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Overview

Phenytoin Test

Phenytoin Test

also known as: Dilantin® , Diphenylhydantoin , Phenytek®

Phenytoin, (brand name- Dilantin), is an anticonvulsant drug that is taken to control the occurrence of a plausible seizure after a surgery. The drug is usually consumed regularly as a mode of seizure control. The drug usually diminishes brain cell activities and hence its concentration in the body needs to be monitored. A high concentration can cause drop in blood pressure, a low concentration may fail in preventing seizure, and side effects include liver and kidney damage. Hence, a Phenytoin Blood Test is conducted to determine the concentration of phenytoin in blood and to ascertain that the level of the drug is within the acceptable range.

No specific preparation is required for this test. However, it is advisable to keep your doctor informed in case you are allergic to anything or if you are on any kind of medication. The doctor will inform you of necessary precautions or actions to be taken in that case. Also, since the test requires blood sample from your arm, it is recommended that you wear a sleeveless or half sleeved t-shirt, else a full sleeved t-shirt that can be folded up easily

As mentioned earlier, the test will detect the level of phenytoin in your blood. The normal therapeutic range for adults, who are consuming phenytoin is between 10.0-20.0 mcg/mL. As long as the drug remains within this range, there will be no side effects or other symptoms. Patients should consult with their doctors about increase, decrease or complete stoppage of consuming this drug. Adjustments in amount of consumption can be made on a patient-to-patient basis.

Process of obtaining blood sample in adults: That part of the skin from where the blood is to be collected is cleansed After the area is cleaned properly, your skin is pulled tight. The needle cap is removed and the needle point is held in alignment to the desired vein. With a careful and swift manner, the needle is inserted into the vein. The syringe plunger is pulled out slowly to collect the required amount of blood. A gauze is placed on the site where the needle is inserted, and the needle is pulled out. The wrap around your band is also released. A container, which has an appropriate preservative, is kept ready from before. The collected blood is moved into this container. The needle along with the syringe is disposed in a hygienic manner.

Specimen
Serum or plasma
Volume
1 mL
Container
Red-top tube or green-top (heparin) tube. Do not use a gel-barrier tube. The use of gel-barrier tubes is not recommended due to slow absorption of the drug by the gel. Depending on the specimen volume and storage time, the decrease in drug level due to absorption may be clinically significant..
Type Gender Age-Group Value
Phenytoin for Dilantin
Unisex
All age groups
10 - 20mcg/ml
Average price range of the test is between Rs.500 to Rs.1800 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

Table of Content

What is Phenytoin Test?
Preparation for Phenytoin Test
Uses of Phenytoin Test
Procedure for Phenytoin Test
Specimen Requirements
Normal values for Phenytoin Test
Price for Phenytoin Test
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Popular Questions & Answers

I have acne prone skin. Can I wash my face with lukewarm water? Is this beneficial to treat these stubborn acne? How frequently I should wash my face. Please save me.

BHMS
Homeopath, Secunderabad
I have acne prone skin. Can I wash my face with lukewarm water? Is this beneficial to treat these stubborn acne? How ...
Maintaining good hygiene is essential. Lukewarm water can be used. Do use cold water later. Do not frequently touch the pimples as that can lead to infection. Do not use soap frequently as it can make the skin dry. Eat only healthy food. Include fruits and vegetables everyday. You can try Homeopathy which can help overcome this problem naturally.
5 people found this helpful

I get a lot of pimples on my face! As well as acne on back Aso I have lots of dandruff please suggest what should I do.

BAMS
Ayurveda, Bangalore
I get a lot of pimples on my face!
As well as acne on back
Aso I have lots of dandruff please suggest what should I do.
Hi, Wash your face 3-4 times a day with Kusum Bathing Powder and apply Safrozan ointment twice daily. Take Cap. Aclear 1-0-1 for 3-6 months regularly and Panchatiktarista 2tsf + 2 tsf water mixed with it, twice daily for 1 month. Avoid spicy, oily food and sweets. For dandruff, Take 2-3 tsf of Dandronil powder and add water to make a fine paste. Apply this to the scalp and take head bath with Scurfol shampoo after 30 mins. Do this twice a week initially for 2-3 weeks and later once a week for another 4 weeks. Later use it once a month regularly as dandruff problem cannot be cured completely; it can only be controlled.
4 people found this helpful

I am suffering from cold since one year. I think it is the characteristic of nasal. You are requested to suggest me a suitable medicine.

