Nephritis is inflammatory kidney disease caused by infection but is mostly caused by autoimmune disorders and nephrosis is noninflammatory kidney disease. Treatment and management of nephritis depends on the cause provoking the inflammation of the kidney. In case of lupus nephritis, hydroxychloroquine can be used. Immunotherapy is most significant methods for patients to recover from lupus nephritis. Chronic kidney disease is loss of kidney function. It is a long term form of kidney disease. The main aim in case of chronic kidney disease is to slow down or stop the progression of chronic kidney disease. Control of blood pressure and treatment of original disease are the principles of management. At the last stage replacement therapy is done. Acute kidney injury is a sudden loss of kidney function that develops within seven days. Treatment depends on the cause. The main goal is to prevent cardiovascular collapse and death.
Chronic kidney disease can be classified into five stages. Stage one is the mildest and stage five is the most severe condition. If the cause of CKD is vasculitis or obstructive nephropathy , it may be treated directly to delay the process of damage. In advanced stage treatments for anaemia, kidney bone disease or chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder may be needed. Treatment of blood pressure is also required. Usually, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor are used which slow the progression and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events like heart failure, stroke, etc. At stage five, renal replacement therapy is applied in the form of either dialysis or a transplant. In prerenal acute kidney injury without fluid overload, administration of intravenous fluids is the first step to improve kidney function. Myriad causes of intrinsic AKI require some specific therapies. Intrinsic AKI due to vasculitis or glomerulonephritis may respond to steroid medication, and in some cases plasma exchange. Renal replacement therapy such as with hemodialysis may be used in some cases of AKI. Dialysis is used in those who are suffering acute kidney injury or stage 5 chronic kidney failure. There are three types of dialysis- hemodialysis, peritonial dialysis, and hemofiltration.
If a patient is detected with an increase in serum createnine or protein in the urine, then the patient must undergo treatment of chronic kidney failure. If there is accumulation of urea in the body which can lead to fatigue, loss of apetite, headache, nausea, vomiting and if there is increased potassium level leading to abnormal heart rhythms then the patient must consult a doctor. In order to get kidney transplantation patients must meet some standardized criterias which are based on lab tests and amount of waste product in a man’s blood. Age and health conditions are also considered.
As there are some adverse effects of certain treatments like low pressure is the most common complication of haemodialysis, it is better to consult a doctor. Patients with serious medical histories should seek suggestion before any treatment. Like if a patient has high sugar, liver transplantation may not be suggested to him.
There are some side effects of dialysis and kidney transplantation. Low blood pressure is the most common side effect of dialysis. Nausea and vomiting are also associated with this. Patients undergoing dialysis in winter can experience dry or itchy skin. Another common side effect is that a patient keeps on moving their leg because their leg nerves and muscles create a crawly or prickly sensation. It also leads to muscle cramping. Hernia is a potential side effect of peritoneal dialysis. Patients also had to deal with anxiety and depression. Kidney transplantation carries risk of significant complications like- blood clots, bleeding, infection, failure of donated kidney, rejection of the donated kidney etc. Anti-rejection medicines have side effects like diabetes, bone thinning, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, infection, etc. Angiostenin-converting-enzyme inhibitor shows some adverse effects like hypotension, cough, hyperkalemia, fatigue, dizziness, nausea.
Some post treatment guidelines are required especially after transplantation and dialysis. In case of transplantation, anti-rejection (immunosuppressant) medications are given to prevent the body from rejecting new kidney. Treating infections is the best way to keep transplanted kidney healthy. As there remains a risk of getting heart disease, so it is better to control high blood pressure. Maintain healthy weight, stop smoking. In case of dialysis, a patient will need to limit certain food intake, doctors may recommend certain vitamins. Smoking is prohibited and medicines like ibuprofen, naproxen should be avoided unless the doctor prescribes.
Medications will be given in accordance with the disease. Time of recovery will thus depend on the disease and its stage. Dialysis does not cure kidney disease but does the function of normal kidney in case of kidney failure. Hemodialysis is generally done 3 times a week for four hours each. In case of chronic kidney failure patient will have to take dialysis for the rest of their lives. Nephritis is curable and will recover after right medication. If the symptoms recur then recovery will take time. Nephritis resolves completely in 60% adults and 90% children.
