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Hiv Aids - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is HIV AIDS?

AIDS is also known as Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, while HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This disease occurs when the virus damages your immune system by ruining the white blood cells (cells which fight infection). AIDS is defined as the later and more severe stage of HIV.

HIV aids usually spreads by engaging in unprotected sex with people already infected by the virus. It can also be spread by getting in contact with the blood of an infected person. This generally occurs by using needles which have been contaminated. Women who have hiv aids can also pass it on to their child while giving birth or during the course of pregnancy.Blood test is performed to diagnose hiv aids, there isn’t any cure for hiv but consuming certain medicines can fight the virus and reduce pain and discomfort. The drugs used for the treatment of hiv strengthens the immune system so that the condition doesn’t escalate to AIDS. These drugs can have uncomfortable and serious side effects. These drugs don’t usually work for everyone, they only work for a selected number of people. These medications can also help people with hiv aids live longer than usual.

Where does HIV arise from?

The exact reason where the hiv virus came from is not known but according to scientists, a chimpanzee found in Central Africa is the source of the infection (simian immunodeficiency virus or SIV). This virus was transmitted to humans and was mutated into HIV when humans started hunting these chimpanzees and consumed their meat during the olden days.

When hiv starts reaching advanced stages, people may experience signs such as continuous vaginal yeast infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, frequent and severe infections, unexplained tiredness, headaches, dizziness, extreme weight loss, frequent diarrhea, night sweats, frequent fever and dry coughing. Most people can also experience discolored purplish growths on the skin, unexplainable bleeding, abnormal skin rashes, extreme numbness on the muscles, paralysis and mental confusion.

How does HIV spread?

  • Engaging in anal or vaginal intercourse with an infected person without wearing a condom.
  • Sharing syringes and needles with someone who already has hiv aids.
  • Being punctured with a surgical instrument or a needle which is contaminated with HIV infected blood.
  • Coming in contact with infected vaginal secretions, semen, HIV infected blood into sores and open wounds.
  • Babies can develop HIV aids from their mothers who have already been infected during breastfeeding or birth.
  • Hiv aids cannot be transmitted by hugging, sharing drinking glasses or kissing.
Can't be cured, but treatment helps Require medical diagnosis Lab test required Chronic: can last for years or be lifelong Spread by sexual or direct blood contact
Swollen glands in the throat, groin and armpit Immense muslce aches Slight fever Headaches Fatigues

Popular Health Tips

Understanding The Role Of Nutrition In HIV!

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
Understanding The Role Of Nutrition In HIV!

A healthy immune system and optimum physical strength is maintained by an adequate nutritional status of the body. Unexpected loss of weight, loss of appetite, low dietary intake due to ulcers in the mouth and an altered rate of metabolism are common in HIV infected individuals. It is essential to regain the lost weight and the muscle mass in the early stages of the infection since the correction of nutritional status becomes difficult with the progression of the disease.

Certain measures like definitive anti-retroviral therapy combined with the treatment of opportunistic infections like TB, Candidiasis and other bacterial infections along with the provision of nutritive aid in the form of a balanced diet, regular physical activity, and use of appetite stimulants help in improving the general health of the body.  A widespread deficiency of essential nutrition and micro-nutrients is observed among the HIV-infected people. Supplement composition, treatment given and characteristics of the patient vary widely across researches done.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends an intake of 1 Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of each of the required micronutrient.  This may sometimes require taking supplements of the micronutrients.There is a direct relation between HIV infection and malnutrition, where each makes an individual more susceptible to the other. HIV infection can increase the severity of malnutrition and vice versa.

Malnutrition can worsen the progression of HIV, which further in turn further worsens malnutrition. This is an unending cycle, until an intervention occurs. An increase in the nutritional needs, poor intake of nutrients and increased losses through vomiting and diarrhea lead to a poor nutritional status.

  • This causes weight loss and wasting of muscles.
  • Loss of the lean body mass is definitively linked to disease and morbidity.
  • There is a sense of overall lack of energy, fatigue, lethargy and weakness.
  • The immune system is composed of proteins.
  • Reduced intake of proteins in the diet results in a decreased production of the immune cells.
  • Certain amino acids are responsible to aid in the efficient functioning of the immune system.
  • Deficiency of these amino acids impairs immune function.
  • This impairment of the immune system makes the individual vulnerable to various infections.
  • The opportunistic infections like tuberculosis (TB), Candida and bacterial pneumonias are commonly observed in individuals with HIV.