BHMS
Homeopath, Hyderabad
I am suffering from cold since one year. I think it is the characteristic of nasal. You are requested to suggest me a...
Dear Lybrate user, Give some more symptoms. Like what happens in the cold .any nasal discharge, cough, sore throat, sneezing, what triggers the cold. What time it increases.
1 person found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Adult Acne - 8 Facts About It!

Diploma In Trichology - Cosmetology, PG Diploma In Clinical Cosmetology (PGDCC), Diploma In Aesthetic Mesotherapy, PG Diploma In Clinical Research
Aesthetic Medicine Specialist, Ahmedabad
Adult Acne - 8 Facts About It!

Acne is often misunderstood to be a condition that only affects teenagers. However, acne can develop even when a person is in his or her thirties. This sort of acne is known as adult acne. As wth any other health condition, there are a number of myths associated with adult acne. Here are 7 facts you should know about adult acne.

  1. You’re not the only one. Adult acne is a fairly common skin condition. It affects both men and women though the latter are more susceptible to it. Even people in their 50s can develop acne.
  2. Adult acne and teenage acne is not the same. Acne that develops in the teenage years tends to affect the forehead area. It consists of mainly white heads and black heads that develop as a result of clogged pores.
  3. On the other hand, adult acne affects the lower half of the face appears in the form of bigger, red nodules. These often recur in the same place.
  4. Adult acne in women is mostly due to hormonal changes. A woman’s body is constantly facing hormonal changes during menstruation, pregnancy, menopause or as a result of changing birth control methods. These hormonal changes are often accompanied by acne breakouts. A chronic acne breakout can also indicate serious hormonal imbalances or conditions such as polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  5. Stress is a primary contributor to adult acne. Stress and acne have a cyclic relationship with each contributing to the development of the other. Chronic stress can lead to hormonal imbalances which further lead to the development of acne. Frustration caused by the appearance of acne can worsen the stress and if not controlled this can further aggravate acne.
  6. Using the right skin care products can prevent adult acne. Washing your face multiple times may not prove to be the best way to prevent acne as this rids the skin of necessary oils. When it comes to skincare, it is essential to choose the right product. Ideally, choose cleansers that contain benzoyl peroxide or salicylic acid and non-comedogenic skincare products. Products that contain tea tree oil can also help reduce acne inflammations.
  7. Do not pick the pimplesAcne may be a temporary condition but can leave lasting effects if the pimples are picked or manually burst. Doing this can lead to the formation of permanent scars. Acne scars range from mild to severe and can later be treated with a range of procedures including dermabrasion, chemical peels and laser.
  8. What you eat can affect your acne. High glycemic index foods and dairy can lead to hormonal imbalances and have been linked to adult acne breakouts. This includes refined carbohydrates, processed sugars and all forms of milk. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
3522 people found this helpful

Increase Your Chances of Getting Pregnant

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (MRCOG)
IVF Specialist, Alwar
Increase Your Chances of Getting Pregnant

At times being able to conceive becomes a challenge due to certain biological reasons. Feeling positive and eating healthy naturally takes you a step nearer to getting pregnant. In case of no medical condition acting as an obstruction, consuming the right food can increase your chances of getting pregnant.

Here’s a list of supplements you can include in your diet to maximise your chances of getting pregnant.

1. Choose whole grains over refined carbohydrates: Reducing the intake of refined carbohydrates (found in milk, potatoes, corn to name a few) can reduce inflammation of the genitals, which will help increase fertility. You can still continue to have your favourite foods, but ensure they are low GI (glycaemic index- a figure used to represent the ability of carbohydrate to increase glucose in blood) carbohydrates.

You can consume whole grains, which help in reducing insulin levels that in turn reduce the risk of heart diseases and diabetes and also help lower cholesterol levels. Try having whole grain bread instead of white bread and porridge instead of sugary processed cereals to reduce your GI ingestion.

2. Harness the power of Proteins: Proteins are an important part of your diet and the type of proteins you require careful consideration as they help make new hormones. Try having 25gms of vegetable protein like seeds, legumes and nuts instead of animal protein.

Add dairy foods to your diet as they are also a rich source of protein. They provide vital minerals and nutrients like magnesium, calcium and vitamin B12 to the body and at the same time are low in calories. Include milk, yoghurt and cottage cheese to your meals so that you have a minimum of three servings of dairy products a day, which is essential to meet your nutritional needs and increase your chances of having a baby.

