Hello. Good morning friends, I am Dr Kanu Verma, a consultant dermatologist, practising in Dwarka. Today, I am going to speak about Fungal Nail Infections.
These infections are very common. Normally, they can affect any part of the body. They are not serious infections but very unpleasant. The fungal infection occurring in nails, therefore, it is called Fungal nail infections. In medical term, it is also called as Onichomicosis or Tinea Unguium.
Some amount of fungus is very normal in the skin as the other bacterias. But if this fungus further grows, then it leads to infection.
Nail Fungal Infections
It is a very slow growing infection which is not often noticed. The patient comes to know when the nail plate gets damaged, that is some pain in the nail.
Why does this fungus grow?
Well, the fungus needs warm and moist environment to develop. When some un noticed injury happens to the nail fold or nail plate, it starts developing in the warm and moist environment, as it is a favourable environment to grow. Sometimes the injury is so minor that it often goes un noticed and the patient won't be aware of the infection.
When the nail plate gets discoloured, or some lines start appearing on the nails, crumbled nails, then only patients come to know about the problem and they consult doctor through which they get to know about the nail fungus.
Who develops the nail fungus?
- People who work in a warm moist environment for a long time.
- The housewife may also face this problem while dish washing or gardening or while doing any kind of house work, they may get cut in their nails which will ultimately lead to nail fungus.
- People who are suffering from some diseases like diabetes, psoriasis, elder people, swimmer, people who walk bare foot, tends to suffer from fungal infections more commonly. However, toe nail infection is more common than finger nail infection.
How to diagnose nail fungal infection?
If you have any sort of discolouration of nails, pain or swelling, these are the signs of fungal infections and u need to consult a dermatologist. A doctor can scratch your nail for diagnosing a fungus. The infected nail may look like greenish yellowish in colour, or there may also occur some swollen nail fold, discharge. If it is advanced then the nail may get crumbled, distorted nail plate, or sometimes the nail plate get lifted up due to the fungus deposition. So, basically, these are the symptoms of nail fungal infections. Also, the nail can completely be destroyed if these symptoms are ignored which can not be repaired. There will be complete nail destruction and it will become very difficult to cure.
How the nail fungal infection treated?
The treatment is possible but it takes time for the recovery. The recovery time depends on the amount of damage caused to nail, patients tolerance and the number of nails damaged.
What type of treatments are available?
The oral medication is available and the topical creams. The treatment procedure takes months for the recovery. The finger nails take about 3-4 months for the recovery and for toe nails, it takes 4-5 months. Nowadays, Laser treatment for fungal infections is also available which is fast, effective and especially for those kinds of patients which can not tolerate anti-fungal tablets.
How to prevent nail fungus?
- It depends on how much you take care of your nails.
- The more you go for the regular checkup of your nail injury.
- regular clipping of a nail, go to such salons which do manicure and pedicure with the sterile equipment.
- If you are diabetic, then proper sugar control should be there.
- Don't keep your nails in moisture for long hours.
- If you are required to wear shoes for long hours, then you should apply anti- fungal powder on the toes, in order to keep them dry and does not allow fungus to grow.
These are few tips which can help you prevent nail fungal infection.
Here are symptoms,cause and treatments of Acne and Acne Scars
Hello friends I’m Dr. Kanu Verma. I’m a consultant dermatologist and cosmetologist practicing in the Dwarka, Delhi. Today I’m going to say something about the very common skin problem which is
acne. This is a very common problem which is because of the inflammation of the Pilosebaceous unit of our skin which is attributed to the androgen hormone activities or keratinization problem or related to the bacterial P-acne infection in the gland and so on.
Sometimes, usually the stress environment food habits they don’t have the direct impact on that acne but indirectly they cause the acne. OK now the acne squally of acne is acne scars. Actually the scarring is the problem. Acne scars occurs when the inflammation inflammatory changes and infection in the pilosebaceous unit exceeds the skin repair mechanism. There can be a two type of acne scars hypertrophic or raised scars or atrophic depressed scars. Hypertrophic scars when the bear mechanism is over and excessive so there’s more collagen formation and this scars are raised over the skin. Atrophic or depressed scars it could be when there’s a loss of skin tissue from skin though that causes the skin couldn’t repair it properly and there comes the depressed scars. It could be of ISPECT types of scars, box scars, rolling scars.
