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Overview

Gram Stain Sputum Test

Gram Stain Sputum Test

A Sputum Gram Satin is a laboratory test used to detect bacteria in a sputum sample. Sputum is the material that appears from a patient’s air passage when coughed deeply. The Gram stain test is one of the most commonly used methods to identify the cause of a bacterial infection including pneumonia. The bacterial infection can affect your lower respiratory tract. The infection is generally seen in children under the age of five, patients of above 65 years of age and /or people with the weak immune system. The Gram stain test is the most common and preliminary test before a chest X-ray is prescribed for pneumonia or any other chest infection. The test got the name as Gram Stain sputum after its inventor, Hans Christian Gram. The symptoms of this infection include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, chest pain, excessive coughing, fever, nausea, vomiting, and sputum with a colour and odour. Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus that you cough up from your respiratory tract.

The night before the test you are advised to drink ample amount of water or tea. This will help your body generate more Sputum. There are two ways of collecting sputum: Self-collection and bronchoscopy.

Abnormal test results indicate that there are bacteria and white blood cells present in your lungs which can be gram-positive or gram-negative. Common Gram-positive bacteria indicate to be the following: Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Listeria, Enterococcus.

If you are collecting the Sputum at home the doctor will provide you a sterile sample cup to collect the sample. The lid should be opened just before collecting the sample. Brush your teeth and rinse your mouth (do not use any antiseptic mouthwash) Take a couple of deep and long breaths Spit some amount of Sputum into the container, the amount should reach the marked spot in the container i.e. one teaspoon approximately If you are unable to spit the Sputum, you can take some hot steam and gain continue the process

LimitationsOrganism isolation and identification will usually be performed only if culture is requested. Request for Gram stain will not lead to stain for mycobacteria (TB). For detection of tubercle bacilli, an acid-fast stain must also be requested. Certain organisms do not stain or do not stain well with Gram stain (eg, Legionella pneumophila). As many as 30% of cases of bacterial meningitis have a negative Gram stain. Gram stain is not reliable for diagnosis of cervical, rectal, pharyngeal, or asymptomatic urethral gonococcal infection. In acute bacterial meningitis in adults, the most frequent error was misidentification of Listeria as Streptococcus pneumoniae in smears.1
Specimen
Material from infected area
Volume
Smear (air-dried) made at bedside or immediately after collection is preferred or one made in laboratory from swab or clinical material.
Container
Clean glass slides, swab in transport or clinical material in sterile container.
Type Gender Age-Group Value
Gram Stain is Gram positive organisms stain crystal violet
Unisex
All age groups
Gram negative organisms stain red or pink
Average price range of the test is between Rs.80 to Rs.400 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

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Popular Questions & Answers

I am suffering from dry cough for last two weeks. I have chest pain when I cough hard. Please suggest what should be done.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Varanasi
I am suffering from dry cough for last two weeks. I have chest pain when I cough hard. Please suggest what should be ...
It may be Respiratory tract infection/common cold/Tuberculosis you should do a montoux test do sputum examination do a chest x ray do CBC, CRP take Sheetopalaadi churn with honey twice a day Elaadi gutika 4 gutika TDS Syp kuflet (himalaya) 7.5 ml TDS kindly revisit with reports good luck thanks for visiting.

Hello doctor I am 38 years old. From past 3 years there was no glow in my skin. Please give me a solution.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Pune
Hello doctor I am 38 years old. From past 3 years there was no glow in my skin. Please give me a solution.
Skin glow is depends upon food which you eat eat fresh home made food only avoid overeating of salty spicy non veg fermented raktadushtikar food avoid day time sleeping basi food two time heated food also eat fresh easily digestable food only provide details in private chat for correction in diet other wrong habits & medications.

Hello mere ct scan mai show kar raha hai ke likey tb. But maine skin test sputum test blod culture test urine test kiya for tb jo normal aye .lekin doctor muje bena confirm kiya tb ke medicine de raha hai. Tho kya bena confirm kiye tb agar nahe hai or medicine lehta hu 6to 7 month tb ka tho kya ye mere body ya muje harm kareha .kyoke tb confirm nahe hai and oo muje medicne ke liye bole raha hai.