Cost of treatment depends on the method chosen to treat the kidney disease and the health condition of the patient and the stage of the kidney disease. The cost of getting haemodialysis is around Rs.12000-15000 per month while in case of peritoneal dialysis it is around Rs.18000-20000 per month. Getting a transplant done costs around Rs.4 lakhs on an average.
There are various methods of treatment of kidney disease. In case of dialysis, it is usually permanent but not always. Acute kidney failure can get better with treatment but in case of chronic kidney failure the kidneys are severely damaged and cannot get better even after dialysis. In case of kidney transplant patient’s own body can reject the new organ.
There are some alternative treatments for chronic kidney diseases. Emphasis should be laid on dietary modifications. Foods rich in protein especially pulses, spinach should be taken in moderation. Use natural diuretics like Celery leaves, cucumber, tomatoes, grapes, watermelon when swelling is profound. There are certain herbal remedies used in treating kidney diseases. Punarnava is very useful herbal diuretic; varun is another excellent care for kidney failure; gokshur is used as a diuretic and a herbal tonic for genitor-urinary system. These herbal remedies are very useful for maintaining kidney health.
A lot of bad things can and do happen when the kidneys fail. The kidneys are vital for proper bodily functioning because they filter liquid and solid waste products out of the blood and allow vital chemicals (which the body needs for functioning) to flow into the body through the bloodstream. People can become very sick when the kidneys either fail to perform these functions or fail to perform them properly. Many people will get chronic kidney disease, therefore, they need to know what the causes and symptoms are in order to treat, and even prevent these diseases from occurring.
People who suddenly experience the following symptoms should see a nephrologist as soon as possible for a medical examination: blood or protein in the urine, kidney stones, acute kidney injury, kidney infections, and/or pain, and Hepatitis C and kidney disease.
Blood in the urine can be a sign of kidney problems which can lead to kidney disease. Additionally, people who urinate frothy or bubbly urine, or have swelling in the hands, face, and feet should see a doctor because this is a sign of protein in the urine. Protein in the urine can be detected by a urine test. Kidney stones can be very painful and are problematic. They are caused by mineral buildup in the kidneys. Men and white people tend to get kidney stones more, and they can cause blood in the urine, painful urination, sharp lower abdominal or back pain, and nausea and vomiting.
Acute kidney injury occurs when the kidneys stop functioning altogether in a short period of time. Because this disease can be deadly, those with this disease should get immediate medical help. Usually, the very sick patients in hospitals get this disease, but it can also be caused by certain medicines, injury, or infections. This type of kidney disease is easily reversible.
Kidney infections tend to be caused by bacteria that have spread from the urinary tract. Women, because of their anatomy, tend to get kidney infections more than men.
Kidney pain in the lower back or sides can signify more serious kidney problems. They can be caused by urinary tract infections, polycystic kidney disease, kidney infections, blood clots, and/or bleeding in the kidneys.
Hepatitis C is a disease that attacks the liver and can cause kidney disease.
While kidney diseases are at best unpleasant, and at worst, life-threatening, they can be avoided by drinking lots of water, eating a healthy low salt diet, and watching for any changes in health and urine over time. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
The incidences of kidney ailments, be it an acute renal failure, chronic kidney disease or end stage renal disease (a severe kidney disorder that can trigger fatal consequences) are on a rise like never before. It is a wrong notion that only medicines can safeguard your kidneys from a diseased condition. Some simple tips and lifestyle modifications which, if practiced diligently, can go a long way to maintain the kidney health, keeping various kidney problems at bay.
Kidneys play a vital role in maintaining the healthy balance between the body fluids by filtering out the harmful chemicals and toxins out of the body and the blood which gets flushed out with the urine. Thus, proper functioning of the kidney is vital to ensure a sound health. At times, some diseased conditions or unhealthy lifestyle habits (such as uncontrolled alcohol consumption, not drinking sufficient water, suppressing the urge to urinate regularly) can have deleterious and threatening effects on the kidneys. In addition to the above-mentioned triggers, the diet can also have an impact on the kidney health.
Some foods are known to work wonders to keep the kidneys healthy and disease free. In this article, we will discuss some of the foods that are indeed a blessing for kidney health and should be a part of our diet. Healthy foods for the kidneys Zeroing upon the right type of foods (both solids and fluids) can go a long way to keep the various kidney ailments at bay, ensuring that the kidneys function optimally.