These diseases further strain the immune system and cause disease progression. It is important to know that nutrition acts as an adjunct to appropriate anti-retroviral therapy. Multivitamins, supplements of beta-carotene and Vitamin A, zinc, selenium and probiotics help in maintaining optimum nutrition in an HIV infected individual. Anabolic agents and appetite stimulants help in overcoming muscle wasting. Nutrient-dense meals consumed in small portions at frequent intervals are better accepted in the body rather than the regular 3 large meals.

Water consumption during meals should be avoided, to prevent a feeling of fullness in the stomach due to water rather than food. A healthy and balanced nutrition is essential in living a normal life. Maintaining the lost weight and stamina of the body, replacement of the lost nutrients, vitamins and minerals aid in improvement of the immune function. Proper nutrition can delay progression of the HIV infection into AIDS disease by improving the response of the body to the treatment given.

2629 people found this helpful

How A Child Is At Risk Of HIV?

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
How A Child Is At Risk Of HIV?

How did we achieve HIV-Free Generation? 

Spread of HIV infection from a woman who has transmits HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth (labor and delivery), or breastfeeding (breast milk) is called as ‘Mother to child’ transmission (MTCT) of HIV. It is also termed as the perinatal transmission of the HIV infection or ‘vertical’ transmission. In the absence of medical intervention, perinatal transmission rates are very high, between 20-45% in different parts of the world. 

In various regions of the African subcontinent a large number of HIV infected children are present. It is a major cause of deaths in teens and adolescents in that region. Almost 90% of all HIV infected children live in the sub-Saharan Africa. In some districts of AP, Karnataka, Maharashtra and TN that were highly HIV-prone, we have several HIV infected children and adolescents. The virus replicates in the body and affects the immune system. Due to decreased immunity, various opportunistic infections enter the body and cause AIDS related symptoms. 

Prevention of HIV infection in infants and young children is now a high priority and has been the rallying point for enhanced prevention efforts. MTCT HIV infection can be prevented with adequate measures by way of Anti-retroviral treatment (ART). All expecting mothers who are HIV infected should have access to the preventive medical services throughout the gestation period, during labor and also during breastfeeding. Proper provision of resources with skilled staff and awareness programs can help in avoiding new infection cases. Breastfeeding is the primary source of transmission of infection from mother to child. Basically, once ART is started in an HIV infected pregnant woman that should continue forever. With proper ART course, chances of MTCT are near Zero.

At the Unison Medicare & Research Centre; which is India’s first fully comprehensive clinic for HIV Care and infectious Diseases, during last decade, not a single MTCT has occurred after treating more than 160 such HIV infected mothers.

Even prior to that MTCT rate was lower than 1%. Our motto has been making the mothers virally suppressed commensurate with the global principle of “Undetectable = Untransmittable”! In fact now more and more HIV infected couples have been coming forward for an elective pregnancy. Even HIV un-infected children orphaned by AIDS or living with sick caregivers are at the great risk of emotional and physical abuse, which in turn increases the child’s vulnerability to HIV infection. Reduction of risks to these vulnerable children is of great importance and various programs are being implemented for the welfare of orphans and vulnerable children. 

Various risk factors that are implicated in the transmission of HIV infection from mother to child are as follows: 

  1. Increased viral load 
  2. Genital tract viral load 
  3. Reduced CD4 cell count 
  4. Unprotected sexual intercourse with infected partner 
  5. Smoking, Substance and drug abuse 
  6. Deficiency of Vitamin A and other essential nutrients 
  7. Presence of other Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) 
  8. Pre-term delivery 
  9. Placental disruption 
  10. Invasive monitoring of the fetus 
  11. Breast feeding

In most cases, HIV will not cross through the placenta from mother to baby. In an otherwise healthy mother, risk of child getting infected is low. Prenatal visits shouldn’t be increased until a complication arises. The physician should observe symptoms of AIDS and pregnancy-related complications on a regular basis. HIV may be the direct cause or a marker of a complex interaction of related medical and social conditions that affect pregnancy. Most HIV positive women are usually asymptomatic and have no major obstetrical problems during their gestation period. They should receive similar obstetric antenatal care as the HIV-negative women, unless indicated by the need to provide specific treatment for HIV related conditions. There is no evidence of a need to increase the number of antenatal visits, provided there are no complications of the HIV infection, although additional counseling sessions may be required to reassure the mother and family.

