Common Specialities
Common Issues
Common Treatments


Hiv Aids - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is HIV AIDS?

AIDS is also known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, while HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This disease occurs when the virus damages your immune system by ruining the white blood cells (cells which fight infection). AIDS is defined as the later and more severe stage of HIV.

HIV aids usually spreads by engaging in unprotected sex with people already infected by the virus. It can also be spread by getting in contact with the blood of an infected person. This generally occurs by using needles which have been contaminated. Women who have hiv aids can also pass it on to their child while giving birth or during the course of pregnancy.Blood test is performed to diagnose hiv aids, there isn’t any cure for hiv but consuming certain medicines can fight the virus and reduce pain and discomfort. The drugs used for the treatment of hiv strengthens the immune system so that the condition doesn’t escalate to AIDS. These drugs can have uncomfortable and serious side effects. These drugs don’t usually work for everyone, they only work for a selected number of people. These medications can also help people with hiv aids live longer than usual.

Where does HIV arise from?

The exact reason where the hiv virus came from is not known but according to scientists, a chimpanzee found in Central Africa is the source of the infection (simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV). This virus was transmitted to humans and was mutated into HIV when humans started hunting these chimpanzees and consumed their meat during the olden days.

When hiv starts reaching advanced stages, people may experience signs such as continuous vaginal yeast infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, frequent and severe infections, unexplained tiredness, headaches, dizziness, extreme weight loss, frequent diarrhea, night sweats, frequent fever and dry coughing. Most people can also experience discolored purplish growths on the skin, unexplainable bleeding, abnormal skin rashes, extreme numbness on the muscles, paralysis and mental confusion.

How does HIV spread?

  • Engaging in anal or vaginal intercourse with an infected person without wearing a condom.
  • Sharing syringes and needles with someone who already has hiv aids.
  • Being punctured with a surgical instrument or a needle which is contaminated with HIV infected blood.
  • Coming in contact with infected vaginal secretions, semen, HIV infected blood into sores and open wounds.
  • Babies can develop HIV aids from their mothers who have already been infected during breastfeeding or birth.
  • Hiv aids cannot be transmitted by hugging, sharing drinking glasses or kissing.
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Spread by sexual or direct blood contact
Swollen glands in the throat, groin and armpit Immense muslce aches Slight fever Headaches Fatigues

Popular Health Tips

Effect Of HIV On Sex Life - What Should You Know

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
IVF Specialist, Delhi
Effect Of HIV On Sex Life - What Should You Know

What is HIV?
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a kind of lentivirus that causes HIV infection, and over time it causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome causes progressive failure of the immune system leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. A study by anonymous questionnaire in over 900 HIV-positive people using combination therapy (80% men, 20% women) found that around one-third reported less interest in sex.

Effect of HIV on Sex Life

  1. People find that their sexual desire or performance is affected when they are first diagnosed as HIV positive.
  2. A person is worried about the impact of the diagnosis on the current relationship(s) and also on chances of creating new ones, especially with someone who is HIV negative.
  3. Some people may experience lack of pleasure while having sex as they may have to use a condom to avoid transmission of the virus.
  4. Lower (than normal) testosterone levels have been found in people with advanced HIV infection leading to sexual dysfunction.
  5. Untreated HIV can also cause nerve damage (a condition called neuropathy) resulting in erectile problems.
  6. Women with HIV may experience menopause (the end of your menstrual cycle) earlier than women who are HIV negative due to abnormal production of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Fall in the level of these hormones causes a reduction in sexual desire.
  7. Experiences such as receiving a positive HIV test result are likely to be a time of shock, worry, fear, or disbelief because of which sexual desire and performance can be affected.
  8. Concerns about possibly passing HIV on to sexual partners can also affect your desire for sex and intimacy.
  9. Anti-HIV drugs, such as the ddI (didanosine, Videx/Videx EC), may cause numbness in the genital area, causing difficulty in obtaining or sustaining an erection.
  10. In relationships, the diagnosis of HIV may reveal aspects of a person's behavior that they may have wanted to keep private. This may include infidelity or sexuality (such as male homosexuality) or intravenous drug use resulting in feelings of guilt and blame.
  11. Some individuals keep complete abstinence from sexual activity due to the myths and beliefs heard from people in their surroundings. This leads to unhappy relationship between spouses.

