MMA is a substance which is produced in minor amounts in the body. It is important for metabolism and production of energy. In the single step of metabolism, vitamin B12 prompts the conversion of methylmalonyl CoA (a form of MMA) to succinyl Coenzyme A. If the B12 available is not enough, then the MMA level will begin to rise which will result in an increase of MMA in the blood and urine. Measuring methylmalonic acid in the blood or urine can help one to know about early vitamin B12 deficiency. MMA is a sensitive test which helps to know about B12 deficiency. It is more particular than homocysteine and is the confirmatory test of choice for a B12 deficiency. Sometimes, specialized MMA testing may be told to know about the methylmalonic acidemia which is a rare inherited metabolic disorder. Newborn screening programs in all 50 states in the U.S. now require testing for this disorder
There is no as such preparation which is required for the test. The test needs to have blood and urine sample. The sample is to be collected empty stomach so it is advisable to go early in the morning.
If the MMA and homocysteine levels are increased and the vitamin B12 level is decreased a little, then an early or mild B12 deficiency might be there. This may explain about a decrease in present B12 at the tissue level. If only the homocysteine level has a difference and not MMA, then the person may have a folate deficiency. This distinction is important because giving folate to some who is B12-deficient will cure the anemia but does not solve the neurologic damage, which may be unchangeable.If both MMA and homocysteine levels are normal, then it is not going to be a B12 deficiency. Moderately to severely elevated levels of MMA may be found in infants with the rare inherited disease methylmalonic acidemia. A reduced level of MMA is not common and is not considered clinically significant.
Conducting this test is not a difficult job. The lab technician will take a blood sample from your arm. Her will tie an elastic band which will result in swelling up of nerved. The blood will pump and then he will prick and collect the blood. After that, he will remove the band and take out the needle. A band-aid will be tied there so that blood does not flow. For the urine sample, you will collect a bottle in which you will store it.
All age groups
< 0.40 nmol/ml
Knee replacement is a procedure where the weight-carrying surfaces of knee joint are replaced surgically to ease the pain or any disability. People suffering from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or psoriatic arthritis undergo knee replacement. All these conditions revolve around stiffness and painful knee. This surgery is usually performed on people aged over 50.
Knee replacement is mainly of two main types:
Procedure: In case of partial knee replacement with minimal invasion, a smaller incision, which is 3 to 5 inches, is required. This leads to minimal tissue damage and the surgeon can work between the fibres of the quadriceps muscles. Here, an incision through the tendon is not required. This may result in less pain, recovery time is reduced, and motion is better as scar tissue formation is less.
In total knee replacement, four steps are performed:
After general or spinal anaesthesia, an incision of 8-12 inches is made in the front part of the knee. Joint part which is damaged is removed from the surface of the bones. The surfaces are then formed in a way to hold a metal or plastic artificial joint. The thigh bone shin as well as knee cap is attached to the artificial joint with either cement or a special material.
After Effects of the Procedure: After the surgery, patients may stay in a hospital for three to five days. Post surgery, notable improvement can be seen after a month or later. The patient is gradually relieved from pain with the construction of new gliding surface during surgery.
There will be slow progress in the movement. In the beginning, one may walk with a support of parallel bars and then with the help of crutches, walker, or cane. After full recovery in about six weeks, people can enjoy normal activities except running or jumping.
Presently, over 90% of total knee replacements function well even after 15 years of surgery. Hence, knee problem is no problem at all! If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Orthopedist.
When it comes to maintaining proper penis health, most men have a very good idea of what to do. They know all the basics of penis care, from taking care to wash properly to regularly inspecting the manhood to applying a high-quality penis health crème. But in the heat of the moment, when sexual fun is getting hot and heavy, a man might make a silly mistake. Those sexual mistakes can compromise penis health in a serious way.
Not sure what sexual mistakes might be a problem? Here's a list of the biggest issues a man might find himself doing when things are hot - and might regret when things cool off.
1. That lube isn't really lube. A man who is getting it on but suddenly realizes the need for lube might reach for whatever is handy, assuming a bottle of lube is not available - and sometimes that means he will try to use anything from shampoo or conditioner to lotion or cooking oils. Obviously these things are not meant for use as a sexual lubricant, and can lead to dry and cracked skin, irritation and more. Using lube designed specifically for the sexual purpose is always recommended.
2. The condom is too small. Though it is very important to always wrap it up before sexual activity, the wrapping itself might sometimes be the issue. Using a condom that is too small might lead to a little irritation in the heat of the moment, but a man can often ignore that for pursuit of pleasure. The aftermath is when things get rough, as the penis can develop small cuts, tears or even blisters from the use of a condom that is too tight. It pays to test out a variety of condoms to find the best fit.
3. There's been too much drinking. Sometimes a bit of inebriation can be a good thing, as it lowers inhibitions and can help both partners relax before the main event. But too much drinking can lead to serious problems, including trouble with getting it up or issues with stamina. But too much alcohol consumption can lead to even worse things, such as forgetting to use a condom or even suffering memory loss that leaves a man wondering just what happened the night before. Avoiding this is simple: don't drink too much before a bedtime romp.