DNB Respiratory Medicine, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Mumbai
Hello mere ct scan mai show kar raha hai ke likey tb. But maine skin test sputum test blod culture test urine test ki...
There is something known as suspected TB and decision to treat it on clinical suspicion. If your doctor is advising there must be something significant to suggest in that line. Still if are not sure take a second opinion from another pulmonologist.
1 person found this helpful

Sir/Madam I have a slight gaps in teeth and between them there has formed stain like mark .Now how can I remove that any home remedy or medication to remove such marks.

BDS gold medalist
Dentist,
Sir/Madam I have a slight gaps in teeth and between them there has formed stain like mark .Now how can I remove that ...
You can gargle with h2o2 mouth wash using in diluted water. And glister paste regularly two times a day.
2 people found this helpful

Hello, doctor I am 18 year old. I have a problem My hair becomes white. What could I do for it. Which type of oil I apply in my hair and what I eat? I take proper sleep. But. My problem is not solve. What should I do?

M.D. Consultant Pathologist, CCEBDM Diabetes, PGDS Sexology USA, CCMTD Thyroid, ACDMC Heart Disease, CCMH Hypertension, ECG
Sexologist, Sri Ganganagar
Hello, doctor I am 18 year old. I have a problem My hair becomes white. What could I do for it. Which type of oil I a...
Apply keshkanti oil, for more Massage butter oil into your scalp and hair daily before your shower. Eat sesame. Regularly wash hair with a gram flour and milk/curd mixture. Rub hair regularly with onion paste, and it will turn black. Take a multivitamin containing minerals like zinc and copper, which prevent premature graying.
3 people found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Fibrous Food - The Key To Weight Loss!

BHMS
Homeopath, Faridabad
Fibrous Food - The Key To Weight Loss!

How to lose weight with fibrous foods?

Body composition is never the same for two individuals with the same body weight and of the same sex. It is vital to view your weight loss in light of your body composition. Since muscle occupies less space in your body than fat, leanness is determined by one's body composition and weight. The term body composition refers to the percentage of bone, fat, muscle and water content in your body.

Irrespective of the body composition you may have, if you're planning to lose weight naturally, having fibrous foods can help you to achieve that optimal body weight. The study suggests that people who have fiber in their diet tend to have healthy body weight. It provides your stomach with a full feeling and stimulates brain receptors to stop eating without adding any extra calories.

What is fiber?
Fiber is basically carbohydrate present in plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. In comparison to other forms of carbohydrates, fiber is not easily digested by the body. As a consequence, it passes quickly through your digestive tract without increasing your blood sugar levels. Additionally, it is the soluble fiber that absorbs water to form a type of gel inside your stomach, leading to a slowdown in the absorption of glucose. Lower levels of blood sugar indicate lower insulin levels, which significantly reduces the chances of your body storing fat.


According to experts, women below 50 years of age should have about 25 grams of fiber every day, and men should have about 38 grams. So, here are some of the high fiber foods that you need to include in your diet:

  •   split peas: contains 16.3 grams of fiber per cup
  •   black beans: contains 15 grams of fiber per cup
  •   lentils: contains 15.6 grams of fiber per cup
  •   broccoli: contains 5.1 grams of fiber per cup
  •   peas: contains 8.8 grams of fiber per cup
  •   raspberries: contains 8 grams of fiber per cup
  •   blackberries: contains 7.6 grams of fiber per cup
9 people found this helpful

Fibrous Food - The Key To Weight Loss!

Doctor of Naturopathy & Natural Medicines, DM - Clinical Haematology, Certified Diabetic Educator, Diploma in Nutrition & Health Education (DNHE), Certificate in food Nutrition (CFN), Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Arts (Physical Education)
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Agra
Fibrous Food - The Key To Weight Loss!

How to lose weight with fibrous foods?

Body composition is never the same for two individuals with the same body weight and of the same sex. It is vital to view your weight loss in light of your body composition. Since muscle occupies less space in your body than fat, leanness is determined by one's body composition and weight. The term body composition refers to the percentage of bone, fat, muscle and water content in your body.

Irrespective of the body composition you may have, if you're planning to lose weight naturally, having fibrous foods can help you to achieve that optimal body weight. The study suggests that people who have fiber in their diet tend to have healthy body weight. It provides your stomach with a full feeling and stimulates brain receptors to stop eating without adding any extra calories.