One more thing sometimes is no scarring over the skin but acne heals leaving behind the pigmentary changes over the skin that we call hyper pigmentation or post inflammatory hyperpigmentation. There are many type of treatment for the acne scars not only the medicine but chemical peels, microdermabrasion, micro-needling processes, micro-needling includes derma rollers, derma pens, then laser treatment. All these treatments you have to go through a sequel of treatment so that the skin and this skin become smooth and the scars fade away.
There are some do’s and don’ts for the acne and acne scars. You should not pick and prick the acne or pimples when they are. There is very good temptation be that squeeze of the white puss from the acne so it won’t leave us scar. Don’t keep on touching the acne, don’t pricking them, pressing them, squeezing them, don’t wash them frequently, cover your face always when while going out of the house, wear the sunscreen, cover your face with the dupatta or scarf, so that it prevents for your skin from the pollution. This is normal ways from which you can prevent the acne scar to an extent. Drink lots of water. Have a healthy lifestyle. More of the fruits and veggies in your diet. Avoid junk food.
If you need any further consultation or details about the treatment then you can go contact me through the Lybrate.
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Sunita Verma to be knowledgeable. thank u doctor...
Dr. Kanu Verma provides answers that are very helpful.
Very good and experienced doctor
Pneumonia is a type of lung infection that may affect one or both lungs. In this condition the air sacs, also known as alveoli, fill with pus or fluid, which makes it difficult to breathe. Moreover, pneumonia is known to cause inflammation in the air sacs. This disease may range from mild to life threatening and the severity depends on cause of inflammation, the organism fostering your infection, your age and general health.
Most common symptoms associated with the condition are:
- Chest pain
- Difficulty in breathing
- Shaking chills
- Rapid heartbeat
- Rapid breathing
- Dry cough
- Muscle aches
- Bluish skin tone due to oxygen deficiency
- Blood in sputum that is coughed up mucus
- Labored breathing
- High fever
- Bacteria: One of the most common causes of pneumonia is the bacteria named as Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia may occur after you have had flu or a cold or maybe even on its own. Moreover, it may affect only one part of the lung i.e. the lobe and is also known as lobar pneumonia.
- Viruses: Viruses are one of the main reasons why children below 5 years of age suffer from pneumonia. Viruses that cause pneumonia may also cause cold or flu. Viral pneumonia is usually mild and may be treated at home itself. However, in some cases, it may be very severe and life-threatening.
- Mycoplasmas: Mycoplasma is a type of bacteria that doesn't have a cell wall around the cell membrane which is why they are usually unaffected by most antibiotics which target cell wall synthesis. The symptoms of pneumonia caused by mycoplasmas are mild and the patient does not require bed rest. This type of pneumonia is known as 'Walking Pneumonia'.
- Fungi: People with weakened immune systems or chronic health problems usually develop pneumonia due to fungi. You may also develop fungal pneumonia by inhaling large doses of it mainly found in soil or bird droppings.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Laser treatment is used for a variety of medical and cosmetic purposes. There are a number of hair and skin treatment methods that are conducted with the help of lasers. Most of the skin treatments using laser technology, are laser resurfacing for younger looking skin, employ light and sporadic bursts of beams. These beams are trained onto the skin of the patient to be absorbed by the chromophores, which contain water and other substances of the skin. This chromophore then turns this light energy into heat energy to destroy thin layers for the skin to heal and look younger. Many people have a misconception that this process may cause the skin to become extremely thin and fragile.
Yet, this is not true. Let us find out about the various kinds of laser methods and why they do not make the skin thin.
- Fractional laser skin resurfacing: This treatment method makes use of laser pulses in order to treat microscopic columns of the affected skin, which does not leave any visible scarring and bleeding. This kind of laser works only on the surface of the skin and does not cause any harm to the skin composition. In fact, it improves the skin quality by treating the skin which is damaged.
- Plasma skin resurfacing: In this laser treatment, the doctors will make use of lasers that let out plasma energy which destroys the lower layers of the skin. In this method, the top layers of the skin will not really be affected. The top layer forms a protective covering over the lowers layer as the latter heals. This ensures that the lasers do not cause any kind of thinning of the skin in the long run, as they penetrate just deep enough to fix the damage of the lower skin layer, without destroying the top layer of the skin.
- Infrared skin resurfacing: This kind of treatment involves the use of heat invoking laser beams that treat the deep layers of the skin. These kinds of laser beams do not affect the actual composition of the skin and its cells. This helps in retaining the quality of the skin without making it thin.