Both women and men gave similar reasons for having not resumed sex, and these were:

  1. Not having recovered fully
  2. Insufficient energy
  3. Lack of privacy as they shared a sleeping house with children
  4. Lost interest in sex
  5. Followed the health workers advice of not engaging in sex
  6. Fear of superinfection
  7. Fear that the virus would regain strength
  8. Sex no longer was an important part of their lives

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1328 people found this helpful

AIDS - How It All Started?

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
AIDS - How It All Started?

In a conservative society like India, many people thought that the Anti Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus would never come to their shores because ‘Indians don’t act in those ways.’ However, as moral and sexual attitudes change in the subcontinent, AIDS is fast becoming the new scourge.

When was AIDS first considered as a problem?

AIDS was initially a problem in the early 1980’s with many American scientists noting that many Indian doctors were not aware of the virus’s presence because of cultural attitudes that the virus would never come to India. Still, Dr.Gilada, a doctor working with sex workers and their clients did an informal sample survey of government and private doctors in 1985. Her findings revealed that 80% of them were unaware of AIDS presence in India.

Based on this shocking finding, Gilada decided to establish an awareness program on AIDS because she knew that the virus would become a scourge if doctors did not treat it immediately. She wrote an article about the program which was featured in the October 1985 edition of Time magazine. She soon had a meeting with a representative from Abbot Labs who asked him to test sex workers for AIDS. She did so and found that 3 out of 600 tested positive for AIDS.

Shortly afterward, newspapers published that 6 sex workers in Chennai tested positive for AIDS. Notices were sent to representatives of Parliament, and awareness was raised. She examined sex workers in Chennai and found that 1 had AIDS, and 2 had HIV.

AIDS Education in India

Soon afterward, many ignorant doctors were being asked about the subject by the media, so Gilda decided to educate them about it because she already had the ready tests and information about it. Dr. Suniti Solomon was given official credit for detecting the first case because she was a mentor for a PhD student who was writing a dissertation on the subject.

Why AIDS is still a problem in India

The main reason for this is because of the fear of the disease, and the second is because of the social stigma attached to the primary ways in which it is contracted. Gilda believes that many people in India still keep quiet about the disease because of the ‘carpet culture’ which is prevalent in the nation. Gilda realized that controlling AIDS meant working with sex workers because 1 sex worker had the potential to spread the disease to 1,000 people.

How AIDS is currently being dealt with in India

Better education and awareness means that prevalence of the disease has declined by 90% because of people engaging in safer sex. As can be seen, more awareness and better education can make the ‘king’s disease controllable.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3317 people found this helpful

What You Don't Know About HIV - AIDS

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
What You Don't Know About HIV - AIDS

HIV is simply the virus that causes AIDS while AIDS is the viral disease caused by HIV. HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus while AIDS means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The virus that causes AIDS is a special one because it is not just a virus but a retro-virus that replicates in a fraction of seconds and attacks the human immune system severely. The immune system contains biological "soldiers" known as antibodies that fight against diseases. The weakening of the immune system makes the human body vulnerable to opportunistic infections including tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. I suppose you know what I have just said about HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS is transmitted through the exchange of blood directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person. The use of unsterilized sharp instruments such as a needle and injection syringe can cause the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Unprotected sexual intercourse can cause the transmission of HIV/AIDS. A mother living with HIV/AIDS can transmit to her unborn child through the umbilical cord which connects the mother and the unborn child. Blood transfusion can also lead to transmission of HIV/AIDS if the transfused blood is infected with HIV/AIDS. So there are only four known ways through which you can contact the virus that causes AIDS. There's no way you can contact HIV through mosquito bites, having a hand-shake with someone that is infected, hugging, kissing, and sharing personal effects such as towel and clothes with someone that is living with the virus.

