations would be disorientation. Patient can have hepatic encephalopathy, the functions of the liver because the liver acts as a filter to many toxins. All these toxins enter into your brain and cause disorientation this is called hepatic encephalopathy.

So now we will talk about the treatment of cirrhosis. Whenever we see a patient with cirrhosis, most important thing is we will try and evaluate the cause of cirrhosis. See if the patient is a chronic alcoholic. We are taking a history of all college. The first thing is to cut down and stop intake of alcohol when the patient is in early cirrhosis. It can reverse the cirrhosis to normal liver. Most important and nutritional aspects along with some supportive medication but when a patient presents with complications already, then we will be treating only the complications. Once the cirrhosis sets in and he is in CTP. By the time. you see that the patient eventually progresses most of the time. We are trying to treat the complications of cirrhosis. Then a patient presents to us with bleeding then we will find out whether it is very variceal bleeding and there is a procedure called endoscopic variceal ligation to decrease the pressure of the varices blood pressure in the esophageal varices.

We have some medications which decrease the pressure. We treat these patients and we control the bleeding and a patient presents with fluid in the stomach abdominal cavity or fluid in the legs. These patients are treated with so called restricted diet. Also we give some tablets called diuretics which increase the urine output and decrease the fluid in the legs and in the abdominal cavity and a patient presents with hepatic encephalopathy. We treat hepatic encephalopathy by medications and we try to decrease the ammonia level which is released by cleansing the gut and all those things. So all these things are managing complications of cirrhosis. Very rarely we see a patient in early cirrhosis then we treat the host.

The cirrhosis can be reversible. It is very rare but eventually when we see a patient in complications, he would always be in a stage called CTPB where he will progress to CTBC. CTBC is the end stage of cirrhosis and at that point of time the patient is left only with option of liver transplant.

Liver transplantation is again transplantation. It can be a live donor transplantation or deceased donor transplantation. So Eventually when you see a patient in CTBC we have to plan for liver transplantation. In these patient he can wait maybe for 2 or 3 months meanwhile we will be managing for complications.

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Breast Cancer
Symptoms, causes and treatment for Breast Cancer Patients

Hello friends. My name is Dr. Gayatri Juneja. I m a practicing gynecologist in Model Town for the last 20 years. I m a visiting consultant in Apollo Cradle Hospital Moti Nagar, and Fortis Hospital Shalimar Bagh, and Sunder Lal Hospital Ashok Nagar. It s a great pleasure for me to talk to you about certain problems which I think is becoming very important for all of us to know. I am going to talk about Breast Cancer.

Unfortunately, even in India, cancer breast is becoming very common. And it is not that it is a cancer which we cannot pick up at time. The only thing we need is to be aware of it. Only if we know what is happening with our body, is only then we can do what is normal, only then we can see what is not normal, right? It is one of the breast cancer is one of the easiest cancers to pick up. How? My body is my own. I should know what s happening to me. So minimum a lady can do is do a self examination. Teach your daughters how to do a self examination for the breast. If you find any lump, any time, if you feel there is some pain, which was not there, if you see the nipple is not in the normal position, it is retracted inside, if you see there is skin changes on your breast, if you see any size difference. See minor size difference will be there. That is a natural thing. But if you see there is drastic change, and if you are not comfortable with something, do not neglect it. It s not at all a normal thing. Go, see a gynaecologist.

It is a confidential thing between you and your doctor. Let her examine you. Let her guide you. You give her a proper history, if you have taken any contraceptive pills, even I-pill is very dangerous. I ll come to it later how. The thing is your doctor has examined you, then she will guide you what has to be done. There are various ways of diagnosing cancer of breast. First step is, you do a self examination. First step is over. You find the lump, you go to a doctor. Your doctor will ask for a sonography, that is ultrasound of the breast. And another part of it is an x-ray of the breast. Sometimes in younger age group the breast is very dense, and you cannot diagnose anything on mammogram.

You still are suspecting something, then your doctor might ask for an MRI. MRI is very effective in diagnosing, but we do not suggest it as first line treatment, first line of diagnosis. Once it is confirmed that yes, there is a lump, then what we do is, we ask for a biopsy. Now biopsy can be in 2 forms. It can be taken through the needle, which we call FNAC Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, and other is open biopsy, where we remove the whole lump, and send it for testing. If the test comes negative, good, fine, everything is fine. If it comes positive, then further treatment depends upon the type. Then they will do a special CT scan for you, where the will diagnose if any lymph nodes are involved.

Depending on preliminary staging, your doctor will ask for a surgery. Now the surgery will it is better that the whole breast gets removed. Or what has to be done will be diagnosed, because it is not a single person specialty, it is going to be a multi-specialty treatment then. Now let s come down to who are the people who are at higher risk. Why should I consider that I am at higher risk? What who are those people? First, specially after menopause, obesity. If your lifestyle is not at all healthy, your food habits you eat lot of non-veg and processed food, like pizzas and burgers and frozen food, yes you are at risk. Then comes genetics.

If you have a family history of cancer in your nani, dadi, your bua, maasi, cousin, ya sister ya brother, or even cancer of ovaries, you are at high risk. But that doesn t mean who all have had the history of cancer will also develop this. You are at higher risk, but it is better only to be careful. Then comes very tall ladies it has been seen they are also prone for diabetes. Obesity, and people who have had hormonal replacement therapy with and once you re diagnosed don t get scared. It is a curable cancer, and life expectancy with variable modalities these days is quite good.The quality of life is also good.

So my suggestion would be, to conclude, that please be aware of what is happening with you, and take good care of yourself. If you are healthy, only then you can look after your family. Thank you so much.
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