- Superficial erbium: Mild laser beams are employed in this form of treatment in order to smoothen the oncoming wrinkles. This kind of treatment also helps in treating other kinds of skin problems. These beams help in smoothening and tightening the skin without making it thin.
- Effect on skin: These kinds of lasers do not cause the skin to become thin because the pulses of energy and heat are merely passed over the skin instead of piercing through and changing the skin composition. Also, the skin is usually wiped with water between the laser pulses, which makes this a safe option. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Hey I am suffering from dark circle problem I am doing many precautions like to sleep early. Not to use mobile from near but even then I am not able to get rid of dark circle. please help.
When it comes to COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, not many people are aware of this condition. COPD is a chronic medical condition characterized by the inflammation of lungs. The inflammation interferes with the functioning of the lungs resulting in breathing problems. An early diagnosis and timely medication can improve the condition to a great extent. However, lack of proper knowledge and myths surrounding COPD often make the situation worse. In this article, we will discuss some myths and facts related to COPD to help people understand the condition better.
Myth: COPD is an incurable chronic lung disease mainly affecting the aged people (above 60 years).
Fact: There is no denying the fact that COPD is indeed a chronic disorder that severely affects the lungs and its functioning. However, with timely diagnosis and treatment, the condition and the deleterious consequences can be managed and controlled significantly. Since COPD triggers breathing problems (the airflow from the lungs gets obstructed), the use of bronchodilators, oxygen therapy or corticosteroids can be highly beneficial. Though COPD is rare among young adults, the condition can affect people in their late 30's or early 40's as well.
Myth: COPD only affects people who smoke.
Fact: Smoking is one of the triggers for COPD, but the condition can also affect people who have never smoked in their lifetime. Factors such as neonatal chronic lung disease or prolonged exposure to substances that cause lung irritation and damage (toxic industrial fumes and chemicals) can play a pivotal role in triggering COPD. COPD can also be a genetic predisposition.
Myth: People with COPD should avoid exercise and physical activities.
Fact: Mild to moderate exercise (especially breathing exercise) are indeed helpful and go a long way in the effective management of COPD. Exercising regularly (for 20-30 minutes or as the doctor recommended) help to lower the blood pressure and improve the circulation that provides fruitful results for people with breathing problems. However, doctors do advise people with shortness of breath to avoid strenuous exercise.
Myth: COPD only affects the lungs.
Fact: With time and left unmanaged and untreated, COPD acts as a catalyst making a person more susceptible to heart ailments. In some cases, the condition can also trigger depression and anxiety.
Myth: In the case of COPD, giving up on smoking will not produce any positive results.
Fact: Giving up on smoking may not help to reverse the damage that has already been caused by COPD. However, quitting smoking along with proper medications and lifestyle changes does help to control the condition better. In some instances, there were also significant improvements in the associated symptoms (such as shortness of breath, fatigue, wheezing, a chronic cough).
Myth: COPD is another name for Asthma.
Fact: Many people confuse COPD with Asthma. Though some symptoms may appear identical (such as wheezing, shortness of breath), the conditions are different and so are their treatments. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Infertility is the incapability of a couple to conceive after indulging in unprotected sex multiple times over a long period. It can also be referred to as the biological inability of a man to cause conception or a woman to conceive as well as being unable to carry the pregnancy for the whole duration. Research has shown that female problems contribute to over half of all the infertility cases.
Causes of infertility in include:
Ovulation Disorders – This is regarded as the most common cause of infertility in women. The disorders can be caused due to conditions like PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), Premature ovarian failure, poor quality of eggs, overactive or underactive thyroid gland and chronic conditions like cancer or AIDS.
Problems in fallopian tubes or uterus – Abnormalities in the uterus or fallopian tubes render the woman incapable of conceiving naturally. This might be due to conditions like Endometriosis, previous sterilization treatments or surgeries to correct past problems.
Medications or Treatments – There is a possibility of some treatments affecting infertility. Examples include NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy.
Usually, the initial steps for diagnosing infertility involve a review of the complete medical history of the patients as well as a physical exam. Post this check-up, some diagnostic tests are conducted for infertility. This might include-
Blood and Urine tests: For checking hormone levels.
Pap smear:For checking the health of your cervix.
X-ray: For outlining the internal shape of the uterus so that blockages in fallopian tubes can be identified.
Age – Increasing age tends to lower the quality as well as the quantity of a woman's eggs
Smoking – Besides damaging your cervix and fallopian tubes, smoking increases your risk of miscarriage. It is also believed to deplete your eggs at a premature stage, thereby reducing your chances of pregnancy.
