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HIV AIDS Tips

HIV infections - What Are The Stages Of It?

Dr. Satyanarayana Meka 89% (61 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, HIV Management Course, HIV Update Course
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV infections - What Are The Stages Of It?

HIV or the human immunodeficiency virus is the lentivirus which causes HIV infection and leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS.

The symptoms of HIV vary from person to person. There are three main stages of HIV infections, where each stage has different symptoms.

Here are some facts about the three stages of HIV infections along with the accompanying symptoms.

Acute HIV Infection Stage: This is the first stage of HIV infection and after three to four weeks of becoming HIV infected, people experience symptoms, which are similar to flu. This flu usually does not last more than two weeks.

Symptoms include:

  1. Fever
  2. Rashes on the body
  3. sore throat
  4. Swelling of different glands
  5. Headache
  6. Joint and muscle pain
  7. Improper digestion

These symptoms appear and indicate that the body is reacting to the HIV. Infected cells circulate throughout the blood, and the immune system produces HIV antibodies in order to attack the viruses. This process is termed as seroconversion, and it takes place within 45 days of getting infected. The levels of virus in your blood are quite high during this stage.

Clinical Latency Stage: This is the second stage of HIV infection, which follows the early stage. This stage is also known as chronic HIV stage. During this stage, HIV is active, but is reproduced at a very low level. People in this stage may not receive symptoms related to HIV or may get mild indications.

In case of people who do not take medicines for HIV treatment, this stage lasts for a long period. Some people, however, progress faster through this stage. Medicines should be taken to keep the virus in check. During this stage, people can transmit HIV to others very easily in spite of not experiencing any symptoms. People who are on medication stay suppressed virally and have a low level of HIV in their blood, and the risk of transmission is less.

Symptomic HIV infection or AIDS stage: This is the third stage of HIV infection, which is characterized by severe damage to the immune system of an HIV-virus affected person. A patient is likely to have serious infections and gets bacterial or fungal diseases. The infections are termed as opportunistic infections. The patient is now said to be having AIDS.

The symptoms of this stage are:

  1. Loss of weight
  2. Diarrhoea
  3. Sweating at night
  4. Fevers and persistent coughing
  5. Problems in the mouth and skin
  6. Infections on a regular basis
  7. Illness and development of other diseases.

HIV infection affects the body via three stages and leads to AIDS in the third stage. Each stage is accompanied by several symptoms.

HIV - Be Careful About Your Sex Life!

Dr. Deore Sapana 92% (28 ratings)
MBBS
HIV Specialist, Nashik
HIV - Be Careful About Your Sex Life!

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is a virus which causes HIV infection and leads to "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" or AIDS.  HIV is transmitted by different means and ways.

Unprotected sex is a primary mode of transmission of the HIV virus from an infected person to a healthy person.  Unprotected sex refers to having sexual intercourse without using a condom or any other mode of protection. It leads to HIV transmission along with other sexually transmitted infections.

How does HIV occur from unprotected sex?
While having sex without protection, the HIV present in the body fluids such as blood, sperm, vaginal fluid, pre-cum or anal mucus of an HIV infected patient can pass on to the body of his/her partner. The transmission occurs through the membranes of the penis in men, vagina in women, the rectum and also through mouth and throat. It is more likely for an HIV patient to pass on the virus during the first few months after getting infected. This is because the virus spreads over body fluids during this stage.

Which types of sex are more risky?
HIV is transmitted the most by having vaginal or anal sex. Anal sex accounts for being the riskiest because the lining present in the anus is much more delicate than the vaginal lining. It is prone to more damage, easily. There are two types of anal sex: receptive anal sex and insertive anal sex. Receptive anal sex is more risky. 

HIV can also be acquired from oral sex. This can happen in case the person giving oral sex has ulcers in the mouth, sore and bleeding gums. In case the person receiving the oral sex is already infected, the other person gets HIV.

A person who has sex with multiple partners regularly is at a high risk of getting HIV because of unprotected sex. You can also take the package for Having Safe Sex

 

Prevention:
Getting HIV from unprotected sex can be avoided if you use these precautions:

  1. Condoms: Condoms offer the precaution against HIV infection from anal or vaginal sex. They should be used by men before any kind of sexual contact to restrict the passing of semen or fluid, which may be infected by HIV.
  2. Lubricants: Sex is made easier by using lubricants and reduces the risk of tearing in the vagina or anus due to friction. The risk of a condom breaking is reduced using lubricants.
  3. Dental Dams: This is another precautionary device, which is a small sheet of plastic. It has to be placed to cover the mouth of the vagina or anus and reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

Unprotected sex is the primary cause of HIV and people who do not take precautions before sex are likely to be infected by HIV. If you wish to discuss about any specific sexual problem, you can consult a specilized sexologist and ask a free question.

What Is Addison's Disease?

Dr. Rajarshi Mukhopadhyay 85% (20 ratings)
FRCP (Edinburg), DM - Endocrinology, CCT (Endocrinology), MRCP - Diabetes & Endocrinology, MRCP (UK), MD & DNB - General Medicine, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Endocrinologist, Kolkata
What Is Addison's Disease?

While cold and cough are common, diseases like Addison’s disease are rare. It is also known as chronic adrenal insufficiency or hypocortisolism as it is a result of insufficient production of hormones like cortisol and aldosterone by the adrenal glands. This disease can affect men and women of any age.

There are two types of Addison’s disease. These are:

  1. Primary adrenal insufficiency: In this case, the adrenal glands themselves have a problem.
  2. Secondary adrenal insufficiency: If the hormone production in the adrenal glands is restricted by a problem that has started somewhere else like the pituitary gland, for example, it is known as secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Primary adrenal insufficiency is more common of the two. This could be triggered as a result of autoimmune diseases or a long lasting infection such as HIV, tuberculosis and some fungal infections. Cancer can also cause this type of Addison’s disease.