What is fiber?
Fiber is basically carbohydrate present in plant foods such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. In comparison to other forms of carbohydrates, fiber is not easily digested by the body. As a consequence, it passes quickly through your digestive tract without increasing your blood sugar levels. Additionally, it is the soluble fiber that absorbs water to form a type of gel inside your stomach, leading to a slowdown in the absorption of glucose. Lower levels of blood sugar indicate lower insulin levels, which significantly reduces the chances of your body storing fat.


According to experts, women below 50 years of age should have about 25 grams of fiber every day, and men should have about 38 grams. So, here are some of the high fiber foods that you need to include in your diet:

  •   split peas: contains 16.3 grams of fiber per cup
  •   black beans: contains 15 grams of fiber per cup
  •   lentils: contains 15.6 grams of fiber per cup
  •   broccoli: contains 5.1 grams of fiber per cup
  •   peas: contains 8.8 grams of fiber per cup
  •   raspberries: contains 8 grams of fiber per cup
  •   blackberries: contains 7.6 grams of fiber per cup
13 people found this helpful

Symptoms Of Allergic Rhinitis And Its Ayurvedic Treatment!

MD - Ayurveda, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lucknow
Symptoms Of Allergic Rhinitis And Its Ayurvedic Treatment!

Allergic rhinitis is defined as allergic symptoms in the nasal passage. Allergic rhinitis can be seasonal (occurring during specific seasons) or perennial (occurring year round). The allergens that most commonly cause seasonal allergic rhinitis include pollens from trees, grasses and weeds, as well as spores from fungi and moulds. The allergens that most commonly cause perennial allergic rhinitis are house dust mites, cockroaches, animal dander and fungi or moulds. Perennial allergic rhinitis tends to be more difficult to treat.

How does allergic rhinitis occur ?

This condition occurs when allergens (allergy- causing substances) come into contact with the nose, and usually also the ears, sinuses, and the throat. When allergens come in contact with the lining of the nose and sinuses, they trigger the cells to release the chemical histamine, which causes the allergy symptoms described below.

What are the symptoms ?

  • Nasal congestion 
  • Sneezing 
  • Watery " runny nose" 
  • Itchy eyes,nose,or throat 
  • Puffy eyes or 'allergic shiners'
  • Post nasal drip 
  • Tears 

These symptoms may occur during a certain season or year long. They can occur at any age. 

Risk factors for allergic rhinitis

Allergies can affect anyone, but you’re more likely to develop allergic rhinitis if your family has a history of allergies. Some external factors can trigger or worsen this condition, including:

  • Cigarette smoke
  • Chemicals
  • Cold temperatures
  • Humidity
  • Wind
  • Air pollution
  • Hairspray
  • Perfumes
  • Colognes
  • Wood smoke
  • Fumes

Ayurvedic concept of rhinitis:

As per Ayurveda, Allergic rhinitis is compared with Vata- Kaphaja pratishaya. The concept of Ama, Asatmya and virudh aahara also predict the allergic conditions.

Ama is the product of impaired digestion and metabolism. It affects Rasa and Rakta Dhatu leading to manifestation of Pratishyaya. Wrong food combinations (Virudh aahar) having antagonist properties like fish with milk, fruit juice with milk, clarified butter with honey, ice cream after night meals, etc. leads to allergy.

Ayurveda believes in balancing the three doshas present in the human body, thus treating the disease on the whole. Treatment involves clearing the sinuses and expelling phlegm, alleviating the relevant dosha and detoxification. To permanently resolve this disorder, dietary and lifestyle adjustments may be necessary in addition to the strengthening of the immune system. Panchakarma is an effective means of treating Allergic Rhinitis.

Ayurvedic treatment for allergic rhinitis:

  1. If the symptoms are severe and in chronic conditions, Vamana Panchakarma treatment, followed by Virechana is administered. This helps to relieve Ama and balance Tridosha.
  2. In some cases, where the patient has normal digestion strength, Nasya treatment (nasal drops therapy) is administered with herbal oils such as Anu taila or Shadbindu Taila. 
  3. After the above Panchakarma treatments, Ayurvedic medicines are administered to improve respiratory immunity and strength of upper respiratory tract.

Useful Ayurvedic medicines in treating allergic rhinitis:

  1. Nimbarajanyadi tablet – Contains neem and turmeric as main ingredients.
  2. Chavikasavam – Fermented Ayurvedic liquid, also used in urinary tract disorders.
  3. Mahalaxmi Vilas Ras – Also useful in the treatment of skin diseases, diabetes, Sinus, non healing wounds, etc.

