Strep throat is also termed as streptococcal pharyngitis.
Strep throat is caused by a bacteria of group A known as Streptococcus bacteria. This bacterial infection in the throat inflames the throat and causes severe pain. The infected throat is likely to feel very scratchy followed by a sore feeling. This infection is most common in children, though it affects adults too. In cases, where symptoms are neglected, the affected person may face severe complication like an ear infection, inflammation of the kidney, scarlet fever, mastoiditis, sinusitis and several another crucial disease. At the same time, the sneezing and coughing of the infected person can spread the infection as it is highly communicable in nature.
Some of the very usual symptoms of strep throat include sudden high fever (101’ or more), sore throat with red and white patches, drastic fall of appetite, headache and body pain, rash, swollen tonsils, tender lymph nodes swollen around the neck and often nauseous and vomiting tendency in children. However, strep throat is often misjudged as the symptoms are slowly similar to viral infection or other illness. In this case, the doctor performs an in-depth study followed by medical tests in order to make sure the presence of infection that causes strep throat.
If you are between stage I to III or the malignant tumor has not spread to other parts, then a surgery may be advised by your doctor. Surgery is the surgical removal of the tumor. A surgical oncologist is a doctor who specializes in cancer surgery. In a surgery, the tumor may be removed or a part of the esophagus may be removed or removing the esophagus along with the lymph nodes and stomach where the stomach is pulled up and reattached to the esophagus. This type of surgery is termed as esophagactomy. Along with this a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy might be used. In chemotherapy, drugs are used to destroy cancer cells and in radiation therapy, high-energy rays are used to kill the cancer cells. Both of them might be used individually or in combination for patients having a surgery or not having a surgery.
A child or an adult suffering from symptoms like high fever, sore throat and swollen lymph nodes should likely to consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis. All sore throat does not turn out to be a strep throat infection.
Nevertheless, If you are diagnosed to have strep throat infection, you should opt for treatment right away.
If you are not suffering from symptoms that indicate the presence of strep throat bacterial infection, you do not need the treatment.
The medicines prescribed for treating strep throat are oral antibiotics. However, these medicines have several side effects like vomiting, nausea, an acute loss of appetite and often diarrhoea too. These side effects are generally mild. On the other hand, if you experience any adverse side effect like breathing trouble, wheezing, dizziness or rashes, stop taking the medicines immediately. Consult the doctor regarding the matter.
The most important requirement for a patient suffering from strep throat is rest. The patient should also adhere to some regulations like drinking warm and cold liquid, gargling from time to time, pain relievers if necessary and also using throat lozenge.
A plenty of water is necessary during this period. Further preference to soothing foods like soups, cooked cereal, and yoghurt would help in recovery.
Immediate diagnosis and treatment within 48 hours of the onset of the symptoms would help in fast recovery. Generally, it takes around 10 -12 days to get back to normal condition.
Treatment cost is entirely subject to the condition of the patient and varies greatly with respect to doctor consultation fees and medical expenses.
Considering the fact that the patient did receive proper treatment and care at the right time, results of treatment do show complete recovery.
Rs 1,000- Rs 3,000
Strep throat is a common bacterial infection mostly seen among young adults and children, caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, a group A bacteria, that leads to pain and inflammation in the throat. While some people may have mild symptoms, others may encounter more serious symptoms such as high fever and chills, sore throat, swollen glands, loss of appetite, and difficulty in swallowing food.
If you don’t treat the condition soon enough, strep throat can be really painful and troublesome. Although the ideal treatment option for this condition is antibiotic medications, research studies show that they are only effective in reducing the span of the infection by about half a day. Moreover, antibiotics have adverse side effects on your health, so it is always advisable to steer away from those heavy doses. The best way to keep yourself healthy and free from a strep throat is to prevent it from the very beginning. Here are a few steps you can follow to prevent yourself from getting a strep throat-
Although strep throat may not sound like a chronic illness, it can lead to serious complications if not prevented at the outset. Since there are no proven vaccines to prevent the infection, adopting these aforementioned steps can help you stay away from a strep throat. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Swallowing food comes naturally to human beings. But when there is a problem, it is usually called Dysphagia. Esophagus, a muscular tube-like organ located at the back of our throat, usually helps in swallowing food and transferring them to our stomach. When esophagus does not function properly, dysphagia happens. Patients suffering from brain or nerve disorder, seniors and babies might have this problem.
People with dysphagia might witness the following issues:
There are 2 main reasons, why the Esophagus might become dysfunctional.
There can be a number of reasons for both the condition. Here are the reasons why the muscles and nerves might not work.
Certain diseases can create problems with your nervous system, which in turn can affect the esophagus. These diseases are polio, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, Parkinson’s disease.
The esophagus might be blocked because of these reasons:
Rheumatic fever is a kind of autoimmune ailment that can occur as a result of group A streptococcal throat infection leading to inflammatory lesions in the connective tissues of the body. This disease specifically affects the joints, heart, blood vessels and various subcutaneous tissues located all over the body.