3. Welcome Good Fats: Processed foods, fatty meats and takeaways are high in saturated fats including trans fats. These lead to inflammation and an increase of oxygen free radicals in the body, which decrease fertility. So, incorporate good fats in your diet in controlled quantities. Try having avocado and tomato on a whole grain toast, for instance.

4. Make folate an integral part of your diet: Folate is an essential nutrient that helps in decreasing the incidence of birth defects in babies, while ensuring a healthy conception. Along with the prescribed supplements, try to increase its intake in its natural form. The best way to do this is by having green leafy vegetables, which are a rich source of folate. You can also have veggie sticks and vegetable soup along or green vegetable dishes to increase your folate intake. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

5079 people found this helpful

Diet During Pregnancy - Healthy Eating While Pregnant!

MBBS, DGO, MRCOG
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Diet During Pregnancy - Healthy Eating While Pregnant!

Pregnancy is a very special time in a woman's life when there is an added focus to take care of yourself and your unborn child. The adage 'You are what you eat' takes on a whole new meaning during this period as it becomes the soon to be mother's responsibility to pack in extra nutrition to nourish her growing bump. Doctors often add in a dose of vitamins to ensure that the both mother and child are well nourished. But beyond that, the food choices you make will maintain a healthy weight gain for you and your baby and eventually even help when you want to shed the extra weight after your child is born.

Here are some tips to have a perfect diet during your pregnancy

Load up on the good stuff: Even if you've always been eating healthy, it is time to crank things up a notch and include more proteins, vitamins, minerals especially folic acid and iron and some extra calories for energy and increase it as you progress in your pregnancy. But eating to get more nutrients doesn't have to mean eating more in general. If you are already at a healthy weight, then you don't need extra calories in the first trimester. In the second trimester, you need about 340 extra calories a day and about 450 extra calories a day in the third trimester. The numbers will change if you are underweight or overweight.

Say no to some: During pregnancy, give a skip to food items like raw sea food and undercooked meat and poultry. This could lead to potentially dangerous infections. Other foods to steer clear from include unpasteurized milk and soft cheese. All of these are possible sources of bacteria that can be harmful to an unborn child. It is always good to give your fruits and veggies a good extra wash, as always. Try to avoid the known culprits like popular local fruits that may be laden with artificial ripeners. Also avoid food with excess oil or preservatives. You will also have to say a complete no to alcohol or smoking during this period. While most sites suggest that you also ditch your caffeine fix, you can best keep it less than 200mg or 12 ounces in a day. Stick to decaffeinated tea and sodas when possible. Some other foods that have to be avoided during pregnancy are packaged food, cold drinks, preserved food items as they contain preservatives, which are harmful. Also, chinese food should be avoided as it contains monosodium gulmate, which is again harmful due to teratogenic chemical.


Diet a big no: Another big no during pregnancy is dieting or controlling the intake of food to lose weight. Pregnancy is the time you actually, for once, get to legally gain weight and be happy about. Don't mess up your natural system with forced diets.

Keep the food coming: Pregnancy is the time for food craving at all odd hours - and the time to give into them without an ounce of guilt! If you are dealing with nausea and food aversion, try to stick to small meals throughout the day. Replace the chips with carrot sticks and the pizza slice with soup. If that sweet tooth starts acting up, give it a frozen fruit desert or shake. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.

3449 people found this helpful

Common Skin Disorders & Their Homeopathic Remedies!

DHMS (Diploma In Homeopathic Medicine & Surgery)
Homeopathy Doctor, Phagwara
Common Skin Disorders & Their Homeopathic Remedies!

Skin problems, owing to its frequency and its recurrence have emerged as a common cause of concern. Different schools of medicines have come up with their own form of treatments in order to deal with this problem and homeopathy with its assurance of little to no side effects has been most preferred. In fact homeopathy provides various medicines to treat a host of skin disorders.

Some of them are:

1. Scabies and eczema: Scabies and eczema are common skin ailments which are accompanied by fierce itching. They mostly appear either behind the ears and the space between the fingers often developing puss. The skins in these cases become dry and scaly necessitating the intake of Calcarea carbonica.

2. Psoriasis and recurrent eczema: Psoriasis and eczema are characterized by constant itching and painful swelling. In such a situation, the homeopathic medicine Arsenicum has proved to be extremely beneficial.