Secondary adrenal insufficiency is usually caused by a problem with the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus as they are responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate the adrenal glands. Damage caused to the pituitary gland by tumors or radiation and surgery can also interfere with hormone production. Prolonged and improper use of steroid hormones can also trigger this condition.

Addison’s disease has a very slow progression and its symptoms develop gradually over time. Some of these symptoms are:

  1. Weight loss and loss of appetite
  2. Extreme fatigue
  3. Hyperpigmentation
  4. Low blood pressure
  5. Craving for salt
  6. Nausea and diarrhea
  7. Pain in the abdomen and joint pains
  8. Irritability
  9. Depression
  10. Loss of body hair and sexual dysfunction in women

Treatment for Addison’s disease involves hormone replacement therapy. This aims at correcting the hormone levels in the body. Hormone replacement therapy includes oral corticosteroids and corticosteroid injections. The dosage of these steroids could vary depending on the situation. For example, the doctor may suggest a temporary high dosage when the patient is in a stressful condition. Along with this, sodium is also recommended especially during the summer months and while exercising. This medication must be taken regularly as skipping a single dose can be dangerous.

In some cases this condition can become life threatening. An addisonian crisis causes a drop in blood pressure, sugar and a spike in potassium levels in the body. This requires immediate medical attention and can be treated with intravenous injections of hydrocortisone, saline solution and sugar.
 

1 person found this helpful

How HIV & TB Are Related?

Dr. D G Saple 90% (10 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Dermatology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
How HIV & TB  Are Related?

Tuberculosis is an opportunistic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The infections occurring in people with weak immunity as compared to the people with a healthy immune system are called as opportunistic infections. As, HIV enters the human body, it replicates and weakens the immune system which in turn increases the risk of contracting Tuberculosis in people already suffering from HIV infection.

An HIV and Tuberculosis co-infection occurs when an individual has both, the HIV infection and an either latent or active TB disease simultaneously.  Each disease acts in speeding up the progress of the other, when HIV and TB infection is present together in the body. HIV infection speeds up the progression from latent to active Tuberculosis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis also accelerates the progression of replication and spread of the HIV infection.

HIV infection and Tuberculosis are totally different type of infectious diseases. HIV is a viral infection and TB is a bacterial one. An HIV infected person will not contract TB unless a contact happens with a TB infected person. TB spreads via droplet infection and is communicable. If a person lives in a country with a high prevalence rate of TB, an HIV patient is highly susceptible to contracting the infection. In the similar manner, a person suffering from TB gets infected with the HIV infection only through the blood and bodily fluids borne route, with unprotected sexual intercourse with an HIV infected individual being the most important cause.

Amongst all the other opportunistic infections, TB occurs at an earlier stage in the course of an HIV infection than most other opportunistic infections. Mortality rate in the co-infected patients is more than twice that of HIV infected individuals without a TB infection. Even if a patient is undergoing anti-retroviral therapy, the death rates remain high in co-infected individuals.The natural history and course of TB gets altered in people with an infected immune system. The damage to immunity due to HIV infection causes a drastic reduction in the pathogen killing capacity of the body. In such patients if there is no anti-retroviral treatment prescribed, then the latency period between the infection and progression of disease gets eliminated.

An active phase of TB is observed in such individuals progressing within a short span of time, ranging from weeks to months, rather than years as it normally should be spanning. Risk of progression from a latent stage to an active stage of TB is around 10-15 times greater in an HIV infected individual as compared to the non-infected person. Such individuals also communicate the disease more rapidly to others.Pulmonary tuberculosis in an HIV infected person can present similar symptoms like that of a classic TB disease. However, a co-infection can sometimes show less presenting TB symptoms, where even the chest X-ray scans can be observed to be normal. A ‘subclinical’ phase of Tb in co-infected patients can cause delay in the diagnosis of the symptoms and subsequently affect the prognosis due to lack of timely treatment.

Social stigma and discrimination has caused an obstacle in provision of adequate treatment for people with HIV. Proper counseling  and initiatives taken to provide indiscriminate care can aid in identification of co-infection and earlier stages. Anti-retroviral treatment teamed up with anti-tubercular drug regimen is prescribed and a successful treatment for drug sensitive cases of TB can be provided with medications for 6-8 months.

2 people found this helpful

HIV-AIDS - Things You Didn't Know About It!

Dr. George Oommen 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, DIM - L.P.S Institute of Cardiology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
HIV-AIDS - Things You Didn't Know About It!

HIV is simply the virus that causes AIDS while AIDS is the viral disease caused by HIV. HIV means Human Immunodeficiency Virus while AIDS means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The virus that causes AIDS is a special one because it is not just a virus but a retro-virus that replicates in a fraction of seconds and attacks the human immune system severely. The immune system contains biological "soldiers" known as antibodies that fight against diseases. The weakening of the immune system makes the human body vulnerable to opportunistic infections including tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. I suppose you know what I have just said about HIV/AIDS.

HIV/AIDS is transmitted through the exchange of blood directly or indirectly from an infected person to another person. The use of unsterilized sharp instruments such as a needle and injection syringe can cause the transmission of HIV/AIDS. Unprotected sexual intercourse can cause the transmission of HIV/AIDS. A mother living with HIV/AIDS can transmit to her unborn child through the umbilical cordwhich connects the mother and the unborn child. Blood transfusion can also lead to transmission of HIV/AIDS if the transfused blood is infected with HIV/AIDS. So there are only four known ways through which you can contact the virus that causes AIDS. There's no way you can contact HIV through mosquito bites, having a hand-shake with someone that is infected, hugging, kissing, and sharing personal effects such as towel and clothes with someone that is living with the virus.

The only way you can find out whether you have contacted the virus is through having a blood test. And you have to go for the blood test from time to time, at least twice in a year, because the virus has an incubation period of about 3-6 months. If you are not yet married abstinence from sexual intercourse is the best option for you but if you cannot abstain you have to protect yourself with a condom. Then if you are married you just have to be faithful to your partner - stick to him or her because he or she has got whatever you are looking for out there. You have to make sure that you avoid unprotected sexual intercourse, and other ways of getting infected with the disease. 

But there is one thing you don't know about HIV/AIDS. What you don't know is that HIV/AIDS kills slower than the stigma attached to it by some people in our various societies. Yes, you heard well. Stigmatization has killed more people living with HIV/AIDS than the virus or the disease itself. Some people living with HIV/AIDS have been rejected by their families and friends simply because they tested positive to the virus. Some people living with the virus have lost their jobs simply because they are living with the virus. Some people have committed suicide because they thought they could not live to face the stigma. More and more people living with HIV/AIDS have died as a result of stigmatization or the psychological trauma that follows the disease.

You have to show love to these people living with HIV/AIDS. You have to show that their families and friends still want them. You have to show them that the society still wants them irrespective of the fact that they are living with HIV/AIDS. You have to let these people know that they are not less human because of their medical condition. You have to let them know that living with HIV/AIDS is not the end of the world. Let them know that they can still live a normal life though they are living with HIV/AIDS. As a matter of fact, anybody can live with the virus so you have no right to stigmatize anybody because of HIV/AIDS.

2667 people found this helpful

Most Common Beliefs And Facts About HIV And AIDS!

Dr. George Oommen 89% (10 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, DIM - L.P.S Institute of Cardiology
HIV Specialist, Mumbai
Most Common Beliefs And Facts About HIV And AIDS!

Belief: H.I.V. & AIDS are both same. Fact: Both are different.

HIV is basically one type of Virus which is responsible for the infection. It means “Human Immuno Deficiency Virus. AIDS is the last stage after getting infected by HIV. This can be detected after 8 to 10 years of infection. It means Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome.

Belief: HIV is transferred by working or being in contact with HIV infected people. Fact: HIV is not transferred by Social contacts. HIV is not transferred by the given points.

  • By breathing in the same room & atmosphere.
  • By using common toilets & bathrooms.
  • By eating or drinking from the same utensils.
  • By hands shake or normal kissing.
  • HIV is transferred only by infected blood, sperms, vaginal fluid & breast milk.

Belief: If a both husband & wife are HIV infected, no need to use a condom while physical relations. Fact: HIV can be of two types, namely HIV-1 & HIV-2. Husband & wife can get the infection from any of these two types of HIV. If a couple is not using a condom, one or both of them can have the infection of another type of virus. It is possible that the type of virus which is drug resistant i.e. having very little effect of medicines may infect the other partner hence condom must be used.

Belief: HIV infection is mostly seen in sex workers & not found in common people. Fact: In the decade of 1980 & 1990, the HIV infection was found to have infected more sex workers & less common people. But by Public Awareness Programmes & other relevant schemes of the Government, infection of HIV is reduced by 80% in sex workers. While the infection of HIV is found to have increased in common people. HIV is not related to work or religion of the person. HIV can be found in any person who is related to the following activities -

  • Having unsafe physical relations
  • By transferring the infected blood
  • By injecting the infected needle.
  • By feeding the baby from the infected mother.

Belief: HIV infection means death. Fact: Not true. It is true that the HIV virus cannot be removed from the body of the infected person but the science has at least proved that HIV virus can easily be controlled by medicines. By proper medications, one can lead a normal life & early death can also be avoided. By recently invented 30 medicines, one can remain free of AIDS for the whole life.

Belief: HIV negative report proves a person to be HIV free. Fact: Not true. One can have HIV infection even though having negative blood report. For confirmation, one has to retest blood after three months & should be free of any risky activities during these months.

Belief: HIV is not transferred by the person under medication of HIV. Fact: Due to ART (Anti-retroviral Therapy) the virus is highly reduced but are never abolished from the body. Hence the chances of infection are low but are not at all zero.

Belief: Chances of HIV are zero by relations with a reliable & healthy partner. Fact: The infection of HIV can develop symptoms from 8 to 10 years. HIV can be transferred not only by physical relations but also by infected blood or infected needle.

Belief: The Oral Sex does not lead to transfer HIV. Fact: HIV can also be transferred by Oral Sex. HIV is mainly transferred through sperms, vaginal fluid, mothers’ milk & blood transfer. If one has a cut or ulcer or swelling of gums or oral or throat infection, the HIV in the sperm of the infected partner can infect the blood of the other partner through these oral infections which finally leads to HIV infection.

Belief: HIV can be cured by Ayurvedic or other conservative medicines. Fact: No person till today is cured of HIV. HIV infected patient or any patient of the chronic disease are frustrated & are tired mentally, physically & financially too. Some cheaters make dangerous plays with the life of frustrated patients by fake promises & false guarantee to fill their pockets. It is a very humble request that never let any Tom, Dick & Harry to play with your life under false promises. This will only lead to physical & financial loss only.

Belief: HIV infection is possible by kissing. Fact: This has both possibilities. The infection depends on the type of kissing. The French kiss or open mouth kiss may lead to infection but very rarely. If both are having cuts, ulcers in the mouth or both having throat or oral infection, that may lead to infection but chances are very less.

Belief: Contraceptive pills can prevent the infection hence one need not use the condom. Fact: This is wrong. The contraceptive pill works on the Ovary & restricts the new formations while HIV virus enters through the vagina. A condom prevents the contact of sperm & vagina. Thus condom works as contraception as well as HIV protection. While pills work only as contraception.

Belief: One cannot have more than one venereal disease. Fact: One can have more than one venereal disease. If one has not obtained treatment for venereal disease, the chances of HIV infection are 6 to 10 times more. If any ulcer has developed due to venereal disease, the chances are raised to 10 to 300 times.

Belief: If one has HIV & other has not, then safe sex is not possible & such couples should not have physical relations. Fact: A physical relation is the prime need of married life. It is required to make the physical relations safe & save one non-HIV partner from HIV infection. This can be achieved by use of condoms. The couple can have safe sex with a use of condoms.

Belief: The test for HIV should not be done. If it comes positive than what one shall do? Fact: By learning about HIV positivity one can have timely treatment & can lead a normal life with ART medicines. In the counseling for HIV test, one is explained about the HIV & other venereal diseases which will help you to live a healthy life.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by mosquito bites. Fact: HIV virus has very short life (less than one minute) outside the human body. As such mosquitoes suck the blood from our body & does not inject hence mosquito bite cannot be the cause of HIV.

Belief: An HIV-infected woman should not give birth to a child as the newly born shall have HIV. Fact: If HIV-infected woman is not under treatment, the newly born baby has 30% to 45% chances of HIV. If the woman is under ART medications, her delivery is done by caesarean section & infant is given medicines & by proper modifications in feeding, the chances of HIV are reduced to 2% from 45%. Thus by proper treatment 98 % chances are there for the infected woman to deliver HIV-free baby.

Belief: HIV can be cured by physical relations with virgin girls. Fact: This type of belief does not prevail in our country but this type of belief prevails in African Continent. This has no scientific logic & is impossible to be true. Instead of the abolition of HIV, the girl can have HIV infection.

Belief: HIV can be cured by physical relations with animals. Fact: This type of belief does not prevail in our country but this type of belief prevails in African Continent. This has no scientific logic & is impossible to be true.

Belief: HIV medicines are very costly & not affordable by the middle-class people. Fact: In the present market, various companies have launched the medicines for HIV. This has resulted in the reduction of cost of medicines. The medicine for a month can be purchased for Rs.1000.00 to 1500.00.

Belief: HIV medicines have side effects which can cause trouble to the patient. Fact: This is not true. But the fact is that HIV medicines do have side effects but every medicine does not have it & every patient may not suffer from it. Generally, some patients may suffer normal side effects for 5 to 30 days. But as time goes 98% of people will be free of the side effects. If the side effects prevail, then the medicines may be changed as per the advice of the doctor. In some rare cases in side effects are serious; the medicines can be altogether changed & other suitable medicines are prescribed. Thus whenever there is a side effect observed to a patient, one should not either change the medicines or stop using it. In such cases, the doctor may be consulted to get the suitable solutions by changing or altering the medicines. It is not advisable to change or stop the medicines without consulting doctor.

Belief: HIV is transferred by placing the infected needle on the seats of the theatre. Fact: These types of rumors go viral by media like the internet through email, WhatsApp etc. HIV cannot be transferred like this as the virus has a very short life outside the human body. People should not pay attention to these types of rumors & should not spread these types of rumors.

Belief: HIV is transferred through cold drinks. Fact: These types of rumors go viral by media like the internet through email, WhatsApp etc. HIV cannot be transferred like this as virus are very sensitive & can survive only in human body, blood & some of the fluids of human parts. It has a very short life outside the human body. Hence it is impossible to transfer them through eatable items. People should not pay attention to these types of rumors & should not spread these them.

Belief: HIV medicines are to be used at the precise timings. People avoid medicines as they are not able to maintain the timings. Fact: The fixed time for intake of the medicine has reasoned that the effect of the medicine shall prevail between two successive doses. To obtain the maximum output, medicines are prescribed for 2,8,12 or 24 hours’ interval. One should try to follow the timings but should not avoid due to the fear of alteration in timings.

Belief: Person suffering from both T.B. & HIV should start the treatment of HIV only after completion of T.B. treatment. Fact: Normally, ART for HIV starts after six to eight weeks of the treatment of T.B. The reason being that the body shall adjust to the medicine within six to eight weeks. Any side effects of the medicines shall also be seen during this time & can be taken care of. During this period, T.B. Bacteria shall also be reduced & chances of complications arising out of it shall also be reduced. But this does not mean that the ART shall be started after completion of T.B. treatment. On the contrary, if the ART is not started after six to eight weeks, the effect of T.B. medicines shall not be seen as the immunity shall go on decreasing which results into the little effect of medicines. Hence if both T.B. & HIV are detected, the medicines for T.B. shall be started first & it is necessary to start the HIV medicines after six to eight weeks.

Belief: If intake of medicine is skipped, it does not matter. Fact: HIV is a virus & to keep it in control, the suitable medicine should be present all the time in the body. The growth of the virus is controlled due to the presence of this medicine only. If a dose is skipped, the growth of the virus shall start & frequent skipping of the doses for a long time will result into non-effect of medicine on the virus & infection will be beyond control. This has to be rectified by the change of the medicine which may be costly & may cause some saviour side effects.

Belief: HIV positive person having no trouble may not require any medicine. Fact: The time period between the infection & symptoms is 8 to 10 years. HIV drastically reduces the C.D.4 cells of immunity. They are reduced from 400-1500 to less than 200 due to HIV within 8 to 10 years. When this reduction process goes on in the body, body parts are damaged by HIV virus. The HIV virus damages the body parts internally though there may not be any obvious symptoms. Hence ART medicines for HIV should be started immediately on detection of HIV.

Belief: If an HIV-infected person gets involved in unsafe physical relations, the possibility of HIV transfer every time is 100%. Fact: This is most commonly observed misunderstanding. If one has HIV out of two persons involved in physical relations, chances of HIV infection for a single relation are just 1%. If the frequency of the unsafe physical relations increases, the chances of HIV infection increase. For the ease of understanding we can say that if a couple goes for unsafe physical relations 100 times, the chance of HIV infection is just once. As every physical relation does not result in the conception, in the same way, the chance of HIV infection is just 1%.

Belief: HIV positive person should not marry. Fact: This is a misunderstanding prevailing in the society.  An HIV-positive person can live a happy married life irrespective of his profession. He has to be careful of certain matter. HIV positive person has the moral responsibility to take care not to spread HIV to others. Generally, HIV positive person prefers to marry HIV positive person but in some rare cases, HIV-positive person is found to have married HIV negative person. In such cases, HIV-positive is morally bound to inform the healthy partner about the HIV positivity. The partner should be aware of the risks involved; undergoing treatment & necessary cares to be taken. HIV positive person should never hide HIV positivity to his/her partner to avoid the risk of transfer of HIV to healthy partner. HIV positivity is a fact that cannot be hidden for a long time & once it comes out, the marriage shall end. Thus, the HIV-positive person should have a counseling of a doctor before the marriage.

Belief: Pharmaceutical companies have invented the medicines to cure HIV but are not launching them with the intention to earn more through present medicines. Fact: Some people believe in this type of rumors. Actually, companies can earn lot more by selling HIV abolishing medicines rather than controlling drugs. Hence this is a totally baseless rumor.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by shaving blade or toothbrush. Fact: Not a single case is recorded till date in which HIV is transferred through blade or toothbrush. HIV is not transferred through blade or toothbrush but it does not mean that one should use the blade & brush of HIV-positive person because HIV may not be transferred but some other diseases may be transferred through blade & brush.

Belief: HIV can be transferred by Fish pedicure. Fact: HIV virus cannot survive outside human body hence HIV cannot be transferred by Fish pedicure. People should not believe in this type of fake rumors.

Belief: If HIV is detected, the society shall be informed by laboratory staff & doctors which will ruin the social prestige. Fact: Many people are aware that they were involved in the activities which may lead to HIV. They are aware that they may have HIV but avoid the test for HIV with a fear of declaration to the society & thereby potential damage to their social prestige. This fear is not genuine as staff, doctor of laboratories are very sincere & are very careful. The result of the test is not disclosed to any other except the person himself. Details of the test are kept a secret & not disclosed to anyone without permission of the person. Those who avoid the HIV test due to the above fear should come forward & should go for HIV test at once.

Belief: Every HIV-infected person suffers AIDS. Fact: The HIV was found before 33 years. Initially, every HIV positive person used to suffer from AIDS. Presently, science has invented many medicines for HIV. Nearly 30 medicines are available in the world for HIV out of which 15 medicines are available in India. Presently, HIV positive person is given a single tablet comprising of three different drugs. Formerly, the patient was supposed to have 32 tablets per day but as scientific developments, the person has to have a single tablet per day. This ART drugs are not able to abolish HIV completely but restricts the growth of virus & thereby reduces the present virus to 99%. As HIV is not totally abolished, the patient is supposed to continue the medicine throughout the life. If HIV is detected in the early stage & medication is started immediately with a punctual consumption, the HIV does not lead to AIDS. Thus HIV shall lead to AIDS or not depends on the stage of detection, the stage of medication i.e. number of C.D.4 cells at the time of starting the medication, regular check-up & clinical inspection.

Belief: HIV is found only in poor & in some specified class only. Fact: This is a totally wrong belief. HIV can infect any person from any class, any gender or from any profession. HIV infection is caused by:

  1. Unsafe sexual relations
  2. By use of HIV infected needle
  3. By blood transfer from HIV-infected person
  4. Infants b an infected woman.

Thus, HIV infection can happen to any person from any class, any profession, and any religion. This depends on the activities in which a person is involved.

Belief: HIV is transferred through unsafe sexual relations only. Fact: Whenever a person is known to have HIV, people generally believes him to be characterless. They believe that he must have been involved in the unsafe sexual relations. But in every case this may not be true. Sometimes, HIV is transferred through infected needle, or infected blood transfusion & the person may be totally innocent. Out of total HIV infected women in India, 85% are innocent as they are infected by their husbands who are involved in unsafe relations outside. Thus every HIV person is not to be suspected as of bad character. The HIV patients highly need love, sympathy & trust from the society.

Belief: It is not required to change the syringe of an injection. Only needle is to be changed to prevent HIV infection. Fact: This belief prevails even among the doctors & hospital staff. Every time both syringe & needle are to be changed. There are chances of HIV infection if only needle is changed.

Belief: HIV infected people are always sick & have a very short life. Fact: This is not true. Normally symptoms of HIV are not seen till 8 to 10 years of infection. During these 8-10 years virus causes internal damage to various body organs. When the damage exceeds, the symptoms become visible. If the detection & medication are at the early time, person may lead his whole life healthily. One has to remember to continue the medicines for whole life & that too regularly.

Belief: HIV is found only in young people & old ones are safe from HIV. Fact: HIV infection can happen to anybody at any age. It depends on the activities done by individual. Generally people believe that olds do not need to have sexual relations but it is not true. Off course, such people may not be less in numbers.

Belief: HIV leads to death only & hence medicines are useless. Fact: Presently, there are 30 medicines available in the market for HIV. Person can lead healthy life with the help of these medicines. Person should have a positive attitude & should consult doctors for proper medications.

Belief: HIV is transferred by using the same swimming pool. Fact: HIV virus is very sensitive & cannot survive outside the human body. Virus cannot survive in water & hence they will not be able to infect others.

HIV/AIDS - Knowing The Preventive Measures!

Dr. Satyanarayana Meka 89% (61 ratings)
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, HIV Management Course, HIV Update Course
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV/AIDS - Knowing The Preventive Measures!

Hearing that a person is HIV positive instantly makes us wary of him or her and unconsciously we may begin avoiding social interactions with them. However, HIV does not spread through the air or by water and hence there is no reason to ostracize HIV positive people. To understand how to prevent the transmission of HIV it is essential to first understand how the virus is transferred from one person to another. There are three ways in which this virus can be transmitted from an HIV positive person to another. These are:

  1. Through blood
  2. Through bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal or rectal fluids
  3. From a mother to a child

Keeping this in mind, here are a few ways to prevent the transferring of HIV from one person to another:

  1. Use only Disposable Syringes: Getting pricked by a needle that has been used on a HIV positive patient can increase your risk of suffering from the disease. Hence, insist on using a fresh needle for blood tests etc. Also ensure that the syringe and needle and destroyed after being used.
  2. Registered Blood Banks: In case you need a blood transfusion, get blood only from registered blood banks. These blood banks need to run HIV screening tests before collecting blood and hence are guaranteed to have only HIV negative blood as opposed to local quacks.
  3. Use a Condom: The only way to prevent the transference of HIV cells while having intercourse is by using a condom. This is essential not only for vaginal intercourse but for anal intercourse as well.
  4. Get Tested: Today, an HIV screening test can be easily done and your results are guaranteed to be kept confidential. STDs can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV or spreading it to others. Get tested regularly for STDs and insist that your partners are checked for it as well. This is crucial if you have more than one sexual partner.
  5. Limit the Number of Sexual Partners: The more number of people you have sex with, the higher your chance of getting infected with the virus and transmitting it to others. Remember, HIV has no overt symptoms that are visible to the naked eye.