A well-hydrated body enhances the functioning of the kidneys by several folds. Thus, one should sip water throughout the day. Limit your daily intake of sodium to less than 2,300 milligrams. Avoid processed foods as they contain preservatives and high amounts of salts. The intake of animal proteins, foods rich in phosphorus, dairy products, caffeinated drinks, and beverages should also be in moderation as these foods can trigger inflammation of the kidneys as well as the formation of kidney stones. Foods rich in LDL or the bad cholesterol are best left avoided. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Tubulo-interstitial diseases of the kidney is a heterogeneous group of disorders affecting the kidney that share similar features of both tubular and interstitial injury. Primary categories of this disease includes, acute and chronic interstitial nephritis.
Acute interstitial nephritis is an acute form of kidney injury characterized by an inflammation reaction in the interstitial tissues of kidney and presence of edema, which usually spares the glomeruli. The hallmark of interstitial nephritis is the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment. Infiltrating cells are mainly T cells and monocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils. An acute inflammatory reaction is most commonly caused by a hypersensitivity reaction of a drug.
Other causes include
Kidneys function to filter the circulating blood and remove toxins. Water and certain organic materials are re-absorbed from the filtered blood and unwanted products are released from the body via urine. Swelling of the tubules disrupts the normal filtration function of the kidneys.
Treatment: Removal of the offending agents, discontinuation of the etiologic drug is the most important treatment modality. Complete recovery is inversely proportional to the duration of renal failure.
Chronic interstitial nephritis
The tubule cells undergo atrophy and there is a flattening of the epithelium. Basement membrane of tubules are frequently thickened. Cellular infiltrate is composed of lymphocytes, with only occasional neutrophils, plasma cells and eosinophils. There is a relative preservation of glomerular function until late in the disease, but an impairment of tubular functions like urine concentration, dilution, acidification and potassium excretion is seen early.
Polycystic kidney disease is a kidney disorder where fluid-filled cysts or sacs develop within the kidneys. The disease is a genetic disorder and the development of multiple cysts is due to structural abnormalities of the renal tubules. Eventually, the cysts enlarge and replace the kidneys. Sometimes they can even spread to the liver and cause kidney as well as liver damage. Although the cysts are non-cancerous, their proliferation and enlargement cause severe functional abnormalities of the kidneys.
Polycystic kidney disease if unchecked causes kidney failure and other severe complications like high blood pressure, urinary tract infections, blood in urine and kidney stones. Other symptoms of enlarged cysts are increased abdominal size, feeling bloated in the abdomen, backache and headache.
Diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease is not easy because the symptoms may not be very apparent for years. But if your parent or siblings or child has the disease, there are chances of you getting it too. So, it is advisable to get a screening done by your doctor if you have an affected relative or observe signs and symptoms of the disease.
The disease once diagnosed can be treated using medications but lifestyle changes and adoption of a healthy balanced diet helps to manage the disease to a great extent. Here are 5 tips that you can consider to manage the disease:
1. Stay Hydrated
To help your kidneys function appropriately, be sure to keep yourself hydrated thoroughly. It is the function of the kidneys to filter and flush out toxins from the body. So, to make its job easier it is always recommended to drink a lot of water and vegetable juices. Drinking cranberry juice has been proven to benefit in getting rid of the cysts.
2. Eat More Fibre
A healthy diet includes a good supply of vitamins and minerals along with fibre-rich foods that make digestion and flushing toxins out of the body more convenient. Diets rich in fresh fruits and vegetables have always helped in reducing stress on the kidneys. Include a lot of green leafy vegetables like lettuce, peas, lentils, broccoli and sprouts.
3. Balance Protein
It is important to have a considerable amount of protein in your diet but the consumption must also be monitored so that you do not consume it in excess. Excess protein puts stress on the kidneys and less protein can cause malnutrition. Protein-rich foods like pulses, beans, eggs, meat, fish, yoghurt, cheese and nuts can be consumed in proportion to your weight and age. Consult your doctor or dietician for the amount of protein that you need.
4. Check Salt Intake
Too much salt intake increases your blood pressure. So to manage polycystic kidney disease it is important that you limit your salt intake. Avoid using table salt and excess salt in cooked foods. Also consider the hidden salts present in foods like that in takeaways, ready to eat meals, processed bread etc.
5. Sip Herbal
Herbal tea with parsley, marshmallow, chamomile, basil or other such herbs can be consumed twice daily to maintain a good health. Avoid caffeinated drinks completely. Herbal teas generally contain antioxidants and other trace minerals which help to keep your body healthy.