Weight – Normal ovulation is hindered by being overweight or even significantly underweight. This is because lower levels of BMI (body mass index) reduces the frequency of ovulation, reducing the chances of pregnancy.
Sexual history – Sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea and Chlamydia can cause damage to the fallopian tubes, resulting in infertility.
Even though it is possible to restore fertility in women using only one or two therapies, a number of treatments might be required before conception is possible. Some of these treatments include:
Intrauterine insemination (IUI): deliberately introducing sperm into the uterus of a woman for achieving pregnancy.
Stimulating ovulation with fertility drugs.
Surgery to restore fertility.
In situations where pregnancy does not happen spontaneously, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) can be used by couples to achieve a pregnancy. It is any form of fertility treatment which involves the handling of sperm and egg. The entire ART team consists of psychologists, physicians, embryologists, nurses and lab technicians.
One common ART technique is In vitro fertilization (IVF). It is a process where an egg and sperm are manually combined in a laboratory dish, followed by transfer of embryo to the uterus. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Involuntary and sudden urine loss in women is termed as urinary incontinence. Some of the contributory factors to urinary incontinence are menopause, pregnancy and childbirth.
There are seven types of urinary incontinence.
- Stress incontinence: If normal physical movements like sneezing, coughing and exercising cause small amounts of urine to leak out, it is called 'stress incontinence'.
- Urge incontinence: If large amounts of urine leak out during unexpected and at odd times, like during sleeping, it is called 'urge incontinence'.
- Overactive Bladder: This is characterized by frequent and urgent urination, along with urge incontinence or not.
- Functional incontinence: If external deterrents or physical disabilities like not being able to find a toilet, leads to sudden leakage of urine, it is called 'functional incontinence'.
- Overflow incontinence: A full bladder, at times, leads to unexpected leakage. This is called 'overflow incontinence'.
- Mixed incontinence: Whenever urge and stress incontinence occur together, it is categorized as 'mixed incontinence'.
- Transient incontinence: When urine leakage occurs due to temporary situations like infections or new medications, it is called 'transient incontinence'.
Urinary incontinence is not a disease; it is a symptom. Infections, diabetes, or other medical conditions can cause incontinence. If incontinence is temporary, the causes might be any or all of the following:
- Urinary tract infection
- Over consumption of alcohol
- Too much caffeine intake
- Consuming carbonated drinks
- Decaffeinated coffee and tea
- Use of artificial sweeteners
- Foods which are too spicy, acidic or sugary
- Corn syrup
- Being on sedatives, muscle relaxants, blood pressure and heart medications
- High doses of vitamin B and vitamin C
However, if incontinence is persistent, the symptoms might be different:
- Pregnancy: During pregnancy, hormonal changes and weight gain in the body can cause incontinence.
- Childbirth: Normal vaginal delivery weakens muscles that control the bladder, thus leading to incontinence.
- Age: The bladder muscles weaken with age which, in turn, affects the bladder urine holding capacity.
- Menopause: The levels of "oestrogen" hormone drop with the onset of menopause. Oestrogen keeps the lining of the urethra and bladder healthy. The gradual damage of the bladder tissues leads to incontinence.
- Hysterectomy: The bladder and uterus are supported by the same ligaments and muscles. Surgery deteriorates the pelvic floor muscles, thus removing the uterus can lead to incontinence.
- Obstruction: Tumours in the urinary tract can block the normal urine flow. This causes overflow incontinence.
- Neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumours, strokes or spinal injury can cause incontinence. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
A menstrual cramp is something which every woman complains of for a day or two every month. Menstrual cramps are usually the pains felt in the lower abdomen which can occur both before and during a woman's menstrual period. These cramps are caused by a hormone called prostaglandin that causes the uterine muscles to contract during menstruation. When the uterus contracts to shed its natural lining during your period it releases a hormone called prostaglandins which causes pain and inflammation. So higher the level of prostaglandins more severe the menstrual cramps.
It might be just a minor discomfort for some, but for others it can be severe. The symptoms of menstrual cramps include pain in the abdomen, pressure in the abdomen and pain in the hips, lower back, and inner thighs as well. However, if the cramps are severe you might have an upset stomach, loose stools and vomiting too. Three out of four women experience menstrual pains and every one out of 10 women experiences severe cramps.