HIV cannot be cured but it can be controlled through medication. Hence, if you suffer from this disease, follow the doctor's prescription religiously to prevent transmitting the virus to your partner.

4920 people found this helpful

एड्स होने के कारण - Aids Hone Ke Karan!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
एड्स होने के कारण - Aids Hone Ke Karan!

एड्स (अक्वायर्ड इम्युनो डेफिशिएंसी सिन्ड्रोम) एक गंभीर बीमारी है जो कि ह्यूमन इम्युनोडेफिशिएंसी वायरस (एचआईवी) के कारण होती है. इसमें शरीर की प्रतिरक्षा को गंभीर नुकसान पहुँचता है. एचआईवी/एड्स के कारण किसी व्यक्ति की संक्रमण से लड़ने की क्षमता कम हो जाती है. सफेद रक्त कोशिकाएं होती हैं जो शरीर की प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती हैं. एचआईवी इन कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है. एचआईवी पॉजिटिव होने का मतलब हमेशा यह नहीं होता कि आपको एड्स है. एड्स, एचआईवी संक्रमण का तीसरा और अंतिम चरण है. हालांकि, अनुपचारित एचआईवी संक्रमण समय के साथ एड्स बन सकता है. एचआईवी से संक्रमित होने के लिए आपके शरीर में संक्रमित व्यक्ति का रक्त या वीर्य या योनि स्राव प्रवेश करना चाहिए. आप साधारण संपर्क के माध्यम से संक्रमित नहीं हो सकते. एचआईवी हवा, पानी या कीड़े के काटने के माध्यम से प्रसारित नहीं होता. आप कई तरीकों से एचआईवी से संक्रमित हो सकते हैं. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से हम आपको एड्स होने के कारणों के बारे में बताएं ताकि इस विषय में जागरूकता फैल सके और लोगों की परेशानियाँ कम हो सकें.

1. यौन संबंधों द्वारा
आप आप किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध बना कर संक्रमित हो सकते हैं अगर उस व्यक्ति का रक्त, वीर्य या योनि स्राव आपके शरीर में प्रवेश करता है. योनि, गुदा द्वारा या मौखिक यौन सम्बन्ध बनाने से संक्रमण फ़ैल सकता है. यह वायरस सेक्स के दौरान मुंह में होने वाले छाले या गुदा या योनि में होने वाले छोटे से चीरे से भी फ़ैल सकता है.

2. रक्त के संचरण द्वारा
भले ही एचआईवी हवा, पानी या कीड़े के काटने के माध्यम से प्रसारित नहीं होता है लेकिन कई ऐसे तरीके हैं जिनसे ये फैल सकता है. कई मरीजों के मामलों में ऐसा भी देखा गया है कि एड्स का वायरस रक्त संचरण के माध्यम से भी प्रसारित होता है.

3. सुइयों के साझे प्रयोग द्वारा
एचआईवी वायरस तब भी फैल सकता है अगर एक सुई जो किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति पर इस्तेमाल की गयी हो, किसी असंक्रमित व्यक्ति पर इस्तेमाल कर दी जाए. इसलिए जब भी सुई का इस्तेमाल करना हो आपको हमेशा नई का ही इस्तेमाल करना चाहिए.

4. प्रसव या स्तनपान द्वारा
अगर एक औरत एचआईवी वायरस से संक्रमित है तो वह गर्भावस्था या प्रसव या स्तनपान द्वारा अपने बच्चे को भी इससे संक्रमित कर सकती है. प्रसव या स्तनपान के दौरान भी ये फैल सकता है इसलिए बेहतर यही है कि चिकित्सक से राय ले लें.

एचआईवी/एड्स से बचाव
अभी ऐसी कोई वैक्सीन उपलब्ध नहीं है जो एचआईवी संक्रमण को रोक सके या उन लोगों का इलाज कर सके जिन्हें एचआईवी/एड्स है. एचआईवी/एड्स से बचने का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण तरीका है कॉन्डम का इस्तेमाल करना. पुरुषों और महिलाओं दोनों के लिए कॉन्डम उपलब्ध है. असुरक्षित यौन संबंध बनाना एचआईवी के प्रसार का सबसे आम तरीका है. आप पूरी तरह से एचआईवी के जोखिम को ख़तम नहीं कर सकते जब तक आप यौन सम्बन्ध बनाने से खुद को रोक नहीं लेते. हालाँकि इसके जोखिम को कम करने के लिए आप कुछ सावधानियां बरत सकते हैं.
* अपनी और अपने साथी की स्थिति जानने के लिए एचआईवी के लिए परीक्षण कराएं.
* अन्य यौन संचारित रोगों (एसटीडी) के लिए परीक्षण कराएं. यदि आपको ऐसी कोई बीमारी है तो इलाज करें क्यूंकि एसटीडी होने से एचआईवी का खतरा बढ़ जाता है.
* कंडोम का उपयोग करने का सही तरीका जानें और उनका उपयोग हर बार जब आप यौन संबंध बनाते समय करें.
* अपने यौन साथियों की संख्या को सीमित करें. केवल एक साथी के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध बनाएं जो जो केवल आपके साथ सेक्स करे.
* यदि आपको एचआईवी है तो निर्देश अनुसार अपनी दवाएं लें अपने अपने यौन साथी को इसे प्रसारित करने के जोखिम को कम करें. हालांकि आपको अभी भी कंडोम का उपयोग करने की आवश्यकता है.
* एचआईवी रक्त के माध्यम से भी फैलता है इसीलिए कभी पहले से ही इस्तेमाल की गयी सुइयों या इंजेक्शन का उपयोग न करें.

2 people found this helpful

एड्स रोग कैसे होता है - Aids Rog Kaise Hota Hai!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
एड्स रोग कैसे होता है - Aids Rog Kaise Hota Hai!

एड्स (अक्वायर्ड इम्युनो डेफिशिएंसी सिन्ड्रोम) एक गंभीर बीमारी है जो कि ह्यूमन इम्युनोडेफिशिएंसी वायरस (एचआईवी) के कारण होती है. इसमें शरीर की प्रतिरक्षा को गंभीर नुकसान पहुँचता है. एचआईवी/एड्स के कारण किसी व्यक्ति की संक्रमण से लड़ने की क्षमता कम हो जाती है. सफेद रक्त कोशिकाएं होती हैं जो शरीर की प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली में एक महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभाती हैं. एचआईवी इन कोशिकाओं को नष्ट कर देता है. एचआईवी पॉजिटिव होने का मतलब हमेशा यह नहीं होता कि आपको एड्स है. एड्स, एचआईवी संक्रमण का तीसरा और अंतिम चरण है. हालांकि, अनुपचारित एचआईवी संक्रमण समय के साथ एड्स बन सकता है. एचआईवी से संक्रमित होने के लिए आपके शरीर में संक्रमित व्यक्ति का रक्त या वीर्य या योनि स्राव प्रवेश करना चाहिए. आप साधारण संपर्क के माध्यम से संक्रमित नहीं हो सकते. एचआईवी हवा, पानी या कीड़े के काटने के माध्यम से प्रसारित नहीं होता. आप कई तरीकों से एचआईवी से संक्रमित हो सकते हैं. आइए इस लेख के माध्यम से हम आपको एड्स होने के कारणों के बारे में बताएं ताकि इस विषय में जागरूकता फैल सके और लोगों की परेशानियाँ कम हो सकें.
 

1. यौन संबंधों से
आप आप किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध बना कर संक्रमित हो सकते हैं अगर उस व्यक्ति का रक्त, वीर्य या योनि स्राव आपके शरीर में प्रवेश करता है. योनि, गुदा से या मौखिक यौन सम्बन्ध बनाने से संक्रमण फ़ैल सकता है. यह वायरस सेक्स के दौरान मुंह में होने वाले छाले या गुदा या योनि में होने वाले छोटे से चीरे से भी फ़ैल सकता है.

2. रक्त के संचरण से
भले ही एचआईवी हवा, पानी या कीड़े के काटने के माध्यम से प्रसारित नहीं होता है लेकिन कई ऐसे तरीके हैं जिनसे ये फैल सकता है. कई मरीजों के मामलों में ऐसा भी देखा गया है कि एड्स का वायरस रक्त संचरण के माध्यम से भी प्रसारित होता है.

3. सुइयों के साझे प्रयोग से
एचआईवी वायरस तब भी फैल सकता है अगर एक सुई जो किसी संक्रमित व्यक्ति पर इस्तेमाल की गयी हो, किसी असंक्रमित व्यक्ति पर इस्तेमाल कर दी जाए. इसलिए जब भी सुई का इस्तेमाल करना हो आपको हमेशा नई का ही इस्तेमाल करना चाहिए.

4. प्रसव या स्तनपान से
अगर एक औरत एचआईवी वायरस से संक्रमित है तो वह गर्भावस्था या प्रसव या स्तनपान से अपने बच्चे को भी इससे संक्रमित कर सकती है. प्रसव या स्तनपान के दौरान भी ये फैल सकता है इसलिए बेहतर यही है कि चिकित्सक से राय ले लें.
 

एचआईवी/एड्स से बचाव
अभी ऐसी कोई वैक्सीन उपलब्ध नहीं है जो एचआईवी संक्रमण को रोक सके या उन लोगों का इलाज कर सके जिन्हें एचआईवी/एड्स है. एचआईवी/एड्स से बचने का सबसे महत्वपूर्ण तरीका है कॉन्डम का इस्तेमाल करना. पुरुषों और महिलाओं दोनों के लिए कॉन्डम उपलब्ध है. असुरक्षित यौन संबंध बनाना एचआईवी के प्रसार का सबसे आम तरीका है. आप पूरी तरह से एचआईवी के जोखिम को ख़तम नहीं कर सकते जब तक आप यौन सम्बन्ध बनाने से खुद को रोक नहीं लेते. हालाँकि इसके जोखिम को कम करने के लिए आप कुछ सावधानियां बरत सकते हैं.
* अपनी और अपने साथी की स्थिति जानने के लिए एचआईवी के लिए परीक्षण कराएं.
* अन्य यौन संचारित रोगों (एसटीडी) के लिए परीक्षण कराएं. यदि आपको ऐसी कोई बीमारी है तो इलाज करें क्यूंकि एसटीडी होने से एचआईवी का खतरा बढ़ जाता है.
* कंडोम का उपयोग करने का सही तरीका जानें और उनका उपयोग हर बार जब आप यौन संबंध बनाते समय करें.
* अपने यौन साथियों की संख्या को सीमित करें. केवल एक साथी के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध बनाएं जो जो केवल आपके साथ सेक्स करे.
* यदि आपको एचआईवी है तो निर्देश अनुसार अपनी दवाएं लें अपने अपने यौन साथी को इसे प्रसारित करने के जोखिम को कम करें. हालांकि आपको अभी भी कंडोम का उपयोग करने की आवश्यकता है.
* एचआईवी रक्त के माध्यम से भी फैलता है इसीलिए कभी पहले से ही इस्तेमाल की गयी सुइयों या इंजेक्शन का उपयोग न करें.
 

एचआईवी का इलाज - HIV Ka Ilaaj!

Dr. Sanjeev Kumar Singh 91% (192 ratings)
Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
एचआईवी का इलाज - HIV Ka Ilaaj!

एचआईवी एड्स एक बेहद गंभीर और लगभग लाइलाज बीमारी है. लेकिन कई बार समय से पता चल जाने या बीमारी के ज्यादा न बढ़ने पर पता चलने से इसपर काफी हद तक नियंत्रण किया जा सकता है. इसके उपचार के लिए हम अंग्रेजी दवाइयों के साथ-साथ आयुर्वेदिक दवाइयों का भी इस्तेमाल करके राहत पा सकते हैं. यानि आयुर्वेदिक औषधि से भी एचआईवी/एड्स की चिकित्सा की जा सकती है. यह बात इस विषय पर हुये कई शोधों और आयुर्वेदिक औषधियों के पूर्ण विशलेषण के बाद ही पता चला है. एचआईवी की स्थिति में शतावर व सफेद मुसली के सम्यक प्रयोग से सहयोग मिल सकता है. लेकिन एचआईवी से बचने के लिए सबसे अधिक संयम व सदाचार के पालन पर जोर दिया जाना चाहिए. प्रभावित मरीजों पर आयुर्वेदिक औषधि के परीक्षण, विश्लेषण व संरक्षण पर बल दियाआइए इस लेख के माध्यम से हम एचआईवी के इलाज के विभिन्न पहलुओं पर प्रकाश डालें.

अंग्रेजी दवाइयाँ हैं एचआईवी के इलाज का बेहतर विकल्प
एड्स का कोई इलाज मौजूद नहीं है, लेकिन एंटी-रेट्रोवायरल रेजीम (एआरवी) का सख्ती के साथ पालन करने से काफी हद तक रोग का बढ़ना कम हो जाता है और अतिरिक्त संक्रमण और जटिलताओं की भी रोकथाम होती है.

  1. एचआईवी एंटीवायरल: - संक्रमण की प्रगति धीमी करने के लिए HIV को दबाता है. दूसरों को संक्रमित करने के खतरे को कम करता है.
  2. संक्रामक रोग के डॉक्टर: - संक्रमणों का इलाज करते हैं, जिसमें वे संक्रमण भी शामिल हैं जो गर्म इलाकों में ज़्यादा होते हैं.
  3. नैदानिक मनोविज्ञानी: - बातचीत से उपचार (टॉक थेरेपी) करके मानसिक समस्याओं का इलाज करते हैं.
  4. प्राथमिक देखभाल प्रदाता: - रोगों की रोकथाम, पहचान और इलाज करते हैं.

आयुर्वेद के द्वारा एचआईवी का इलाज
एआईडीएस के शारीरिक लक्षणों से निपटने के लिए अपनी उबरने की योजनाओं को और उन्नत करें. एड्स जैसी लाइलाज बीमारी के इलाज को लेकर वैज्ञानिकों ने नई उपलब्धि हासिल की है. एचआईवी का इलाज करने के लिए जरेनियम, जिसे आयुर्वेद में कषायमूल वनस्पति भी कहते हैं, भी बहुत उपयोगी साबित हुआ है. यह पौधा एड्स के वायरस को खत्म कर देता है ऐसा कुछ वैज्ञानिकों द्वारा दावा किया गया है. कई शोधकर्ताओं ने माना है कि जरेनियम की जड़ में कुछ गुणकारी तत्व होते हैं जो मानव कोशिकाओं को एचआईवी-1 वायरस को शरीर में अंदर आने से रोकने के लिए मजबूत बनाता है और इम्यून सिस्टम को मजबूत करता है. यह पौधे एड्स के उपचार की दिशा में एक बड़ी उपलब्धि है. इस पौधे का इस्तेमाल कई दवा कंपनियों ने भी करना शुरू कर दिया है.

सेवन करने योग्य आहार

  1. साबुत अनाज
  2. दालें
  3. लीन मीट
  4. फल और सब्जियाँ
  5. लो फैट वाले आहार

इनसे परहेज करें

  1. मिठाइयों के सेवन को प्रबंधित करें
  2. कोल्ड ड्रिंक
  3. शुगर फ्री डाइट
  4. शराब का सेवन न करें


योग और व्यायाम
1.आप सप्ताह में नियमित रूप से 10 से 15 मिनट के लिए रनिंग, स्विमिंग, एरोबिक डांस, साइकिलिंग आदि का अभ्यास करें.
2.आपको रोजाना शरीर में स्ट्रेच पैदा करने वाल एक्सरसाइज रोजाना करना चाहिए, इससे आपके शरीर लचीला और संक्रमण से लड़ने में मदद मिलेगी.
3. बैलेंस करने वाले एक्सरसाइज भी बहुत कारगर होती है. इसके लिए आप कमरे में आँखें बंद करके एक पाँव पर खड़े होकर अपनी भुजाओं की स्थिति परिवर्तित कर सकते हैं.

संगीत और मेडिटेशन
मेडिटेशन करने से कई तरह के रोगों पर सीधा प्रभाव पड़ता है. इसे आप प्रतिदिन 20 से 30 मिनट तक कर सकते है. यह तनाव प्रबन्धन में भी मदद करता है. आप अपने मनपसंद संगीत भी सुन सकते है. संगीत सुनना भी बहुत लाभदायक सिद्ध हो सकती है.

घरेलू उपाय

  1. अपने हाथों को शौचालय के प्रयोग के बाद और भोजन करने से पहलें या कही बाहर से आने के बाद जरुर धोएं.
  2. अपने नाखून नियमित रूप से साफ़ करते रहें.
  3. त्वचा को ड्राई होने से बचाने के लिए क्रीम का उपयोग करें.
  4. त्वचा पर कटे/छिले अथवा घाव को ढककर रखें.
  5. डॉक्टर द्वारा बताये गए दिशा निर्देशों का पालण करें.
  6. साफ सफाई का विशेष ध्यान रखें.
  7. पौष्टिक और उचित आहार का सेवन करें.
  8. तनाव से होने वाले तकनीकों का अभ्यास करें.
  9. धूम्रपान, शराब अथवा ड्रग्स का सेवन ना करें.
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