Care of the HIV positive woman during pregnancy should include ongoing counseling and support as an integral part of the management. Invasive diagnostic procedures, such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordo-centesis should be avoided wherever possible, due to a possible risk of infection of the fetus.

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HIV - How It Affects Drug Resistance?

MBBS, MD - Dermatology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV - How It Affects Drug Resistance?

HIV infection is the causative factor of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Worldwide research is being conducted and treatment strategies are being formulated to combat this fatal disease. Fighting HIV is not an easy task, since the disease cannot be completely reversed. However, worldwide use of anti-retroviral therapy has helped in controlling the spread and transmission of disease. Use of medications, regular screening and close contact with caregivers and physicians is necessary for proper management of the disease. Despite, available treatment options, a difficult obstacle that arises before or during the treatment is drug resistance.

Drugs are aimed at targeting the disease-causing pathogens like bacteria and viruses. These pathogens, over a period of time, develop the ability to acquire resistance against the targeted drugs. The pathogens continue multiplying despite the presence of the drug in the system. In today’s scenario, the potent drug combination of anti-retroviral therapy (ARV) has been successful in remarkably reducing HIV-related mortality. However, an increased emergence of resistance to the drug therapy is concerning.

Amongst the various drug classes available in the ARV, no drug is resistance-proof. The drugs belonging to the same class have a similar mechanism of action against the virus. So resistance developed against a particular class of drug inevitably leads to resistance against all the other drugs belonging to that class. An individual with HIV infection may have one or more drug-resistant mutations, which makes the person less sensitive to one or more anti-retroviral drugs. When the replication of virus in the system is not suppressed fully, a resistance towards it develops.

Non-compliance of the ARV results in resistance. Resistant viruses can spread the infection and affect ARV therapy. Drug resistance is usually attributed to inadequate adherence to the regimen. But in some cases, strict adherence to the drug is seen, yet there is a presence of resistance due to poor absorption. This implies that since the drug is not getting adequately absorbed in the body, it is unable to prevent the replication thus leading to drug resistance.

Anti-retroviral treatment is aimed at limiting the replication of HIV in the body. Various drug classes target different steps of replication, which stops further replicating and infecting of the cells. The nucleo-capsid contains viral genome and three enzymes vital to HIV life cycle:

  • Reverse transcriptase - Transcribes viral RNA genome into complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
  • Integrase - Facilitates incorporation of pro-viral DNA into host cell genome
  • Protease - Cleaves viral polypeptide into individual functional enzymes

Drugs targeted on these steps are as follows

  • Nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like Nevirapine and Efavirenz act on the reverse transcriptase enzyme.
  • Integrase inhibitor Raltegravir acts on the Integrase enzyme.
  • Protease inhibitors like Ritonavir, Indinavir, Saquinavir act on the Protease enzyme.
  • Fusion inhibitor Enfuvirtide acts to prevent fusion of HIV with cell membranes.
  • CCR5 inhibitor Maraviroc block the CCR5 co-receptor.
  • A viral mutation occurring at any stage of this process can affect the efficacy of the drug therapy.

The emergence of drug resistance can be managed by evaluation of drug absorption and ensure strict adherence to the drug schedule. Genotype tests can be done to look for drug-resistant mutations in genes. Phenotype tests are done for measuring the ability of a virus in an individual to undergo replication in different drug concentrations. A successfully administered and effectively acted first-line drug treatment, preferably a 3-drug combination, reduces the chances of drug resistance in future.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2472 people found this helpful

HIV - Possible Ways It Can Spread!

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV - Possible Ways It Can Spread!

Anybody can get infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) irrespective of his or her age, sex, race, and religion. The infected person can transmit the infection even when the signs and symptoms are not evident. So, let’s see the possible reasons for which one can get infected.

First, let us know which fluids in the body can contain HIV (when the person is infected):

  • Blood
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Menstrual blood
  • Semen
  • Preseminal fluid
  • Breast milk
  • Lining inside the anus, vagina, and genitalia (mucous membranes)

Other body fluids which don’t contain HIV are:

  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
  • Stool
  • Tears

The ways for transmission of HIV infection are:

Sexual transmission: 

  • When homosexual men have unprotected anal intercourse.
  • When heterosexual men and women have unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
  • Sharing sexual toys and objects with an infected person.
  • Having another sexually transmitted infection which produces open sores or cuts on the genitals through which HIV can enter in the body.
  • When the person providing oral sex has mouth ulcers, sores, or bleeding gums.
  • Lack of circumcision in men as studies have demonstrated that lack of circumcision increases the risk of HIV infection.
  • Using drugs to enhance sex, as this can lead to sex with multiple partners, unprotected sex, or using same needles or syringes for drug administration.

In order of higher to lower possibility of transmission: When homosexual men have unprotected anal intercourse. When heterosexual men and women have unprotected vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Sharing sexual toys and objects with an infected person. Having another sexually transmitted infection which produces open sores or cuts on the genitals through which HIV can enter in the body. When the person providing oral sex has mouth ulcers, sores, or bleeding gums. Lack of circumcision in men as studies have demonstrated that circumcised men have relatively lower chances to get HIV infection. Using drugs to enhance sex, as this can lead to sex with multiple partners, unprotected sex, or using same needles or syringes for drug administration and traumatic sex.

Perinatal transmission:

Infected mothers can pass the virus to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. This transmission can be prevented if the mother takes a proper treatment during pregnancy. 

Blood transmission: 

  • Contact of blood with infected body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal fluid.
  • Using intravenous drugs where people often share needles and syringes.
  • Through blood transfusion (this is rare nowadays because blood samples are checked before blood transfusion) 
  • Healthcare workers who accidentally prick themselves with an infected needle or are exposed to blood or organs of an infected person
  • By using nonsterile instruments (during surgical operation) which may have been used for an HIV-positive patient. Currently, even this scenario is also very rare because precautionary measures are taken care of during surgeries.
  • Due to organ and tissue transplant of an infected person
  • By getting tattoos or body piercing done with shared needles or improperly sterilized devices 
  • By sharing blades and razors with an infected person

HIV does not transmit through: 

  • Skin-to-skin contact like hugging, shaking hands, or kissing
  • Contact with air or water
  • Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat (unless mixed with the blood of an infected person)
  • Sharing a toilet, towels, or bedding
  • By mosquitoes or other insects
  • Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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HIV - How It Can Impact The Overall Health?

MBBS, DDV, FCPS, APEX, Diplomat American Board of Sexology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV - How It Can Impact The Overall Health?

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a genus of Retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over a period leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), if left neglected and untreated. HIV infected person over the months to years present with various signs and symptoms; which vary according to the stages of progression of the infection and effects on the Human Immune System. 

Immune system: HIV destroys CD4 cells, the type of white blood cells that help the immune system fight off any infection or disease, and hampers cellular immune response of the body. On the other hand CD4 cells help HIV virus to set-up its factory for multiplication. Typically CD4 cells have a lifespan of ~72 days. The HIV infected CD4 cell, before the cell dies a self-cell death (Apoptosis), becomes home to producing several HIV cells that comes out as hundreds of fresh viruses to catch other CD4 cells as well as other organs and cells. When several CD4 cells are infected with HIV, get destroyed after producing several viruses, immunity gets weakened. Due to this weakened immunity response; the person tends to have opportunistic infections during that period. The systems worst affected are- respiratory (alveolar spaces), central nervous (glial cells and macrophages), gastro-intestinal (chromaffin cells) and blood (CD4 positive white blood cells). 

Respiratory System: Again due to low immune response, various respiratory infections can occur, such as pneumocystis pneumonia or PCP, tuberculosis and Kaposi's sarcoma. Nervous System: Various bacteria, fungus, and viruses can affect nervous system from other sources of infection due to low immunity response. Common conditions that can affect the nervous system due to AIDS include AIDS dementia complex, lymphoma, and toxoplasmosis, meningitis, encephalitis. These conditions of nervous systems can show symptoms of a recurrent headache, slowed thinking, poor short-term memory, and changes in behavior and coordination. 

Gastrointestinal System: Gastrointestinal disorders are the most common presentation of the HIV or AIDS. The patient having GI infection shows symptoms of prolonged or recurrent diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, abdominal pain, GI bleeding and GI tumors. The most common diseases are: Oral thrush Oral leukoplakia Salmonella, Shiegella infections, Cryprosporidial - Isospora - micro-spora diarrhoea Various effects of HIV on other different organs and functioning are as follows:

  • Mind: In most of the cases, the person infected with HIV suffers from depression. Persons affected with HIV may face lack of pleasure due to use of condoms, may not be careful for others, become suicidal. 
  • Eye: Some opportunistic infection may cause symptoms, such as blurry or double vision, watery or red eyes, pain in eyes and floating spots, sometimes becomes blind. Kidney: Apart from opportunistic infection, medications which are used for the treatment can cause renal damage in the patient.
  • Liver: Many people with HIV also show symptoms of inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is the most common condition amongst HIV patients.
  • Skin System: Skin can also get affected due to HIV infection. Dermatitis, molluscum, scabies, chickenpox, herpes, psoriasis and hives, Kaposi’s sarcoma (a rare skin cancer) are the most common diseases. They occur in severe form due to low immune response.
  • Musculoskeletal system: Approximately, 70 percent of HIV patients show bone, joint, or muscle involvement. It can include any inflammatory, infective, or cancerous diseases. Myositis, joint effusions, secondary tuberculosis of knee, or hip joint is the most common conditions which develop from it.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

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Popular Questions & Answers

Hello Doc. I had unprotected sex with a female on october 5th this year it's been over 60 days and I have no symptoms. 5 weeks after possible infection I took an rapid hiv test (15 minutes) and it was negative. As I said, I have no symptoms at all. Should I be worried? And still take the 3 month test?

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
You have to do right kind of test at right time there is one concept of Window period that means if some infective micro organism enter into our body and you test on next day your report comes negative even even micro organism present in your body. Test will come positive after overturn number of day, weeks or months onky every disease and every test have different window period hiv 1 pro viral dna QUALITATIVE test has window period of 17 days that means you have to do this test only after 17 days to get accurate result HIV DUO has 3 month window period RAPID HIV ELISA AND OTHER CARD TEST HAS 6 month window period same way HBsAg, HCV and VDRL has window period of 3 month so you have to do it after 3 month of exposure.
1 person found this helpful

Hello doctor I had unprotected anal sex (as bottom) with my friend, he is hiv negative and I also negative, so what is the risk factor to infected to hiv. Please tell me about cure.

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
You can say you both are negative if you both went for hiv 1 pro viral dna qualitative test before more than 17 days after that test none of you had sex with any other one.

Hello Doctor, Cd4 count can be predict from Total lymphocyte count and hiv can transmit through saliva .If I swallow semen cause hiv? Please suggest me.

MBBS, PG Diploma (HIV Medicines)
HIV Specialist, Surat
cd4 can not predict from total lymphocytes count practically hiv do not transmit through saliva if you swallow semen then there is risk of hiv but it s very low from one incidence
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is HIV AIDS?

Where does HIV arise from?

How does HIV spread?

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HIV/AIDS: Facts You Need To Know!

My name is Dr Ishwar gilada and I am one of the first positions in the field of HIV AIDS in India. I started my HIV career in 1985 and I started this private clinic called UNICEF Medical Research Centre in 1995 which is India's first private sector HIV clinic. This is fully comprehensive under all facilities are available here are like consultation, counselling, different type of testing PCR, x-ray, sonography everything is done here. I feel privileged to talk about HIV AIDS then section was started in 1981 in India.

The first cases were in 1985-86 and over the years it has become very much news worthy disease initially it was considered as deadly disease. Lot of people were dying because of HIV AIDS and people were thinking there is no treatment so why should we get the test done. In last 10-15 years it has become chronic manageable disorder and when we talk about Chronic manageable it just means hypertension or Diabetes where you don't have to be sick and you don't have to be dying of HIV AIDS moreover.

The treatment of HIV AIDS has become very cheap. It is affordable so even if somebody cannot afford they can to government Centre where they can get ART or antiretroviral therapy free of charge but even in private setup the treatment which are costing close to 1 lakh to 1.5 Lakh in Abroad. It is costing 2000 to 3000 per month in India. HIV is mainly transmitted through sexual routes also it can be transmitted from mother to child and through blood transfusion however more than 95% of the transmission is from sexual transmission people think that they are not doing anything wrong they are better than others and usually they do not want to take up any test because they think like just I am holier than others and better than others.

However it is just like a ticketless traveller or like a pickpocket where every pickpocketing incident or every ticketless incident is risk by itself you can be caught anytime but every time you are doing that it is at risk. There are people who have done this hundreds of times but cannot get HIV AIDS but there are people who have done it once and they are HIV positive but if you get the test done and if you manage and proper guidance under proper expert then you don't have to die of HIV.

You don't have to be hospitalized for HIV and over the years we have seen you don't lose any years of your life if you are managed very well moreover if you are married and you are infected you can prevent your partner from getting infected if women is positive you can have HIV negative child. Many people do not know this in this clinic we have managed so many hundreds and thousands of patients and in last several years 160 childrens are born with HIV positive mothers and babies are not infected with HIV. So that much has happened now if you compare HIV AIDS with other diseases then there are people who are surviving with HIV AIDS leading full normal life and proper productive life and they are not even getting sick sometimes relative of the patient who are not HIV positive they are getting sick and their dying and they are not getting examine or getting any test done. so in simplistic Hindi I would like to tell, "ab nahi AIDS Ek Khatarnak Bimari par jaanch karne mein hai samajhdari."

India has played a great role in making all the molecules of HIV AIDS which are required for the treatment available and affordable for common people not only so almost 92% world's antiretroviral therapy are HIV treatment is supply from India and we take Pride that India is a different country by itself. What is required is you take precautions if you are HIV positive, if you forgot to take precautions are even after taking precautions you got HIV you get the examination done and if it is HIV positive you start the treatment currently the principal is test and treat you get the test done and if you are positive then start the treatment agreeing to that you are preventing yourself from becoming sick or becoming hospitalized or having any kind of problems where your life span can be shorter and by doing also that.

If you are under any proper care and taking proper medicine then you become undetectable the current principal is if you are undetectable to the virus you are untranslatable of the virus that means if you are undetectable and the virus is not seen in our system where we are doing viral. You can't transfer virus to your spouse or mother to child or to somebody else through your sexual activity so basically if that is done, you are living a perfect normal life so why being shy about it.

Nowadays stigma about HIV AIDS is also going down instead people are feeling to get test done. Lot of people come for pre manage test before both boy and girl want to find out whether they are HIV positive or not if there are any STD or Diabetes it is called pre marriage health check up similarly lot of people taking a major step in life. They want to be sure whether the life is secure if they are infected with anything and that's the way the life is going on the common symptoms majorly is are very much common and their also seen in the diseases like tuberculosis or other such disorders and most of them are like fever cough loose motion weight loss some time they get HIV specific symptoms some of them are like special meningitis.

They can have herpes zosters on a single which are called Dhani orcerin in Hindi and Gujarati so these are the some of the symptoms but however symptom to not come on its own there has to be some history associated with that somebody has taken a risk and then they have symptoms. They must get the examination done and must get the test done once the test is done they can decide the duration of the infection the person could have been infected for some years then we can decide what are the natural course of life? And how much life can be change by adding medicines to the patient? And once the test is done we start the treatment therefore they do not get sick because of the HIV or other related sickness sometimes the illness is cardiothoracic and neuromuscular diseases renal problems.

But diseases are not connected to HIV, because in HIV diseases. Those diseases possibilities manifestation are very less so people with HIV AIDS they need a very much perfect normal life once they are on treatment therefore we should not shy away from the treatment as I told the stigma and discretion of HIV AIDS is going down there has been an HIV AIDS Act 2017 by if someone is not provided with proper care if somebody is discriminated, somebody is stigmatize from HIV the other person can be penalised for even jail for those people who are troubling HIV positive people so my request to those people who are taking risk of sexual activity with partners or unprotected sex they must get their testing done for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases and once if they are positive of HIV get treatment.

If you are negative and continue your life by taking precautions or preventive measures so that you can not get HIV are stds thank you those who feel that they at risk of HIV or STD or do you feel that there are some relatives are at risk of HIV they can go to the website
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Hearing that a person is HIV positive instantly makes us wary of him or her and unconsciously we may begin avoiding social interactions with them. However, HIV does not spread through the air or by water health and hence there is no reason to ostracize HIV positive people.
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Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) For HIV
Me Yogesh Tondon. In this video I am gonna talk about post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for HIV. PEP is the combination of anti-HIV medicines. It is given to you if there is high risk exposure of HIV like condom break, unprotected sex, sexual assault, sharing needles. PEP stops, HIV replicating itself and spreading to your body. Reduces the chances of you becoming HIV positive. It is not effective after 72 hours of exposure. PEP must be taken at the same time. Everyday for 4 weeks. However it does not 100% protect you from HIV. you need to be tested for HIV before and 4th and 6th week after starting PEP. It is safe but it can cause some side-effects like nausea, vomiting and tiredness which can be treated easily. If you think you are in risk of infected HIV, visit your doctor immediately. It is available in all HIV clinic. Thanks for watching the videos. If you wanna contact us, you can contact us through Lybrate or you can visit my clinic, Tondon's Clinic, New Delhi
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