Here are few remedies that might help in relieving the pain:
- Exercise, brisk walking or any type of physical activity can help to ease your belly pain as by being physically active your body pumps more blood, which helps to release endorphins to counteract the prostaglandins and reduce your cramps.
- Apply heat on the lower abdomen or the area where you feel the pain as it helps to relax the contracting muscles in your uterus.
- Improve your diet by reducing fat and increasing vegetables. However, avoid foods that contain caffeine and salt.
- Take a warm bath as it may also provide some relief.
- Add ginger in your food as it helps in lowering the levels of the pain-causing prostaglandins.
- Drink chamomile tea at least three times a day.
- Take fish oil supplements, vitamin B1 or both.
- Make sure to get enough vitamin D.
- Have an orgasm as it releases endorphins which has a pain-relieving effect and helps in boosting your mood as well.
- Include more dietary magnesium such as dry almonds and boiled spinach as it helps to ease the pain of cramps.
- Acupuncture also has an anti-inflammatory effect.
- Take a safe painkiller to reduce pain.
- Birth control pills may help relieve painful cramps, but they do come with side effects which may include spotting, breast tenderness, nausea and low sex drive.
- Refrain yourself from smoking and drinking alcohol.
- Finally, have appropriate rest.
Note that the medications for such cramps are to be taken after consulting a Gynecologist.
If you still do not get any relief despite trying some of these options then you must visit your doctor to rule out more serious health issues as the menstrual cramps are sometimes caused or worsened by other conditions.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
My mom age 51 years is suffering from diastolic dysfunction stage 2. Doctor gave her telmikind 40 mg in morning and amtas-AT 25 in evening for high bp. But after taking amtas she feels like vomiting and dizziness. Doctor then stopped amtas. But now after telmikind her bp is still 150/90. Now doctor suggest to take amlong 2.5 mg in evening along with telmikind in morning. I want to ask is it safe to take amlong 2.5 mg as she is suffering from diastolic dysfunction stage 2. Will it increase heartbeat? She is taking cordarone 300 mg. Should we start amlong 2.5 mg?
I am suffering from herpes for past 5 days. Small rashes and blisters developed at the back. I am on medication as prescribed by doctor. What is the reason behind it? Zovirax 200 mg for 5 times a day. nurokind for once a day. And herpex ointment for 2 times at the affected areas. Is the medication proper.
The skin on your scalp renews its cells like every other skin cell on your body. They restore every twenty-four days by forming new types skin cells underneath the old cells to reveal the new ones eventually. Dry skin and dandruff are caused due to many reasons, however, are different than each other. Here are a few signs and causes that separate the two:
Dandruff is not caused by dryness but instead an excessive amount of oil. In a few people, the yeast begins to feast upon the excessive oil and dead skin cells on the scalp, making the skin cells shed off and form flakes on the head. Here are a few reasons why dandruff is caused:
- Excessive intake of sugar, fat, starch
- Improper nourishment
- Heredity problems
- Allergies or sensitive skin
- Lack of rest
- Emotional anxiety
- Hormonal changes
- Poor well-being
Dry scalp is caused because of loss of oil and moisture from the skin and can be caused because of certain shampoos, cleansers, climate, water, or even your eating routine. Signs and side effects include itching and tingling and little white flakes that fall off excessively.
Here are a few ways in which you can fight dry skin:
- Dry scalp can be dealt with by using normal cures, for example, apple cider vinegar since help in normalizing the pH on your scalp and remove the flakes and residue left behind by shampoos, conditioners, and other hair items.
- You can likewise do a light scalp message using regular oils, for example, additional virgin olive oil, jojoba oil, and so on.
- Yogurt and honey can help the hair recover by hydrating them and adding dampness to your scalp to fight the dry scalp.
Here are a few ways in which you can treat dandruff on your scalp:
Wash your hair consistently with a delicate shampoo to decrease the amount of oil on your scalp. qIn case that your dandruff is more serious or a normal shampoo doesn't work, try an anti-dandruff shampoo. Most dandruff shampoos contain solutions like Pyrithione zinc and Selenium sulfide that kill the fungus on your scalp or evacuates flaky skin.
- Pyrithione zinc: It contains antifungal properties that kill the bacterial growth on your scalp that causes the flakes to appear.
- Selenium sulfide: This helps in diminishing the signs of dandruff growth and keep an excessive number of skin cells from being killed along with it. In case you have coloured hair, ask your specialist before using the dandruff shampoo containing selenium sulfide. It can change the shade of your colour.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!