Acid reflux is a very common condition in which you feel a burning pain in your lower chest area, this is also known as heartburn. This happens when the stomach acid flows back up into the food pipe. There is a valve at the entrance of your stomach which a ring of muscles called the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). when the LES doesn’t close all the way or opens too often after the food passes from the food pipe to the stomach, the stomach acid flows back up to the food pipe causing acid reflux.
The treatment for acid is mostly medications as it is not a very severe condition. Some of the most common drugs used in treating acid reflux are PPIs including Omeprazole, Rabeprazole and Ezomeprazole. H2 blockers are also used widely which includes Cimetidine, Ranitidine and Famotidine. Antacids and Alginate drugs such as Gaviscon are also used. There are also other medication which are used in some very particular cases, some of them are Sucralfate acid suppressants, Potassium competitive acid blockers, GABA(B) receptor agonist, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation reducers (TLESR). In some very peculiar conditions, some other drugs used are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), tricyclic antidepressant, prokinetic agents and pain modulators. In some very rare cases if the medication is not effective then acid reflux can also be treated by a surgery known as Fundoplication.
Since the treatment is done mostly through medication, oral intake of the drugs are the most common procedure. However, in some cases the medications are also given through injections. Apart from some common medicines, there are some medications that are used in combination for some very special cases. As for surgery, it is also a minor surgery that is done with ease. The surgery is done mostly to control extra inflammation of your esophagus that is the tube that runs from your mouth to stomach, i.e- food pipe. Narrowing of esophagus and a change in the cells can also be treated through surgery.
Lifestyle is the biggest factor that causes acid reflux. Heavy meals or lying down after a meal are some reasons that cause acid reflux. If you are experiencing bitter taste in your mouth or heartburn on a regular basis then you should consult a doctor for medication.
Acid reflux is a very common condition that can happen to anybody. A simple lifestyle change can also trigger the condition that lasts for a day or less. In such cases, you don’t need to visit a doctor as the condition gets treated on its own or by taking an antacid.
There are no major side effects as such only if you don’t have an already existing condition such as heart condition or digestive problems. However, in some cases they can cause minor problem such as causing difficulty in absorbing nutrients causing malnutrition. Diarrhea, stomach cramps and mild fever are also some other side effects of acid reflux medication in some very rare and extreme cases.
Since the condition is related to food pipe and stomach, the most emphasized post treatment guideline is to maintain a healthy lifestyle that focuses strongly on a balanced and healthy diet. In some cases, some exercises such as walking after a meal is also prescribed. Heavy meals and sleeping after meals should also be avoided. As for surgery, the post treatment guideline remains the same.
Acid reflux is a very minor condition that gets taken of almost instantly. In case of persistent development of the condition, it can take a week or a couple of months to get treated. In case of surgery, you will be discharged from the hospital the very next day but the recovery can take up to 8 to 10 weeks.
The price of the treatment is very cheap. Some medications for acid reflux start at just a rupee and can go up to INR 100. Surgery is also not very expensive and it can range between INR 50000 to INR 200000.
The treatment results are prompt and permanent in most cases. In some cases, there are chances that the condition doesn’t get treated completely. Acid reflux can be triggered by the slightest of lifestyle changes such as sleeping very late so the chance of the condition developing again is also high.
Since it is a very common and ancient condition, there are a lots of home remedies to cure acid reflux. Some of the most effective home remedies are Apple cider vinegar, lemon juice and baking soda. Homeopathy is also another alternative for treating acid reflux. Some of the most widely used medicines are Arsenic album, Carbo vegetalis, nux vomica and phosphorus. Ayurveda is also very effective and safe treatment for acid reflux. Some of the most common Ayurvedic treatment includes Ashwagandha, coconut water, pomegranate and baked fennel seeds.
Rs 1 to Rs 200000.