History of the effects of rheumatic fever:
The disease has been evaluated and depicted since the 1500s, though the connection between the rheumatic fever, and the throat infection was not found out until it was late 1880s. And the sore throat was also related to the rash, which is caused by streptococcal exotoxins, along with fever. Rheumatic fever was one of the leading causes of deaths in children as well as one of most common reasons behind the acquired heart diseases in adults before the invention and availability of penicillin.
Reasons behind the causes of rheumatic fever:
Even though adolescents and adults may be affected by the rheumatic fever, it mostly affects children aged between 5 to 15 years. It is a common disease in areas like South-Central Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and several parts of New Zealand and Australia. Group A streptococcus bacterium is the primary cause of this fever, and it also leads to scarlet fever in some people. It makes the body attack its own tissues once it has been attacked by the bacteria. This particular reaction leads to widespread inflammation throughout the body and forms the basis of all the common symptoms of the rheumatic fever.
You may have to take your child for the strep test if you notice any of the following symptoms:
Harmful impacts of the rheumatic fever:
Developed mostly due to strep throat infection, it can affect the heart, skin, joints and nervous system of children. Though it may not affect all who have gone through a strep throat infection, it can lead to long-term diseases of the heart and its valves and is termed as a rheumatic heart disease. Since each attack of rheumatic fever may cause further damage to the heart, it is very crucial to make sure that your child doesn’t have one more attack of the fever, and it is therefore, important to have regular doses of penicillin injections and consult a specialist for receiving further advice on treatments and prevention.
The normal rate of heart beats for humans is from 60 to 100 beats per minute. This is when the person is in a normal situation or at rest. The rate goes higher in conditions like exercising, stress etc. However, when the person is at rest and still gets the beat count less than 60, then it could be due to the condition of Bradycardia. This does not mean that it is an alarming situation whenever the count goes below 60, but it could be just a sign that something is not right with the electrical system related to the heart function.
There are three major types of Bradycardia, described as follows:
- Sinus Bradycardia: The sinus node is the natural pacemaker for the heart. Its normal function is to generate the electrical signals for 60-100 times in a minute. When this node fails to function or gets delayed in generating the signals, then it is the condition of Sinus Bradycardia. This kind of Bradycardia is more prominent among children and athletes. It could be very slightly present that many times it goes unnoticed. Most of the causes that are listed below apply to this kind of bradycardia.
- Sick Sinus Syndrome: This category of bradycardia leads to the irregular or abnormal rhythm of the heart. When the person has irregular heart rates or when they feel a sudden rise and fall (or slow and fast) heart rates, they might be suffering from sick sinus syndrome. This category of bradycardia is not as prevalent as sinus bradycardia. People with existing heart diseases, or who have gone through heart surgeries are a bit susceptible to sick sinus syndrome since their sinus node might have got damaged or affected. Even though when people face usual wear and tear of heart tissues, it can lead to this disease.
- Heart block: The electrical signals in the heart need to flow to the chambers so that the oxygen-rich blood can flow properly. In case of heart block, the signals are not properly transferred among cells. In fact, the flow of the signal can completely stop in case of heart block. The medical term for this condition is Atrioventricular block. It depends on what degree it is present in. there is a mild degree or first degree which can cause no issues and is considered as closed to normal. Then, there is a third degree which is the most critical stage and is also referred to as “complete heart block”. In such a situation, the patient should be treated immediately. Generally, doctors don’t let the patients reach this stage provided patients take precautions and reports to the doctor timely. Though this disease can be by birth as well and it could also be caused by a heart attack. Other causes include inflammation of muscle in the heart, narrow arteries or coronary diseases and rheumatic fever. The rheumatic fever is very common in those children who don’t get proper treatment for strep throat.
Because of Bradycardia, the oxygen supply is not properly managed by the body, because of which some organs might not get enough of oxygen. Following are the symptoms of Bradycardia:
- Fainting: Lack of oxygen can cause people to faint or feel the near-faint feeling.
- Dizziness or light-headed feeling
- Shortness of breath: Even when the physical work is done is not much, people with Bradycardia experience shortness of breath. This can also be accompanied by pain in the chest in some cases.
- Misperceptions or difficulty in concentrating: The mind cannot focus well when the oxygen supply is not proper which leads to confusions and a non-alert mind.
- Loss of memory: People can face a hard time remembering things.
- Tiredness: Though some people get tired easily because of other reasons as well and one of the reasons could be Bradycardia.
- Ageing can cause heart tissues to damage which can lead to Bradycardia
- The heart tissues can also get damaged because of some current/past heart disease or even heart attack.
- It could also be by birth that the heart has this disorder.
- The tissues in the heart can catch some infection-causing disorders of this kind. This is also known as Myocarditis.
- If the person has gone through any heart surgery, then it might have left the heart vulnerable to Bradycardia.
- Thyroid glands which do not produce enough hormones can also be a cause. This condition is called hypothyroidism.
- Disturbances in breathing while sleeping over a long time.
- Fevers like rheumatic fevers or any such inflammatory condition can also cause Bradycardia.