Other medicines: Narada lakshmi vilas rasa, Anand bhairava rasa, tribhuvan kirti rasa, shringarabharaka rasa, Mayur shringa bhasma, Abhraka bhasma, Lavangadi pills, Sitopaladi choorna, Marichayadi yoga, vyoshadi pills, Khadiradi pills are suggested.

Diet management:

  1. Take – Light food, lukewarm water, Kapha nashaka foods like little spicy food, saindhav salt, legumes, soups etc.
  2. Avoid – heavy food, fermented food, congestive food, too hot or too cold food, soar food, non vegetarian food, sweets, banana, curd, yogurt, ice creams, deserts, cakes, yellow grams, etc.
    1. Avoid Alcohol and cold beverages. 

      If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ayurveda.

3399 people found this helpful

Oral Health!

BDS, FICOI
Dentist, Guna
Oral Health!

See your dentist every six months. Your teeth may not look dirty from the outside, but bacteria and plaque lurks in places you cannot see in the mirror.

3 people found this helpful

Pregnant - The Healthy Indian Diet For You!

BSc - Food Science & Nutrition, PGD in Sports Nutrition and Dietitics , Diabetes Educator, Translational Nutrigenomics
Dietitian/Nutritionist, Mumbai
Pregnant - The Healthy Indian Diet For You!

When you are pregnant, it is important for you to have a proper diet, which is full of essential nutrients. A lot of these nutrients are used as supplements for the growing fetus. This is vital for the fetus to grow properly and receive proper nourishment. Every pregnancy is different, so does the diet differs based on issues based by a young mother. The biggest myth ever is to expect young mother to eat for two, but the truth is a pregnant woman just needs about 500 kcal extra from her normal RDA. It is always better to get a personalised diet chart, so coping up with physical and mental stress by an expectant mother becomes easier, leading to a happy and healthy pregnancy. A customised diet not only helps to be mother to take care of herself and lil one, but also ensure a positive wellbeing post pregnancy. Rest is equally important and to be mother should ensure she is active throughout her pregnancy for easy labour and fitness. Postpartum complications are prevented when the fetus receives sufficient nourishment. Here is a healthy Indian diet to follow during pregnancy:

  1. Meat, fish, eggs, poultry, nuts: These food items provide ample protein, zinc and iron. During pregnancy, the body requires an increased amount of protein, especially during the second trimester. You should consume at least 15 grams of protein regularly as an additional protein intake is important for tissue demands.
  2. Milk, cheese, yoghurt: These dairy products are a good source of calcium, protein, vitamins and phosphorus. The body requires high amounts of calcium during pregnancy. You should consume low-fat dairy products, if you are concerned about getting overweight.
  3. Fruits: Fruits are rich in vitamin A, vitamin C, fiber and potassium. You should add fruits such as grapefruit, orange, melons and berries to your diet. Also you should have several servings of fruit regularly. Have fruit juices and fruit desserts as well.
  4. Vegetables: During pregnancy, you must include several types of vegetables in your diet. Raw, leafy vegetables such as spinach and other vegetables including carrots, sweet potatoes, peas, corn and potatoes should be a part of your diet. They contain vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron and magnesium. Moreover, constipation is prevented because of their low-fat and fiber content.
  5. Breads, rice, cereals, pasta: These food items contain complex carbohydrates, which are a good source of energy. Pregnant women require 6 to 10 servings of these food products. Grains are also good sources of protein and help in the development of the baby’s body tissues.
  6. Fats, sweets and oils: These food items are necessary for your diet when you are pregnant. However, you should avoid these in excess because of the high-calorie content. Try to consume food items, which contain low fat.
  7. Food rich in iron: Many Indian women suffer from anemia because of blood loss or improper diet. The body needs to get fortified with increased iron amounts. You should consume meat, prunes, raisin, spinach and soya beans. The body absorbs iron better when taken with food items, which are rich in vitamin C, like broccoli, potatoes and citrus fruits.

For getting an ideal diet chart during pregnancy, you should visit a dietitian. He or she will provide you with a diet chart, which will help you focus on the food items that are essential for you and your baby’s health. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Dietitian/Nutritionist.

3659 people found this helpful