Acute pyelonephritis is a suppurative inflammation of the renal parenchyma and the renal pelvis. It is a potentially life threatening condition caused by bacterial infection. It can occur suddenly and causes the kidneys to swell, which may damage them permanently too. If the condition occurs repeatedly, it is termed as chronic pyelonephritis.
The most common bacteria involved in causing pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Other causative bacteria are Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Infection starts in the lower urinary tract as a urinary tract infection. Urethra provides an entry for the bacteria, which enter the tract and begin to multiply and spread up to the bladder. They further travel through the ureters to the kidneys. Any septic infection in the bloodstream can also spread to the kidneys and cause acute pyelonephritis.
How it spreads - Pyelonephritis spreads through two routes, homogenous or from the lower ascending tract (ascending infection).
Risk factors - Urinary obstruction, vesicoureteral reflex, catheterization, pregnancy, Diabetes Mellitus, age over 65.
Symptoms - The symptoms are observed within two days of infection. Common symptoms include:
The symptoms observed can vary in children and older adults than they are in other people. Mental confusion is common in older adults and it often is their only symptom. In chronic pyelonephritis, people experience only mild symptoms or may even lack noticeable symptoms altogether, which is the major reason of negligence by the patient towards treatment. Flank pain in the abdomen and signs of infection can be observed.
Diagnosis - Uncentrifused urine is analyzed for the presence of pus cells. The leucocyte esterase dipstick method is used to check for Pyuria. However, it is less sensitive than microscopy. In the urine culture, significant bacteriuria is detected on presence of more than 105 colonies/ml of the sample. Imaging studies can be done to check for the presence of kidney stones. Amongst the inflammatory markers, the values of C-reactive protein (CRP), ESR, and plasma viscosity may be raised. An elevated white cell count with neutrophilia is seen on blood culture.
Complications - Abscess formation in either the kidney parenchyma or the surrounding retroperitoneal spaces is a common complication. Other complications include the development of a xantho-granulomatous or emphysematous pyelonephritis. In severe cases, there can be chronic renal failure too.
Treatment - The duration of treatment depends on spread of infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment can be started until the confirmatory tests reports of culture and sensitivity are observed. Antibiotics like Ciprofloxacin, Amoxicillin, Cefixime can be given. Medications for acute pyelonephritis are continued for up to 3 weeks, whereas for chronic conditions medicines should be given for 6 months.
Chronic pyelonephritis - It is a morphologic entity which is associated with a predominant interstitial inflammation and scarring of the renal parenchyma. There is a grossly visible scarring and deformation of the pelvic-calyceal system. Chronic pyelonephritis further leads to chronic renal failure.
The two forms of chronic pyelo-nephritis are
Management includes controlling blood pressure to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease, long term antibiotic coverage for urinary tract infection, removal of calculi and antibiotic prophylaxis for vesico-ureteral reflex.
Almost everyone knows about the tremendous benefits that coffee has to offer. Be it energizing one's self or protecting the brain from various degenerative diseases, a cup of coffee can be a solution for all. But did you know that the caffeine present in coffee can do more damage to your health than good? Yes, coffee can be beneficial only when consumed in small amounts. Overdrinking it or developing an addiction to coffee can take a toll on your gut.
Keep on reading to find out how.
So next time you boast about your habit of drinking coffee whenever possible, think twice. No matter how healthy something is, having too much of it can cause damage to health and so does excessive consumption of coffee.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease is a chronic digestive disease which occurs when the stomach acid and at times the contents in your stomach flows backwards into the food pipe. The backwash or reflux irritates the esophagus's lining and hence causes GERD. Individuals may manage GERD's discomfort by changing their lifestyle and by taking over-the-counter or OTC medications. But, certain people might also require stronger medications or surgery for reducing the symptoms.
Some of the basic signs include chest pain, burning sensation in the chest, dry cough, difficulty in swallowing, sore throat, etc. If you experience such symptoms at least twice a week or if your physician notices damage in your food pipe, then you might undergo diagnosis. Though drugs are the primary GERD treatment yet, an individual can manage it by following certain tips which may give relief.