4. Cleaning up is not a priority. There are plenty of bodily fluids sliding around during sexual activity, and much of that understandably winds up on a man's penis. From the natural lubrication that occurs during sex to the traces of spermicide in the condom, there can be several substances that linger. A man who doesn't clean off his penis after sex is asking for trouble, as those fluids can dry on the penis skin, leading to itching, irritation and redness, as well as a potential penis rash.
A man who pays attention to good penis care should always remember that caring for the penis extends to those moments when things are hot and heavy. Not only should a man be fully prepared for any sexual encounter, he should also be sure to take care to clean up well afterward. Maintaining good health should also include regular use of a high-quality penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). Look for a crème that includes a multitude of vitamins and nutrients, such as vitamin A for odor-fighting properties, vitamin E to keep skin supple, and vitamin C to enhance sexual health. Amino acids such as L-arginine for blood vessel dilation and acetyl-L-carnitine for protection against peripheral nerve damage are also helpful. Combine it all in a Shea butter base and a man has the recipe for great penis health.
1) Diabetes is curable :
Diabetes is mainly due deficiency of Insulin (hormone produced by Beta cells of pancreas), plus resistance to action of insulin, overweightor obesity and inactivity. Therefore, to treat diabetes we need drugs that initiate insulin secretion, reduce insulin resistance. In some cases insulin itself. Plus dietary control and regular exercise to maintain normal weight or reduce excess weight. Hence it can only be effectively controlled. Cure is not possible.
2) Eating Sugar or Sweets causes Diabetes :
It is incorrect to say that eating sweets and / or sugar causes diabetes. Basically excess food intake will lead to excess production of glucose. That puts excess load on insulin producing cells in pancreas due glucotoxicity. Also due to central obesity the fat around internal organs causes lipotoxicity affecting the beta cells. Therefore, excess food intake in general and weight gain are the reasons for diabetes.
3) Jaggery is better or safe in diabetes :
Jaggery and sugar both are essentially same. Both contain sucrose, as they are prepared from sugar cane juice. Hence eating either of these will increase blood glucose considerably. In jaggery there are some vitamins and a few antioxidants. But both are bad for a diabetic person.
4) Rice should not be eaten in diabetes :
Not really true. Because in south India this is the major or at times only main food. Rice has a high glycemic index so gets converted to glucose rapidly. So polished rice is not good. Brown rice is better. Quantity should be regulated. All other cereals also are converted glucose after digestion.
5)Allopathic Medications Damage Kidneys, so go for either Ayurvedic or Homeopathic Drugs :
In fact diabetes itself affects kidney, particularly the filtering membrane of glomerulurous (a filtering unit in the kidney). Even when diabetes fairly well controlled, kidney does get affected. The drugs used to treat diabetes help in overcoming kidney damage. Therefore it is wrong to think that modern drugs cause kidney damage. In fact some of the other drugs contain heavy metals (Bhasmas), which can be harmful to the kidney.
6) Sugar intake is essential for body :
Some people keep asking that eating sugar is very necessary for getting energy for the body tissues. This is not at all true. Because all the cereals like rice, jowar, wheat, ragi, bajra and other millets, contain starch as the main ingredient. Hence intake of each of these foods provides glucose after digestion. So there is no separate need for taking sugar.
Few things to be remembered and practiced are :
Seeing multiple strands of your hair leave your scalp with shampoo, on the floor while combing or on clothes later on is terrible. It gives a feeling of going bald if such a situation continues unabated, and that feeling is disturbing.
Hair fall has become a major problem for many nowadays. Often lack of proper care and knowledge about hair care products causes damage to hair and eventually hair fall. According to Ayurveda, hair fall is associated with body type that varies from person to person and also the stability of mind-body structure. Hair is considered as a byproduct of bone formation, as stated by Ayurveda. The tissues which are responsible for the development of bones are also responsible for hair growth.
Here are some ways through which Ayurveda addresses the problem of hair fall:
1. Dietary modifications: It is important to identify the lifestyle habits that cause hair fall problems. Consumption of excessive alcohol, meat, coffee, tea and smoking are some of these habits. Hair fall can also be aggravated by indulging in intake of too much greasy, spicy, oily, sour, fried and acidic foods.
Here are some ways suggested by Ayurveda to beat hair fall:
2. Ayurvedic herbs and medicated oil: bhringaraja, brahmi, amla, neem, ritha and ashwagandha are some ayurvedic herbs rich in essential nutrients that help in reducing stress and promoting hair growth. Different types of oils including coconut oil, brahmi oil, amla oil or mustard oil are useful in hair fall.
3. Yoga and meditation: Inverted asanas help in stimulating the blood flow to the head. Additionally, practicing deep breathing exercises to control anxiety, stress and keep the mind balanced is also advisable. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.