3. Soreness and coarseness of the skin: Sometimes the skin becomes visibly coarse and sore leading to inflammation even causing inflammations sometimes. Suphur should be the medicine you must choose in such a case as it significantly improves the condition of the skin and softens the skin.

4. Spots on the skin: Homeopathy also has a potent remedy for the spots that erupt on the skin, most often as a consequence of some disease. Sepia works wonders for the perceptible brown spots which appear on the skin as a result of herpes.

5. Acne: Kali muriaticum has emerged as the most reliable medicine for acne and eczema. The fame of the medicine resides in its ability to treat that eczema that is obstinate and refuses to be treated in normal circumstances. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Homeopath.

3267 people found this helpful

Health Benefits Of Vinegar!

M.Sc. in Dietetics and Food Service Management , Post Graduate Diploma In Computer Application, P.G.Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics , B.Sc.Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Health Benefits Of Vinegar!

13 real benefits of vinegar:

1. It reduces bloating. Vinegar increases the acidity in the stomach, which allows it to digest the food you've eaten and helps propel it into the small intestine, a because slow digestion can cause acid reflux, a burning sensation that occurs when food in your stomach backs up all the way into your esophagus.

2. It increases the benefits of the vitamins and minerals in your food" when your stomach isn't producing enough acid, this impairs the absorption of nutrients as well as b6, folate, calcium, and iron" Dr. Kellman explains. Help your body by ingesting a bit more acid in the form of vinegar, and you'll actually be able to use all the good stuff you consumed by ordering the side salad instead of fries.

3. It cancels out some of the carbs you eat. The acetic acid found in vinegar interferes with the enzymes in your stomach responsible for digesting starch so you can't absorb the calories from carbs you've eaten.

4. It softens your energy crash after eating lots of sugar or carbs. Consuming vinegar before a meal can help by slowing the rush of sugar to your blood stream, so your blood sugar spike resembles a hill instead of a mountain and you don't crash quite as hard.

5. It keeps you full longer. In a small but thorough study, researchers found that people who consumed vinegar before eating a breakfast of white bread felt more satisfied 90 minutes after eating compared to people who only ate the bread.

6. It can help your muscles produce energy more efficiently before a major push. Endurance athletes sometimes drink diluted vinegar before they carb-load the night before competing because acetic acid can helps the muscles turn carbs into energy to fuel intense exercise, according to well-regarded research conducted on animals.

7. It could lower your blood pressure. Animal studies suggest that drinking vinegar can lower your blood pressure by a few points. Researchers don't understand exactly how this works or whether it is equally effective among humans, but johnston is pretty confident it can make at least a modest difference.

8. It cleans fruits and veggies. The best way to clean produce, according to johnston, is with diluted vinegar: research suggests its antibacterial properties can significantly reduce pathogens such as salmonella. Just fill an empty spray bottle with diluted vinegar and spritz your produce (salad stuff, fruits, etc.) then rinse in regular water before serving.

And don't rely on a vinegar-based salad dressing to redeem a dirty deli's salad bar fare: johnston worries that mixing vinegar with ingredients found in salad dressings (like salt or olive oil) or with actual salad could render acetic acid inactive, and says that more research is needed on the topic.

9. It kills bad breath. You might have heard that the antibacterial properties of vinegar can kill microorganisms responsible for bad breath — and in theory, this is true. However, johnston warns" it's no more effective than any other antibacterial agents, and there are better products designed for this purpose"

10. It deodorizes smelly feet. Just wipe down your clompers with a paper towel dipped in diluted vinegar. The antibacterial properties of vinegar will kill the smelly stuff.

11. It relieves jellyfish stings. In case you're ever stung by a jellyfish and just so happen to have diluted vinegar on hand, you'll be awfully lucky: vinegar deactivates the jellyfish's sting better than many other remedies even though hot water still works best, according to a study that compared both techniques.

12. It balances your body's ph levels, which could mean better bone health. Although vinegar is obviously acidic, it actually has a neutralizing effect once it's inside of you. Meaning: it makes your body's ph more basic.


13. It alleviates heartburn — vinegar's effectiveness depends on the source of your heartburn: if you have erosive heartburn caused by lesions in your esophagus or stomach ulcers, a dose of vinegar will only aggravate the problem. But if your heartburn stems from something you ate, adding acetic acid to your stomach can help neutralize the acid in there and help fix the problem, providing you with at least a little bit of comfort.

5 people found this helpful