Widal test is a common agglutination test employed in the serological diagnosis of enteric fever. It helps to detect presence of salmonella antibodies in a patient’s serum.
H suspension of bacteria is prepared by adding 0.1 per cent formalin to a 24 hours broth culture or saline suspension of an agar culture. For preparation of O suspensions of bacteria, the organisms is cultured on phenol agar to inhibit flagella. Standard smooth strains of the organism are used; S Typhi 901, O and H strains are employed for this purpose. The growth is then emulsified in small volume of saline, mixed with 20 times its volume of alcohol, heated at 40° C to 50° C for 30 minutes and centrifuged. The antigens are treated with chloroform and appropriate dyes are added for easy identification of antigens.
Agglutination is a positive test result and if the positive reaction is observed with 20 ul of test sample, it indicates presence of clinically significant levels of the corresponding antibody in the patient serum. No agglutination is a negative test result and indicates absence of clinically significant levels of the corresponding antibody.
Quantitative Slide Test This is performed for the samples which showed positive agglutination during qualitative test. Procedure : Bring all reagents to room temperature and mix well. Dispense one drop of saline into the first reaction circle and then place 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 ul of the test sample on the remaining circles. Add a drop of the antigen, which showed agglutination with the test sample in the qualitative method, to each circle. Mix the contents of each circle with the aid of applicator stick and rotate the slide gently.
Widal Slide Test
All age groups
Agglutination is seen in positive cases
No matter how much information there is available about AIDS and HIV, the thought of it makes a person shudder. The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is the virus responsible for AIDS or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. This virus attacks the immune system and over time leaves the body defenseless against other infections and types of cancer. Till date, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. However, what we do know is how the disease can be transmitted from one person to another. Knowing this enables us to control the transmission of the disease.
Unlike other viruses, HIV cannot be transmitted through air, water etc. This virus can only be transmitted through:
Receiving blood transfusions from an HIV positive person is sure to put you at risk of suffering from the disease as well. For this reason, it is essential to only take blood from registered blood banks that run HIV screening tests. This holds true for organ and tissue transplants as well. Being stuck with an HIV infected needle can also put you at risk of coming in contact the virus. In some cases, direct contact between broken skin, wounds and mucus membranes can also lead to the transferring of HIV cells from one person to another. HIV does not spread through saliva, however, if while kissing, both partners suffer from bleeding gums and one partner is HIV positive, there is a risk of the transference of HIV from one person to the other.
Bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids-
The only way to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from one partner to another while having intercourse is by using a condom. This creates a barrier between the bodily fluids of both partners and keeps them safe. A condom is needed even if the couple is engaging in anal sex. In fact when comparing anal and vaginal intercourse; anal sex puts HIV negative partners at a higher risk of getting in contact the virus than vaginal sex. Theoretically, this virus can be transmitted even through oral sex is a HIV positive man ejaculates into the woman's mouth. However, this is a rare occurrence.
From a mother to an unborn child-
A HIV positive mother can transmit the virus to her child when pregnant, at birth or while breastfeeding. However, if the mother follows HIV treatment, the chances of her passing on this virus to her child are significantly lowered.
The above are the only three ways HIV can be transferred from one person to another. HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing utensils, drinking the same water, through mosquito bites or by shaking hands etc. Thus, there is no reason to ostracize an HIV infected person. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can ask a free question.
When it comes to maintaining proper penis health, most men have a very good idea of what to do. They know all the basics of penis care, from taking care to wash properly to regularly inspecting the manhood to applying a high-quality penis health crème. But in the heat of the moment, when sexual fun is getting hot and heavy, a man might make a silly mistake. Those sexual mistakes can compromise penis health in a serious way.
Not sure what sexual mistakes might be a problem? Here's a list of the biggest issues a man might find himself doing when things are hot - and might regret when things cool off.
1. That lube isn't really lube. A man who is getting it on but suddenly realizes the need for lube might reach for whatever is handy, assuming a bottle of lube is not available - and sometimes that means he will try to use anything from shampoo or conditioner to lotion or cooking oils. Obviously these things are not meant for use as a sexual lubricant, and can lead to dry and cracked skin, irritation and more. Using lube designed specifically for the sexual purpose is always recommended.
2. The condom is too small. Though it is very important to always wrap it up before sexual activity, the wrapping itself might sometimes be the issue. Using a condom that is too small might lead to a little irritation in the heat of the moment, but a man can often ignore that for pursuit of pleasure. The aftermath is when things get rough, as the penis can develop small cuts, tears or even blisters from the use of a condom that is too tight. It pays to test out a variety of condoms to find the best fit.
3. There's been too much drinking. Sometimes a bit of inebriation can be a good thing, as it lowers inhibitions and can help both partners relax before the main event. But too much drinking can lead to serious problems, including trouble with getting it up or issues with stamina. But too much alcohol consumption can lead to even worse things, such as forgetting to use a condom or even suffering memory loss that leaves a man wondering just what happened the night before. Avoiding this is simple: don't drink too much before a bedtime romp.
4. Cleaning up is not a priority. There are plenty of bodily fluids sliding around during sexual activity, and much of that understandably winds up on a man's penis. From the natural lubrication that occurs during sex to the traces of spermicide in the condom, there can be several substances that linger. A man who doesn't clean off his penis after sex is asking for trouble, as those fluids can dry on the penis skin, leading to itching, irritation and redness, as well as a potential penis rash.
A man who pays attention to good penis care should always remember that caring for the penis extends to those moments when things are hot and heavy. Not only should a man be fully prepared for any sexual encounter, he should also be sure to take care to clean up well afterward. Maintaining good health should also include regular use of a high-quality penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man 1 Man Oil, which is clinically proven mild and safe for skin). Look for a crème that includes a multitude of vitamins and nutrients, such as vitamin A for odor-fighting properties, vitamin E to keep skin supple, and vitamin C to enhance sexual health. Amino acids such as L-arginine for blood vessel dilation and acetyl-L-carnitine for protection against peripheral nerve damage are also helpful. Combine it all in a Shea butter base and a man has the recipe for great penis health.
A tumor is formed due to the uncontrolled proliferation of living cells. Generally, the cells in the human body continuously die and are replaced by new cells. Some cells are replaced frequently, like intestinal lining and skin, while some like nerve cells live longer and may not be replaced once they die. Natural cell death is mediated by genetic information and the body’s bio-chemical signals. In the case of a tumor, some cells develop genetic mutations, and stop responding to the ‘cell-death’ signals. They do not die and continue to grow to form a mass, stealing nutrients and oxygen from surrounding tissue. Brain tumor can arise from any of the many types of cells in the brain or its covering. These can be benign (less harmful), or malignant (rapidly growing). These tumours cause harm by following methods:
Symptoms of Brain Tumour:
Diagnosing a brain tumour may include one or more of many tests, including CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), PET scan and biopsy. One should never ignore the symptoms discussed above and should visit a doctor, preferably a Neurosurgeon as early as possible. Brain tumors are easier to treat if diagnosed early. Certain small tumors can be treated with radiation alone. If surgery is required, smaller tumors diagnosed early have greater chance of cure. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Neurosurgeon.
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) happens when there is a narrowing of the blood vessels outside of your heart. The cause of PAD is atherosclerosis. This happens when plaque builds up on the walls of the arteries that supply blood to the arms and legs. Plaque is a substance made up of fat and cholesterol. It causes the arteries to narrow or become blocked. This can reduce or stop blood flow, usually to the legs. If severe enough, blocked blood flow can cause tissue death and can sometimes lead to amputation of the foot or leg.
Many people who have PAD don't have any symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include
PAD can increase your risk of heart attack, stroke, and transient ischemic attack.
Doctors diagnose PAD with a physical exam and heart and imaging tests. Treatments include lifestyle changes, medicines, and sometimes surgery. Lifestyle changes include dietary changes, exercise, and efforts to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure.
Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Plaque is a sticky substance made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. That limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your body.
Atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including:
Atherosclerosis usually doesn't cause symptoms until it severely narrows or totally blocks an artery. Many people don't know they have it until they have a medical emergency.
A physical exam, imaging, and other diagnostic tests can tell if you have it. Medicines can slow the progress of plaque buildup. Your doctor may also recommend procedures such as angioplasty to open the arteries, or surgery on the coronary or carotid arteries. Lifestyle changes can also help. These include following a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, quitting smoking, and managing stress