Few ways to manage GERD- self-care tips:
If you are suffering from GERD symptoms frequently, then you may maintain a diary for figuring out which foods are giving you trouble.
When is a surgery required?
If lifestyle changing tips and other medications fail to provide any relief, then physicians recommend undergoing surgery.
Achalasia is a serious disorder of the esophagus in which your nerves and muscles fail to work properly. This disorder causes problems in your body such as chest pain, difficulty to swallow food and excessive coughing.
You will also face problems in breathing in case the food enters in to the lungs. There is a valve in your lower esophageal splinter, which closes the esophagus from your stomach. If you have problems like achalasia then perhaps your lower esophageal splinter fails to open while swallowing food it can lead to accumulation of food in esophagus. In this condition the nerves in your body gets damaged and hence cause health complications.
You are at risk of achalasia when you are middle aged, but it can also occur during childhood. Auto immune disorder often places you at risk for achalasia.
Symptoms of achalasia:
The major symptom of achalasia is dysphagia in which you face problems while swallowing food. You may feel that the food is struck in your esophagus which causes choking and problems when you breathe. There may be other symptoms of achalasia which includes:
1. Loss of weight
2. Heart burn
3. Discomfort or pain while you eat food
4. Chest pain
5. Risk of esophagus cancer
Treatment for achalasia:
Esophageal manometry is a technique your doctor may use, if he suspects achalasia when the symptoms include difficulty while you eat and swallow foods. A tube measures the muscular activity in your stomach and reports about the functioning of your esophagus. Another way to diagnose is through X- ray of the esophagus or endoscopy.
The treatment for achalasia generally starts with oral medications. Sphincter nitrates and calcium blockers often help to relax the muscles. Botox can also help to relax your sphincter and help you swallow food.
Esophagomyotomy also helps to treat achalasia in which your doctor can use an incision to access the sphincter and also alter it to enable better flow into the stomach. It’s a generally successful procedure, but sometimes can cause Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) which causes heart burn and would require intensive care. Sometimes surgery can also help to give relief but it can also cause acid reflux, respiratory problems, tearing of esophagus along with other serious complications.
Laparoscopic surgery is a simple and effective way of treating this problem .The tight lower esophageal sphincter is released to make way for easy passage of food.The patient recovers in one day and is discharged home following this operation. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.
GERD is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter, which is the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach. Gastroesophageal reflux is the backward flow of acids from the stomach into the esophagus. Doctors believe that some people usually suffer due to a condition called hiatal hernia. Pregnant women usually suffer from heartburn or acid indigestion caused by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.
The primary goals in the treatment of this disease are relief from symptoms, healing of erosive esophagitis and prevention of complications of esophagitis. The symptoms include heartburn and regurgitation. The setting includes a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). Patients suspected due to GERD with non-cardiac chest pain are recommended to have diagnostic evaluation before institution of therapy. For diagnosing GERD, barium radiographs should not be used.
The other points that must be remembered to diagnose GERD are
1. Endoscopy is recommended only in case of alarming symptoms. Even in typical symptoms, the upper endoscopy is not recommended.
2. For preoperative evaluation, esophageal manometry is recommended, but it has no role in diagnosing GERD.
3. Ambulatory reflux monitoring is a test that can assess association of reflux symptoms.
The suggested lifestyle modifications for the patients with GERD are
Some surgical options
1. For long-term therapy for patients suffering with GERD, surgical therapy is the best treatment option.
2. In patients who have no evidence of erosive esophagitis, preoperative ambulatory pH monitoring in mandatory.
3. Gastric bypass is the preferred operation for patients who are suffering with obesity and are contemplating surgical therapy for GERD.
Apart from these, there are potential risks that are associated with PPIs such as switching them can be considered in setting of side effects and the therapy can be a risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection.