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Overview

Cotinine (Urine) Test

Cotinine (Urine) Test

This is a painless test used to detect an individual’s levels of exposure to tobacco and nicotine in the urine. The test samples can be obtained from the urine, blood, saliva and sometimes hair. The various levels of concentration of nicotine relative to the sample determine the seriousness of the individual’s exposure to it and accordingly remedies are decided upon. The test can be conducted qualitatively or quantitatively, referring to detection of the presence or absence of the substance and determining the concentration of the substance respectively.

It’s advisable to stay away from secondary sources of smoke for several days before the test. Also, your physician should be informed of all sorts of medicines, drugs or herbs that you intake, before the test.

Based on the reports and the concentration of nicotine, the test reveals: A positive test report indicates tobacco consumption from a direct or indirect source. Excessive levels of nicotine present is proof of nicotine toxicity. A very high level indicates active usage. A moderate concentration means the user hasn’t been active or exposed to it in three weeks. A lower level may be found in a user exposed to environmental smoke. A much lesser and almost nil amount is found in tobacco non-smokers not exposed to environmental smoke or in tobacco smokers who haven’t been active for several weeks.

You will be required to urinate in a sterilized container and hand over the container to the lab.

Type Gender Age-Group Value
Urine Cotinine test
Unisex
All age groups
< 5ng/ml
Average price range of the test is between Rs.150 to Rs.800 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

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Popular Questions & Answers

I had unprotected sex on 24th july and my period is due on 1st of august but I am still not feeling any period pain and my stomach is bloating feeling discomfort and changes in vagina. please suggest.

BHMS, MD - Homeopathy
Homeopath, Vellore
I had unprotected sex on 24th july and my period is due on 1st of august but I am still not feeling any period pain a...
Dear lybrate-user! Wait for 10-15 days more and confirm the pregnancy. Sometimes the periods may delay after sexual contact.
2 people found this helpful

My wife's health is low and weight is also low. She is 26 years old. I want that my wife should be in good shape. Please advise me sir.

BHMS
Homeopath, Secunderabad
My wife's health is low and weight is also low. She is 26 years old. I want that my wife should be in good shape. Ple...
See​ that she eats a balanced diet. She should also go for a routine medical check up just to ensure that there is no any health problem that remain undetected. Some basic tests are: CBC, ESR, blood sugar, thyroid test, urine routine, liver profile etc. She should also focus on exercising everyday. Add Yoga and pranayam which can naturally empower the healing system in the body. A healthy lifestyle can make a lot of difference in the long run. Please revert with the reports for further clarification. She can also start Homeopathy to help gain good appetite and thereby healthy​ weight. You can contact me online also.
1 person found this helpful

I am with pcod, I drink lot of water but after drinking within half an hour I urge to urinate during day but night after sleep it won't disturb me so whether it is a problem or not?

I am with pcod, I drink lot of water but after drinking within half an hour I urge to urinate during day but night af...
It's good you take water but try to run n walk on regular basis around 4 km. It will help to solve your problem of pcod n urination.
1 person found this helpful

My father is having problem of frequent Urination. He is not having any other disease or disorder. Please Suggest any specific ayurvedic medicine for it. Thanks.

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS), MD - Ayurveda
Ayurveda, Mumbai
My father is having problem of frequent Urination. He is not having any other disease or disorder.
Please Suggest any...
Dear Patient, frequent urination is normally a first sign of Diabetes. Please get his Urine checked along with HBA1C as fasting and PP sugar report cannot be very conclusive since you have mentioned he has no other condition. Also evaluate his prostrate with an ultrasound as it may be mildly enlarged. The medications suggested by the other physician can be helpful.

From USG of my mother (age 44 yrs), Cholesterolosis in gallbladder and fatty, enlarged liver is seen. She is under treatment of a general surgeon. The doctor gave 2 medicine, one is Udiliv300 and other is antibiotic for 1 month. My mother takes medicine from 9 days, but she is till now suffering from liver side abdomen pain. So what should I do right now? Is she continue her medicine for 1 month?

M.D. - Ayurveda, Post Graduate Proficiency In Panchakarma, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda,
From USG of my mother (age 44 yrs), Cholesterolosis in gallbladder and fatty, enlarged liver is seen. She is under tr...
I personally feel, your mother needs a thorough checkup. We need to find out 'why the condition Cholesterolosis and fatty - enlarged liver' has developed. Then only we can expect a complete cure. Most probably the causes may be wrong dietary habits and incorrect lifestyle. We should look into it on priority. Usually patient opts a medical advice for the complaint he/she is the most suffering from. Unfortunately; most of the time other associated symptoms which patient themselves consider of less importance are underestimated. Complaints like loss of apatite, constipation, excessive sweating, burning urination, if any need attention. A simple question whether she feels fresh when she wakes up in the morning can be correlated with her digestion. For pain in abdomen Carom Seeds with lukewarm water may help.
2 people found this helpful

Popular Health Tips

Know The Ayurvedic Approach To Reversing Diabetes!!

Graduate of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (GAMS)
Ayurveda, Delhi
Know The Ayurvedic Approach To Reversing Diabetes!!

Glucose is the primary ingredient within the body which is turned into an energy source. This is what we use when we move, walk or make the slightest movements. To metabolize glucose into energy, your body needs insulin, which is a hormone produced within the pancreas. However, if the body doesn't react to the insulin or the pancreas is unable to produce enough, glucose cannot be converted into energy and thus results in type 2 diabetes.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes

  1. Sudden or gradual weight loss despite increased hunger - Many people complain that they feel hungry and eat more, but despite this, tend to lose weight. This occurs as the body cannot metabolize glucose and uses energy reserves from fat or muscles leading to weight loss.
  2. Frequent infections and slow healing - If you are afflicted with Type 2 diabetes, then it might affect your immune system and you may be prone to infections. Also, any cuts or bruises on your body will take much longer to heal than normal.
  3. Irritability and fatigue - Another common symptom of type 2 diabetes along with the other symptoms mentioned here is quick irritability and fatigue. This is because most of the body is deprived of sugar and thus lacks the energy needed to function normally. 
  4. Constant thirst and increased urination - If you feel constantly thirsty despite drinking ample water and urinating frequently, this may be a tell tale sign of type 2 diabetes.
  5. Skin darkening in folds and creases of the body - Also known as acanthosis nigricans; this is a darkening of the skin where it also becomes velvety to the touch. It usually develops in the folds on skin in areas such as the neck and armpits and is a direct result of insulin resistance.

Causes of Type 2 diabetes

Some of the most common causes of Type 2 diabetes could be:

  1. Being overweight
  2. Lack of physical activity
  3. Genetic predisposition or family history 
  4. If you are more than 45 years of age
  5. Hormonal problems such as Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Reverse Diabetes

There three major factors that can help you prevent and reverse pre- and type II diabetes: proper diet and appropriate nutritional and herbal supplementation, exercise, and weight management.

  1. Diet: Proper diet is critical for both preventing and treating pre-and type II diabetes. One of the most important dietary precautions you can take is to eliminate all refined sugars and sugar products from your diet. Also reduce or eliminate your intake of alcohol and caffeine; avoid fast, processed "junk" foods and soda, altogether; and eat protein snacks between meals.
  2. Eating According to the Glycemic Index: Another important dietary tip is eat meals that contains an abundance of low-glycemic (low-sugar) foods. By doing so you can significantly improve your body's ability to maintain low insulin and blood sugar levels. Low-glycemic foods include raw, organic leafy green vegetables, fruits that contain pits, sweet potatoes, yams, organic whole-grain breads and cereals, most legumes and nuts, skim and buttermilk, poultry, white fish, shellfish, and lean cuts of beef and veal.
  3. Nutritional and Herbal Supplements: In addition to a healthy diet, many people at risk for or who already have pre- or type II diabetes will also benefit from various nutritional and herbal supplements.
  4. Exercise: Regular exercise should be part of every diabetic's daily routine. Exercise in combination with a weight loss program has been proven to reduce the odds of developing diabetes by 58 percent among people who are at risk for the disease. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an Ayurveda.
4517 people found this helpful

Liver Problems - How they Can be Treated with Homeopathic Remedies?

BHMS
Homeopath, Faridabad

Liver is a very important organ of your body. It is also the largest internal organ. Liver plays a pivotal role in food digestion, iron metabolism, regulation of blood clotting and removal of toxins from your body. Liver problems refer to the disruption of liver functions. There are various liver problems and diseases that you may encounter. Some of the liver problems are as follows:

  1. Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E
  2. Liver cirrhosis.
  3. Fatty liver
  4. Liver cancer
  5. Wilson disease
  6. Jaundice

The most common causes of the above mentioned liver problems are

  1. Fatty liver is generally caused due to obesity
  2. Hepatitis A, B, C is caused due to viral infections
  3. Consuming excess alcohol can cause liver cancer
  4. Liver diseases like Wilson disease is caused due to genetic problems

Different liver problems have different symptoms. But there are some common symptoms for all liver diseases. The most common symptoms are mentioned below

  1. Body fatigue
  2. Pain in the abdomen
  3. Change in urine and stool color
  4. Nausea
  5. Queasiness
  6. Loss of weight and appetite
  7. Yellowish discoloration of skin, eyes and nails.

Homeopathy can treat liver problems very effectively. The following are some of the solutions offered by homeopathy for different liver problems
1. If you are suffering from the problem of fatty liver, your doctor may recommend you medicines like Lycopodium, Phosphorus, Nux vomica
2. If you suffer from the problem of liver enlargement then your doctor may recommend you medicines like Carduus Marianus
3. Chionanthus and Taraxacum are medicines advised for liver problems like jaundice
4. Natrum sulphuricum may be recommended to you if you are suffering from problems like Liver cirrhosis
Homeopathic treatment for liver problems is very effective since it treats the medical condition according to specific symptoms. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Homeopath.

2 people found this helpful

Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer And Its Treatment!

M Ch Urology, MBBS, MS - Urology
Urologist, Kolhapur
Symptoms Of Bladder Cancer And Its Treatment!

Bladder cancer is characterized by irregular growth of abnormal tissue (tumor) on the lining of the bladder. This type of cancer may spread to the surrounding tissues or other body parts as well.

What are the causes?

Bladder cancer can be caused by environment-related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. It may also be caused by continuous exposure to chemicals such as dyes or leather dust and radiation. These chemicals tend to cause unusual changes in the cells of the bladder lining and causes cancer in the bladder.

It can also be caused by modifications in the dna in the cells of the bladder which may impair the functioning of the cells in the body. This can cause mutations in the bladder resulting in cancer.

What are the symptoms?

1. Presence of blood in the urine, often painless

2. Feeling of pain while passing urine

3. Back pain

4. Excessive urination

5. Infections in the urinary tract

6. Lower leg swelling

7. Pain in the bones, especially in the pelvic area

8. Weight loss

Treatment options

Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of the cancer. The various treatment choices are:

Surgery - In some cases, these cancers are surgically removed by a surgeon. A type of surgery used is transurethral resection of bladder tumor (turbt) where the cancer cells are destroyed with laser by passing a thin fiber into the bladder.

Chemotherapy - In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.

Radiation therapy - Radiation therapy uses rays such as x-ray or uv rays to destroy cancer cells in the body

Immunotherapy - This treatment boosts the immune system of the body so that it attacks the cancerous cells in the bladder. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.

2946 people found this helpful

Ejacualtion Problems & 3 Of Its Types

Ph.D (Male Infertility), M.S (Infertility), D.G.L.S, D.R.C.O.G, C.Sc., D.M.R.D, M.B.B.S
Sexologist, Bangalore
Ejacualtion Problems & 3 Of Its Types

Having problems ejaculating at the right time can prevent you and your partner from feeling satisfied during sexual intercourse. Nonetheless, premature ejaculation is not the only type of ejaculation issues you should know about. In addition to this other forms of ejaculation that make up this group of sexual dysfunction are delayed ejaculation and retrograde ejaculation.