The only way you can find out whether you have contacted the virus is through having a blood test. And you have to go for the blood test from time to time, at least twice in a year, because the virus has an incubation period of about 3-6 months. If you are not yet married abstinence from sexual intercourse is the best option for you but if you cannot abstain you have to protect yourself with a condom. Then if you are married you just have to be faithful to your partner - stick to him or her because he or she has got whatever you are looking for out there. You have to make sure that you avoid unprotected sexual intercourse, and other ways of getting infected with the disease. 

But there is one thing you don't know about HIV/AIDS. What you don't know is that HIV/AIDS kills slower than the stigma attached to it by some people in our various societies. Yes, you heard well. Stigmatization has killed more people living with HIV/AIDS than the virus or the disease itself. Some people living with HIV/AIDS have been rejected by their families and friends simply because they tested positive to the virus. Some people living with the virus have lost their jobs simply because they are living with the virus. Some people have committed suicide because they thought they could not live to face the stigma. More and more people living with HIV/AIDS have died as a result of stigmatization or the psychological trauma that follows the disease.

You have to show love to these people living with HIV/AIDS. You have to show that their families and friends still want them. You have to show them that the society still wants them irrespective of the fact that they are living with HIV/AIDS. You have to let these people know that they are not less human because of their medical condition. You have to let them know that living with HIV/AIDS is not the end of the world. Let them know that they can still live a normal life though they are living with HIV/AIDS. As a matter of fact, anybody can live with the virus so you have no right to stigmatize anybody because of HIV/AIDS. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

1941 people found this helpful

Cochlear Implant - Why They Are Good For You?

ENT Specialist, Delhi
Cochlear Implant - Why They Are Good For You?

Traditionally, people resort to hearing aids in order to take care of their auditory problems. The perception of hearing reduces as age progresses and people find it absolutely necessary to come up with ways by which they can improve their hearing. However, cochlear implants have become extremely popular because of the method that it uses in comparison to the traditional methods of hearing aids.

What is a cochlear implant?

A cochlear implant is an electronic medical device that replaces the function of the damaged inner ear. Unlike hearing aids, which make sounds louder, cochlear implants bypass the damaged hair cells of the inner ear (cochlea) to provide sound signals to the brain.

Who can they help?

The cochlear implant technology can help people who:

  1. have moderate to profound hearing loss in both ears
  2. receive little or no benefit from hearing aids
  3. score 50% or less on sentence recognition tests done by hearing professionals in the ear to be implanted
  4. score 60% or less on sentence recognition tests done by hearing professionals in the non-implanted ear or in both ears with hearing aids.

Many people have cochlear devices in both ears (bilateral). Listening with two ears can improve your ability to identify the direction of sound and separate the sounds you want to hear from those you don’t.

What are the benefits of a cochlear implant?

Many adults with cochlear implants report that they:

  • Hear better with a cochlear implant than with a hearing aid
  • A previous study has shown that people with a cochlear implant achieve an average of 80% sentence understanding, compared with 10% sentence understanding for hearing aids1.
  • Can focus better when in noisy environments.
  • Find it easier to have conversations with people across meeting tables, in restaurants and other crowded places.
  • Reconnect with missed sounds that they could not hear before their cochlear implant.
  • Feel safer in the world as they can hear alarms, people calling out and approaching vehicles.
  • Talk and hear on the phone.
  • Enjoy music.

​​How is a cochlear implant different from a hearing aid?

A cochlear implant is very different from a hearing aid and is appropriate for individuals for whom hearing aids fail to provide benefit. A hearing aid makes sounds louder. Sound still travels through all the portions of the ear (outer ear, middle ear, inner ear) to the hearing nerve. A cochlear implant bypasses these structures and directly stimulates the hearing nerve with electrical energy. Because hearing aids amplify sounds and rely on the hearing system to convey the message, people with severe to profound hearing loss may be able to hear, but not understand speech well. The main objective of a cochlear implant is to improve speech understanding in quiet. Clarity with a cochlear implant is usually better than a hearing aid because the implant does not make sounds louder but delivers them to the hearing nerve.

There are a number of symptoms, which people should be looking out for before concluding that they have a hearing disorder:

  1. Inability to hear properly
  2. Excessive ear pain and stress on the brain
  3. Failure to communicate properly
  4. Discomfort in the mouth or nose
  5. Other feelings of anxiety or stress that may actually be a consequence of the hearing loss problem

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an ENT specialist.

3989 people found this helpful

Genital Tract Infection - Common Causes Behind It!

Gynaecologist, Gurgaon
Genital Tract Infection - Common Causes Behind It!

While genital infections are an uneasy topic to discuss and seek treatment for, ignoring them leads to severe complications like infertility and even death. Most of these can be treated with a regular course of antibiotics and some topical treatment when identified early. Genital infections can be broadly classified into sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted. Read on to know some more common infections in both the categories.

Sexually transmitted diseases:

  1. Chlamydia: Caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis, it is the most common STD (sexually transmitted disease) and affects about 10% of 20 to 30 year olds. It is often asymptomatic, but in few cases, there could be increased vaginal discharge. Left undetected, it can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and subsequently infertility.
  2. Gonorrhea: The bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea causes this STD, which is very common. There could be some irritation or discharge, but is mostly asymptomatic. Like Chlamydia, if not treated, it can lead to PID and infertility.
  3. HIV: The most dangerous of all, it causes AIDS, with immunosuppression as a major effect and affecting overall health. The women affected by HIV are more prone to candida and other genital infections.
  4. Genital warts: This viral infection is caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) and manifests as multiple warts on the vulva, vagina, and cervix and can cause cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (precancerous).
  5. Genital herpes: This virus again causes multiple small vesicles and ulcers around the vagina, painful urination, and swelling of the lymph nodes. Caused by type 1 herpes virus more commonly than type 2, it has a high chance of recurrence.
  6. Trichomonas: This STD manifests with very few symptoms and can go undetected for a long time. It can lead to PID and infertility.
  7. Syphilis: Caused by Treponema pallidum, there are 3 stages. The primary stage presents with an ulcer. The secondary presents with a rash, multiple genital warts, and oral warts/ulcers. It then goes into a latent phase and may subside without progression. In some cases, it reaches the tertiary stage and can affect various body organs including the liver, heart, or brain.

Non-sexually transmitted diseases: There two major genital infections not transmitted by sex are bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis.

  1. Bacterial vaginosis (BV): Constant change in the bacteria mix present in the genital area produces an imbalance and leads to altered pH and therefore BV. Pregnancy, intrauterine device, and frequent douching are proven risk factors for developing BV.
  2. Candidiasis: The genital tract usually has yeasts, and Candida vaginalis is present in the vagina. An overgrowth of this leads to infection. This can be caused by use of antibiotics (which destroy the good bacteria), diabetes, pregnancy, and birth control pills.

Early diagnosis and intervention of these infections can prevent severe symptoms in most cases. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.

2634 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Sir a suspected exposure with ahouse lady before 7 years after incubation period done 9card test and one elisa test in various lab all are negative still fear am asked doubt to the doctors via Lybrate drs say to me if tests are negative you are free from hiv avoid thinking About hiv and do not search google and internet about hiv but one Dr. advised me to test hbs ag, vdrl and tke hbv vaccine am confused sir any need of further test every morning am started to thinking about replay of doctors my thought is now passed 7 years any chance togot hiv these tests are sufficient please give an accurate replay thank you.

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
I Advise you for the tests HBsAg and VDRL, as you are not only at risk if HIV but also other STDs. Hbv is vaccine preventable so asked you to take vaccines. They are not expensive. Then I told you to take a private consult with audio video chat and then I can guide you properly, but you keep. On doing tests and avoiding personal consultation. long can hiv infected person can live 2.if the infected hiv husband and wife give birth. Will the child be infected, if yes how can one prevent this. 3.Does having Telura tablet give longer life span for infected hiv person.

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
1. With proper treatment HIV infected person can live his full healthy normal life. 2. With proper medicine risk to child is almost zero 3. Yes
1 person found this helpful

Doctors my hiv antibody screening test report us negative in 6 month and western blot test also negative in 6 months. But I am still confused because I have heard if partner have hiv positive you will also. I do not know he is positive or negative. So the antibody can be produce in any time? Or 6 month is enough? Please suggest.

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
90 days window period is enough for HIV. If negative after 90 days it is negative. But also think of other STDs. Take HBV vaccines, they are cheap. If you can afford take HPV vaccines also.

Table of Content

What is HIV AIDS?

Where does HIV arise from?

How does HIV spread?

Play video
HIV/AIDS: Facts You Need To Know!
HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system while AIDS refers to a set of symptoms and illnesses that occur at the very final stage of HIV infection. AIDS is not a virus but but a set of symptoms caused by HIV virus. If untreated, a person s immune system will eventually be completely destroyed.
Play video
HIV PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis) Drugs
Treatment After Exposure to HIV

Namaskar, mai Dr. Vinod Raina, aaj Lybrate k madhyam se aap se baat kar raha hun. Aaj hum baat karege HIV-PEP drugs k baare mein.

Dekhiye agar koi patient ya koi aadmi kisi sex worker k sath sex kar raha hai ya kisi massage parlour mein massage karwa raha hai aur us douran sex karte waqt uska direct contact hua uska ye matlab hai agar vo sex kar raha hai aur uska condom break ho gaya aur uski wajah se wo direct contact mein aa gaya kisi aise wyakti k sath jaha par usko lagta hai k HIV ya STD hone k chances hai to definitely un patients ko turant se turant humare pas aana chahiye. Aaj kal bohot hi badiya aur acchi dawaiya aayi hai jinhe hum kehte hai HIV PEP drugs (Post Prophalyxtic drug agent) jiska ye matlab hai k agar aap sex kar rahe hai aur sex karte dauran aap ka condom burst ho gaya aur burst hone k baad agar aap humare pas within 72hrs aate hai to hum aap ko kuch dawaiyo par daalenge aur agar aap wo dawaiya khayenge to aap ko HIV nahi honge.

100% aap ko protection milega, 100% aap ko HIV se chutkara milega. To dosto meherbani kar k aap ye video zyada se zyada share kare, apne dosto yaaro, jitne bhi aap k well wishers hai unke pas ye video jaana chahiye aur unko ye message milna chahiye k aaj k date mein agar aap ko koi aisi problem hoti hai jaha par aap ko lagta hai k HIV hone k chances hai to turant se turant aap humare paas aaye. Hum aap ko HIV PEP drugs par dalenge aur aap ki jo HIV transmission hai usko rokenge aur 100% aap ko HIV nahi honga.

Dosto aap mere ko sampark kar sakte hai Librate pe ya aap mere clinic mein mil sakte hai. Aap appointment book kar sakte hai nahi to aap mujhse direct baat kar sakte hai.

Play video
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
Causes and Treatment for HIV

A very good evening to all of you. I am Dr Hardik Thakkar. I am a MD physician, and an infectious disease expert speaking from Mumbai. Today I would like to take this opportunity to speak to you on HIV.

It is one of the most dreaded diseases, which can infect a person. As you know about the mode of transmission,

the most common mode of transmission is through the sexual route, whether through the heterosexual route or through the homosexual route.
The second common mode of transmission is accidental injury or from needle stick injuries or accidental injury from blood contamination; that is, contamination of the body surfaces with the blood.
The third, uncommon cause though, is through blood transfusion.
The fourth cause, which is not very common these days, is through the pregnancy, and we are using medication so that this does not happen to the child.
Coming back to the disease, what happens is, with this disease, it affects the helper T cells of your immune system. So as a result of this the CD4 cells, they decrease in the number and the helper cells decrease in the body and they are not able to mount an immune attack on any infection and they can come and attack your body. As a result, the immunity of the person goes down, he gets more vulnerable to infections like tuberculosis, fungal infections, candida infections, respiratory infections, diarrhoea and meningitis. This is because, the immune system is hijacked by the virus. And that is the reason, this is a disease everybody is afraid of. At the moment we do not have any curative options available.

However, we do have medications that help you to suppress the viral load. As a result the CD4 counts increase, and your immunity increases, and the people live a longer life. At the moment I would like to talk about the newest launch of the ART medicine which is dorita.This is a game changing molecule because it is very effective. It does not have side effects. It is produced in India at a much affordable rates.

For more information on the disease and about the different treatment options available , you can get back to me through my website or through Thank you very much.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice