Treatment of Mirena (Hormonal Iud)
Pap Smear Procedure
Dilatation And Curettage (D C) Procedure
Proton Therapy Treatment
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (Pgd)
Pregnant Women Counseling
Prenatal And Birth Care
Musculoskeletal Pain Management
Ovarian Ablation Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Egg Donation Procedure
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Treatment Of Menopause Related Issues
Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome In Adolesce
Pre And Post Delivery Care
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Thyroid disease is a condition that affects the thyroid gland, a small, wing shaped gland that secretes the thyroid hormone. The thyroid is controlled by the pituitary gland and its proper functioning. These thyroid hormones are responsible for the metabolism of the body and a slight tweak in the levels can also lead to the onset of thyroid diseases like hyperthyroidism (excessive production of the thyroid hormone) or hypothyroidism (inadequate production of the thyroid hormone), as well as other conditions. The thyroid hormone has a crucial role to play as far as pregnancy is concerned. Let us find out how.
- Estrogen and hCG: There are two distinct hormones that are related to pregnancy, the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen. These hormones can cause an increase in the thyroid hormone levels that are contained in one's blood. The hCG is usually created by the placenta and is quite similar to the TSH or thyroid hormone. The hCG is known to mildly stimulate the thyroid gland, which causes greater production of the thyroid hormone. Also, once the estrogen in the body increases, it can lead to higher levels of globulin, which is a thyroid binding substance. This is a protein that takes the thyroid hormone to the blood and is also known as thyroxine binding globulin. When these hormones change on a less than normal basis, it can lead to difficulties in the thyroid reading during pregnancy.
- Nervous System: The thyroid gland is known to be especially important for the development of the baby's brain and nervous system. In fact, the thyroid hormone supplied by the mother in the first trimester will have a direct bearing on the development and growth of the foetus. This thyroid hormone travels through the mother's placenta. Once the first trimester has been completed, the baby will start to produce its own thyroid hormone.
- Enlarged Thyroid during Pregnancy: While the thyroid does enlarge slightly during one's pregnancy, it cannot really be detected merely with a physical examination. While a noticeable enlarged thyroid may point at the advent of thyroid disease, it will need to be properly evaluated as these problems are difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. This is due to the high levels of thyroid in the bloodstream during pregnancy, as well as an increase in fatigue and the other symptoms that are most commonly associated with thyroid disease.
- Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: This condition during pregnancy can cause congestive heart failure as well as the risk of preeclampsia, which can cause the rise of blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Hypothyroidism in Pregnancy: This can cause anaemia due to a low count of red blood cells which prevents proper oxygen supply for the baby.
Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. Its different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.
Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.
- Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
- Pain is experienced during sex.
- Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
- Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
- Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
- Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
- Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
- Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
- Loss of weight.
How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include, Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.
Treatment options available:
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:
- Surgery can be undertaken for removal of the cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of the cervical cancer.
- Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
- Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
- Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.
Pelvic cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes in the pelvis. It is a common kind of cancer and can cause negative effects on the health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for treating pelvic cancer. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Most women get accustomed to and know the pattern of their menstrual cramps. So, when something out of this pattern happens, they know it is not normal. There are various reasons for pelvic pains not associated with menses. The following are some common causes and it is always advisable to seek medical help, which will help in right diagnosis, early intervention and reduced complications.
- Ectopic pregnancy: If a fertilized egg has planted itself outside of the uterus or the womb, it is referred to as ectopic pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common place for ectopic pregnancies. There is associated pelvic pain, which is unilateral, sharp, and gradually worsens. There would also be associated bleeding which is darker than the regular bleeding. This again should be confirmed on an ultrasound and then the ectopic pregnancy removed.
- Endometriosis: The inner thick layer of the uterus could be infected leading to severe pelvic pain, especially in women who are in their 30s, who are not able to conceive. This is often ignored, considering it as normal and it continues to progress and could even result in infertility.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): Infections like gonorrhea or chlamydia travel up from the genital tract and reach the uterus. Infection along the entire reproductive tract can lead to severe pain. In most cases, if identified early, a course of antibiotics is all that is required to control this infection. Left untreated, it can even cause infertility.
- Ovarian cysts: Another common cause of pelvic pain, they are quite often asymptomatic, except for occasional pelvic pain. They also disappear with no medical intervention. Sometimes, however, it may get infected or rupture and can cause severe pain. This can is an indication for medical intervention. Ultrasound may be required for diagnosis and treatment may include surgical removal.
- Uterine fibroids: The fibroids are noncancerous growths, which can grow to a considerable size and fall short of blood supply. This may cause them to burst, which can be very painful.
- Miscarriage: Most miscarriages occur before 13 weeks of pregnancy and the usual accompanying symptoms of bleeding are severe pelvic cramps. If you are pregnant and notice bleeding with pelvic pain, it is advisable to immediately visit a doctor. Diagnosis may require an ultrasound to confirm the miscarriage. If medications are not sufficient to remove the remnants, then a dilation and curettage may be required.
- Non-gynecological causes: Appendicitis, urinary tract infections, hernia, lower spinal problems, irritable bowel syndrome can also cause pelvic pain. The cause should be identified and managed accordingly.
Unfortunately, most women continue to experience and suffer with chronic pelvic pain without a cause identified. A thorough internal examination can help identify the problem and treat the issue.
When it comes to giving birth, vaginal delivery is considered to be the most natural process. However, several women nowadays opt for C-section or Cesarean section to avoid the labour pain that accompanies natural birth. If you are pregnant and weighing the pros and cons of natural and C-section delivery, here are a few things to consider.
The Pros of this method of delivery are as follows:
- From the psychological perspective, women who undertake a vaginal delivery have a positive birth giving experience. Women undergoing this method think they should be present in the process.
- The recovery time for women opting for vaginal delivery is shorter. The mother and the baby can make skin contact right after the delivery, which enhances the bonding process.
- Babies who are born through vaginal delivery develop much fewer medical complications. There are fewer respiratory problems, allergies and the baby can start breastfeeding soon.
The Cons of vaginal delivery are as follows:
- Vaginal delivery is a stressful process for the women undergoing it and the time required cannot be predicted. Some deliveries take less time, while others may take hours.
- Usually, there are no cons for the babies who are born via vaginal delivery. In very rare cases, brain injury can be experienced.
The pros of this type of delivery method are as follows:
- Many women choose Caesarean sections to avoid long labor hours. Planned C-section surgeries enable the mother to plan the birth. Better control is acquired over the delivery, which can be predicted properly.
- In case your baby is large, or if you are carrying twins, C-section is the best delivery option.
- If the mother has diseases such as HIV or the mother's blood has a high viral load, C-section surgeries should be opted as the risk of the infection being passed on to the baby is decreased.
The cons of Cesarean section surgery are as follows:
- C-section is a major surgery and a long time is required for recovery. There may be risks of infection, but they can be prevented by caring for the surgical wound properly. C-section delays the breastfeeding process and the mother cannot have immediate contact with her baby, which can affect the bonding.
- Some babies, delivered through C-section may have respiratory problems. C-sections may also cause complications, such as problems with anaesthesia.
While both processes have their pros and cons, it is best to discuss with doctor to understand which process will suit you more. Depending on your pregnancy and whether there are any complications involved, your doctor will suggest the best way possible.
Pruritus Vulvae is the most common cause of vulvar soreness and abnormal discharge in adolescent girls. The growing years are a transition phase where most body parts are undergoing changes to reach the adult stage. While some changes would be obvious externally, there are a lot of internal changes, which would not be very apparent. And for growing girls, especially the changes that they see in their private parts are worrisome, sometimes unpleasant and uncomfortable. About 50% of them would not even discuss these with someone to avoid embarrassment.
Some amount of vaginal discharge is normal and contains bacteria, which are essential for a normal genital health. It also provides lubrication and keeps the area clean. However, the amount, color, and type of discharge can vary and is a good indication of any underlying abnormal condition. Most genital tract issues manifest with a change in the vaginal discharge along with irritation or soreness.
In adolescent girls, the most common problem is pruritus vulvae, which is itching of the vulva region. It is a variant of contact dermatitis caused by irritation. In the growing years, the vulva is thin and delicate with a neutral pH. This makes it easily irritable, unlike in mature women, who also have the protection of pubic hair, thick skin, and labial fat pads. This irritation leads to the condition called pruritus vulvae.
Causes of soreness:
These are primarily non-infectious and infectious (genital).
- Poor hygiene leading to irritation, soreness and itching
- Contamination with urine or feces
- Mechanical irritation from itching, use of toilet paper, ill-fitting undergarments.
- Chemical irritation from soaps, detergents, shampoo, chlorinated water, etc.
- Foreign body such as toilet paper leading to vaginal discharge can cause vulval irritation
- Skin diseases like atopic dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis presents with vulvar symptoms too in the form of soreness and itching
- Sexually transmitted infections like trichomoniasis, gonorrhea and chlamydia.
- Viral infections like genital herpes and genital warts.
- Fungal infections such as Candida such as and tinea are rarely the cause of pruritus vulvae in prepubertal females.
- Worms like pinworms which move from the anus to the vagina, causing itching
- Bacteria like Shigella, Yersinia and E. coli can also lead to non-sexually transmitted infections and subsequent symptoms like soreness and discharge.
- Awareness is the first step in prevention. The girl must be educated about the changes her body is going through and the reasons behind it.
- Hygiene habits, especially after urination or passing feces, should be enforced.
- Avoid undergarments that are tight fitting and can be irritating
- Avoid soaps/chemicals when cleaning the genital area
- Topical creams (emollients/hydrocortisone) are usually effective
- Infections would need a course of antibiotics
When the girl is complaining of soreness and itching, it is best to visit a doctor to get a thorough examination and manage accordingly.
Female infertility affects nearly 40 million women world over, as per medical studies. If the female patient is not able to conceive after trying for a period of over six months without the use of any protection or contraception, there are chances that she may be suffering from infertility. This condition must be checked and treated at the earliest. Read on to know more about the various causes behind female infertility.
- Fallopian Tubes: When the fallopian tubes undergo any kind of damage, it may lead to infertility for the woman in question. These tubes are used by the eggs as they travel from the ovaries to the uterus. The eggs meet the sperm in order for the baby to be conceived and to develop. Pelvic infections and pelvic surgery can cause scarring and bleeding which can stop the sperm and the egg from meeting. This scarring may also come about as a result of endometriosis.
- Hormonal Issues: There are a variety of hormones at play within one's body at any given point of time, and a balance of these hormones is absolutely essential for the various functions of the body to be carried out in a normal manner. When the body does not go through proper hormonal changes that are required for the release of the egg, this can prevent the pregnancy from happening. This can also lead to a thickening of the uterine lining which can stop the egg from travelling from the ovaries.
- Cervical Problems: The cervix is one of the most important parts of the female reproductive system. It is a passage that can be found at the lower end of the womb. When there is a condition that may affect the cervix of the female patient, it can also prevent the sperm from travelling through the cervical canal in order to reach the egg. This comes about as a symptom of a cervical problem.
- Uterine Problem: One may develop polyps or fibroids within the uterus, thus giving rise to difficulties when it comes to getting pregnant. These growths can usually be found when there are too many cells thriving in the endometrium, which is basically the lining of the uterus.
- Unexplained Reasons: There are a number of 'unexplained' reasons that can prevent pregnancy. These reasons plague almost 20% of the couples who are suffering from infertility or the inability to conceive a baby.
- Tests: While the diagnosis of the condition can be done with the help of an HSG test using an ultrasound, the doctor can also use this method to check for fallopian tube blockages. A laparoscopy may also be used for diagnosis.
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a specilized gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Breast examination is a way of detecting early changes that help in detecting lumps or other growth in the breast. This is a manual form of examination that may be carried out by the doctor or even by the patient. This kind of examination helps in detecting the onset of breast cancer and helps in successful treatment of the same. It is an essential screening strategy that all women must go through. Let us cast a glance on the various details regarding this examination, and also how frequently it must be conducted.
- Age: Women who have reached the age of 18 are said to have matured physically and sexually. They should perform this examination once they have reached the said age in order to detect any anomalies in the way the physical changes occur in the breast tissue.
- Procedure: One should begin by looking at one's reflection in the mirror to find any rashes or dimpling in the breasts. The shape, size and colour of the breasts and nipples must also be studied so as to check for any anomalies. Inverted nipples, redness and soreness must also be reported to the doctor. Once you are done checking the visuals, you can raise your arms and look for any changes. Then, you will need to lie down and feel your breasts by using a circular motion. The finger pads must be used in order to check for any lumps. One must start from the centre and move the breasts sideways. Any wet and slippery feeling must be reported to the doctor immediately.
- Pressure: During the breast examination, you must use light pressure for the skin and tissue that lie beneath the breasts, while medium to moderate pressure should be used for the middle portion of the breasts. One must use a firm hand to check the tissue that lies at the back of the breasts, near the rib cage.
- Frequency: One must get into the habit of conducting a breast examination at least once a fortnight or once a month, without fail. You can also go to the gynaecologist for an examination in case you are not confident of conducting it on your own with proper movements and accuracy. You may also journalise your breast examination findings.
- Menstrual Cycles: When you are going through your menstrual cycle or period, it is important to remember that your breasts can become tender just before or after the start of the cycle. So, do not panic if you think you have found a lump or any other growth at this time. It is best to check again after a week and then visit the doctor about checking the same.