Here's how you need to handle the different types of ejaculation problems:
Premature ejaculation - The first very common ejaculation that all men in the world experience is premature ejaculation. This kind of sexual dysfunction occurs when you ejaculate either before or after penetration with least amount of sexual stimulation.
To treat the problem, medicines, primarily a form of anti-depressant drug known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (ssris) are recommended for bringing about a delay in the expulsion of semen. Even couple therapy can help to treat the problem as this form of counseling helps in coming up with methods that both the partners can perform to prevent premature ejaculation.
Delayed ejaculation - You're said to suffer from instances of delayed ejaculation if you exhibit these characteristics:

- Unable to expel semen even though you may want to and your erection is normal
- Experiencing considerable delay in reaching orgasm
- If you're suffering from a constant as well as an unwanted delay lasting between 30 and 60 minutes, you're said to be experiencing delayed ejaculation
- Unable to attain ejaculation no less than half the times you have sexual intercourse

Treatment for this problem usually involves going to the root cause of the problem. Many times, the cause could be an effect of the medication you may be taking. If the cause is psychological in nature, you may require counseling.
Retrograde ejaculation - This happens when the ejaculate matter rather than exiting through the penis goes back into the bladder and comes out later during urination. Retrograde ejaculation commonly occurs in diabetics, especially those that suffer from nerve damage brought on by diabetes.
This type of sexual dysfunction doesn't require treatment as you can still experience a healthy sex life. In certain cases, the use of drugs can also help in restoring your normal ejaculation prowess. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Sexologist.

7266 people found this helpful

7 Ways To Treat Urinary Incontinence in Men!

FMAS, M.Ch - Urology, MS - General Surgery, MBBS
Urologist, Ernakulam
7 Ways To Treat Urinary Incontinence in Men!

Urinary incontinence is a health condition in men, which is caused by loss of bladder control. Urinary incontinence usually occurs in cases of medical conditions such as an enlarged prostate, Parkinson's disease and diabetes, and may also occur after a prostate surgery. Urinary incontinence is an irritating and embarrassing condition, but with proper treatment, it can be cured. There are several ways to treat this condition which include home remedies as well as medications and surgery. 

Here are several methods used to treat urinary incontinence: 

  1. Caffeine, soda and carbonated drinks cause irritation in the bladder and worsen the symptoms of urinary incontinence. Alcohol is a diuretic and increases the amount of urine too. So abstain from coffee, alcohol and soft drinks to make a difference. 
  2. Dietary adjustments are required for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Several spicy and acidic food items can make urinary incontinence worse. Hence, you should avoid having such foods for some time. 
  3. Urinary incontinence can lead to stress and you must get rid of it for better health. You can try relaxation techniques, such as meditation and breathing exercises. Biofeedback is another option by which you can observe your bladder muscle contractions on a monitor. 
  4. You should try a behavioral technique known as bladder training. This would require you to urinate every half hour, in spite of not having the urge. Slowly try to increase the time in between the bathroom breaks. 
  5. You need to flex your muscles to gain control over urinary incontinence. Kegel exercises can be practiced as they boost the strength of your pelvic muscles. 
  6. You should find the right muscles that are required to stop the passing of gas. 
  7. Pads and disposable undergarments can be used by men. These help in containing leaks and also protect the skin from irritation and odor. 

There are several medicines, which help in the treatment of urinary incontinence in men. Some of these work to relax muscles for preventing unwanted bladder contractions, while others help in blocking the nerve signals to the bladder. Drugs used for the shrinking and treatment of an enlarged prostate are also used as blocked by prostate lead to bladder irritation. Now-a-days, more than 80% cases of incontinence in males respond well to medications.

Surgery may be the ultimate option for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Options depend on the cause of incontinence. If it is because of obstructing prostate, prostate surgery by TURP / HOLEP is curative. If it is because of bladder overactivity, BOTOX injection in bladder is useful. If it is TRUE incontinence after radical prostate surgery then treatment include a male sling or artificial urinary sphincter implantation. In sling operations, a type of material is wrapped around the urethra for compressing it. In Artificial sphincter implantation, a cuff is used in order to close the urethra. Urine is released by squeezing the pump to open the cuff. A Interstim device similar to a pacemaker is used to stimulate nerves, which help in relaxing the bladder and pelvic floor. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Urologist.

2022 people found this helpful