Hepatitis A is a liver disease caused by the Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). A person contracts this illness from contaminated food, water and sometimes from sexual activities. The common symptoms of Hepatitis A are appetite loss, jaundice, nausea, diarrhoea, fatigue and fever. Hepatitis A does not have a fixed treatment. It can be managed by only controlling the symptoms. A person suffering from this condition should take sufficient rest, have nutritious diet and avoid alcohol to reduce stress on the liver.
The treatment of Hepatitis A is extremely generic. The different symptoms that are present require moderate attention. In extreme cases, a person may suffer acute liver damage and need a liver transplant. If a person is at a risk of contracting Hepatitis A he can be given a immune serum globulin treatment that shall prevent an onset of the disease. Prevention plays a big role in this illness and this can be done by taking the Hepatitis A vaccine. This vaccine is given at the age of 1 year to keep children safe. Also, people travelling to countries where this disease is predominant should take this vaccine. The only medicated procedure that is followed to give relief to the patients is monitoring ORS to patients who are suffering from dehydration or IV fluids in more severe cases. Medicines like Acetamynophen should be avoided in this condition as they tend to deteriorate the liver condition.
The post treatment guidelines encompass simple steps that should be followed on a daily basis. It is important to take a lot of rest to let your body recover. Do not forget to keep your body hydrated. Your liver might be at stake, so don’t put further pressure on it by indulging in alcoholic beverages. Physical exercise must not be done at a prolonged and vigorous rate. Do ensure to have a good personal hygiene so that you do not spread the HAV to the people around you.
Hepatitis A usually cures by itself in few months. It has been seen that the symptoms last for about two weeks to two months. In severe cases if liver damage occurs it can become life threatening and may or may not be curable.
Anything in excess is bad for the body. The same goes with iron, which is believed to be essential for various functions.
Hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC) is a hereditary condition where the way the body absorbs and stores iron are affected, leading to excessive iron deposits in various internal organs and leading to multiple complications. Read on to know more about this condition.
Causes: HHC is caused by the mutation (alteration) of a gene that controls the amount of iron absorbed into the body. A hormone called hepcidin is secreted by the liver and controls iron absorption and storage. In HHC, the role of hepcidin is altered, leading to excess amounts of iron absorption and storage in various major organs, especially the liver. Over time, this excess iron can cause conditions like diabetes, cirrhosis, and heart failure.
Risk Factors: The condition runs in families, and if you have a family member with known HHC, the chances of having HHC are quite high. Though the disease develops right at birth, symptoms manifest only later in life, at about 50-plus years of age. Men who carry two copies of the mutated gene and hail from Northern Europeans are more prone to develop HHC.
Symptoms: There are no specific symptoms pointing to HHC in the early stages, and these include joint pains, abdominal pain, fatigue, and weakness. Over a period of time, these can lead to associated symptoms of conditions like cirrhosis, heart failure, impotence, diabetes, etc.
Diagnosis: Blood tests are done to diagnose the amount of iron in the system. Fasting transferrin saturation and serum ferritin are two important tests, and increased transferrin saturation is very indicative of HHC. In addition, liver function tests are done to check the extent of liver damage. MRI examination also will help identify the areas of iron overload and extent of liver damage (if any). Liver biopsy can help identify iron overload and liver damage. Gene mutation tests are also useful in confirming the condition.
Depending on the excessive amount of iron deposited, phlebotomy which requires removal of iron is advised. About 400 to 500 mL of blood can be removed once a week or in two weeks.
From a prevention point of view, hepatitis A and B vaccines should be given.
In very severe cases, liver transplantation could be considered.
Monitor for other symptoms like diabetes, cirrhosis and liver failure.
In addition, once the diagnosis is confirmed and phlebotomy initiated, iron levels should be monitored periodically to ensure it is not exceeding the desired levels. This can help in the prevention of complications, which are more causes for concern than the actual HHC condition per se. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a pediatrician.
Cyclone 'Titli', which has has been categorised as a 'very severe cyclonic storm', hit the coastal Odisha region at a daunting speed of 140-150 kmph. The cyclone has already caused a lot of destruction in the region and the government has deployed NDRF teams to carry out rescue operations.
Titli, which means 'Butterfly' in English, has uprooted many trees and electricity poles but fortunately has yet not caused any casualties. India Meteorological Department has said that the cyclone will weaken gradually with the decreasing wind speed, but the aftermath of this cyclone can be very unpleasant for the people living near the coastal areas.
Where Titli has created a havoc in India, Hurricane Michael, a category 4 monster storm, has reached Florida. Over half-a-million have been either ordered or advised to evacuate as it inched closer to Panama City. It has already caused 14 deaths in Central America and is still going strong.
Such cyclonic storms and hurricanes not only disturb the normal life during their stay in the region but also lead to spread of various diseases.
Diseases which can spread:
Apart from the risk of serious mental trauma during the cyclonic period, the possibility of spread of water and vector-borne diseases also increase.
Following are the waterborne diseases it can cause:
Vector-borne diseases that can spread:
Ways to prevent Vector-borne diseases:
Once the tragedy ends, people should ignore being in vegetated areas to avoid encounter with insects, like mosquitoes. People should wear protective clothing and avoid using perfumes which may attract mosquitos.
Pregnant women should also try not to go outside their houses during peak times of mosquito activity.
Here are some more preventive measures for vector-borne diseases:
Measures to prevent waterborne diseases:
Waterborne diseases transmit when contaminated water is used for purposes including drinking, washing uncooked vegetables, brushing teeth and washing dentures or contact lenses. Here are the other ways to prevent waterborne diseases:
The cyclonic storm will pass off soon but will create several issues that would require proper attention to be prevented. So, after surviving it, you must follow the above-mentioned measures to stay safe and healthy.
Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver, which may often progress to dangerous complications. There are many types of Hepatitis and each has its own particular set of causes, symptoms, mode of contraction and treatment procedures. Here are the main types of Hepatitis as well as some of the factors which may cause Hepatitis:
Hepatitis is an inflammatory condition of the liver which may often progress to dangerous complications. There are many types of hepatitis and each has its own particular set of causes, symptoms, mode of contraction and treatment procedures.
Here are the main types of hepatitis as well as some of the factors which may cause hepatitis:
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Exposure of hepatitis A virus can cause severe liver infection, which is usually lighter and resolves by itself. There is a considerable difference in the symptoms and duration of the disease, in which many people do not see any signs. Two of the symptoms associated with hepatitis A infections are fever and joint. If you drink water or food which has become contaminated with the stools of someone with the virus, then you can catch the disease. You may also be infected, if you:
1. Eat fruits, vegetables, or other foods that were contaminated during handling
2. Eat chopped raw shellfish with water that has a virus
3. Swallow the contaminated snow
If you have this infection, your liver may be swollen due to your virus. You do not always get symptoms, but when you do, you may have:
Children generally have diseases with some symptoms. You can develop hepatitis A virus approximately 2 weeks before your symptoms appear and they appear during the first week, or even if you do not have any.
If you are prone to the disease:
How is it detected?
Blood tests enable doctors to detect it.
Is there a prolong effect?
Usually, the virus does not cause any long term issues or complexities. But as per the CDC, 10% to 15% people with Hepatitis A will have symptoms that last for long periods or come back in the 6- to 9 month’s period. In rare cases, some people may suffer liver damage or require transplantation.
Is there a Hepatitis A Vaccine?
Yes, Vaccination is suggested:
What is the treatment?
There is no treatment to cure this disease. Your doctor can take such tests to check your liver function to make sure that your body is recovering.
Patients with preexisting liver disease should be vaccinated as occurrence of hepatitis A can lead to risk to life. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!