- Any drugs which can have an impact on blood pressure, heart rhythm or used to treat psychosis can affect the heartbeat leading to Bradycardia.
All the above factors can have some impact on the electrical signals which are generated by the sinus node. The sinus node is basically a pacemaker (which is biologically present in the heart) and generates signals which in turn makes the heart to beat. So, if the sinus node acts slower than usual, or fails to perform its action, then it causes abnormal heartbeats.
Another cause of Bradycardia is the blockage of electrical signals in the pathway to and from the heart. To understand or visualise the meaning of ‘pathway’, it is important to understand how the heart works. The heart consists of four chambers which are divided into lower and upper ones. The upper ones are also known as atria. This is where the sinus node is situated. When this node generates the electrical signals, it causes the atria to contract which pumps the blood into the lower chambers of the heart. Those electric impulses reach the AV, which is the atrioventricular node. This further transfers the signal to some cells which in turn sends them to right and left ventricle. The right ventricle is responsible for sending blood which does not have much oxygen in it to the lungs and left ventricle is responsible for sending blood full of oxygen to the body. This is how the signals play a vital role in the body and those signals can be affected by multiple factors stated above.
How Bradycardia is Diagnosed?
Bradycardia can be a bit tricky to diagnose because the symptoms might not be present all the time. They could come and go. The testing used to diagnose Bradycardia is an electrocardiogram. This testing, also known by the name EKG, helps in measuring the electrical signals generated in the heart.
The symptoms might or might not appear while testing. If they do appear, then the diagnose because apparent, otherwise, the doctors need to observe and investigate more. For that purpose, they sometimes recommend wearing a monitor which monitors the heart beats for 24 hours. Other ways by which doctors diagnose is closely examining the symptoms in different situations and asking about the family history of the patient. It is important for the patient to be able to provide all the information to the doctor to avoid any misdiagnosis.
Prevention methods of Bradycardia are same as those of heart diseases. Take the necessary measures to avoid any kind of heart diseases. If you already have a heart disease of any kind, then you might need to monitor your heart beats during the day and even in the night. If there are any discrepancies found, you should consult the doctor immediately before Bradycardia takes over. Early detection can reduce the risk of having this disease. Following are the generic ways to keep your heart healthy and avoid any kind of heart diseases:
- Adopt a diet which has low sodium content in it.
- Maintain the body weight as per the BMI index. Being overweight is a very common reason for heart diseases. Keeping the weight under control will not ensure that you are safe from heart diseases, but greatly reduces the chances of catching them.
- Stay active- do some form of physical activity every day for at least 30 minutes.
- Quit smoking if you are a smoker.
- Avoid processed sugars at all costs. Things like cakes, chocolates, brownies, cookies, candies etc. should be avoided. These things can be replaced by natural sugars like fruits or dried fruits like figs etc.
- Eat lots of fruits and vegetables which aids a low-fat diet. Fruits are rich in vitamins and have good fibre which aids digestion and keeps the body hydrated.
- Keep an eye on cholesterol and sugar levels and keep them under control always. Differentiate between good and bad cholesterol and get yourself checked timely to notice any changes and progress in your controlled diet. The cholesterol levels can be maintained by eating nuts and avoiding fried food like fries etc. Junk food of all kinds mostly have a good amount of bad cholesterol and should certainly be avoided.
- Use of alcohol also needs to be monitored. If you must drink at all, the allowed dosage is one drink per day for women. It could be two drinks for men, but that applies to very healthy individuals and varies greatly from the condition of one individual to other. Based on your health condition, your doctor can advise the allowed limits of alcohol consumption.
- Taking drugs (recreational) is strictly not recommended, irrespective of how small their quantity is or how less often they are taken.
- Try to stay stress-free. Stress has a direct impact on heart and it also affects your gastrointestinal system.
Even while you practice all the above steps, going for regular check-ups and reporting any noticeable irregularities will be an ideal thing to do.
For people having a mechanical pacemaker, immediate consultation with the doctor is advisable since it could be the pacemaker which is not performing as expected.
Also, for people who already have any kind of heart disease, they should take their treatment plan very seriously and report to the doctor about any changes or unexpected events for further diagnoses. Neglecting the abnormalities by considering them a result of heart disease is not advisable.
Treatments for Bradycardia
The treatment plan is only devised by the doctors after careful examination. They base their decision on the original cause of Bradycardia. Treating the cause or the ‘underlying condition’ can heal this disease. This is like eliminating the disease from its roots. Also note that if there are no symptoms found but heartbeat is at times lower than 60, then the doctor might not take any action at all, also depending upon the person’s health history. But for most cases, the doctors will advise you to keep an eye on the heart rates in case if changes drastically or needs attention later.
If there are any medications which are causing the heart to slow down, the doctor might reduce the dosage to see if that positively impacts the heart. Doctors can also use a pacemaker, which keeps the heart rate in control.
Complications in Bradycardia
Below complications can be caused if the patient had symptoms of Bradycardia:
- Fainting quite often.
- Issues with heart when it tries to pump the required amount of blood- which can eventually lead to heart failures.
- Sudden heart attack or even demise.
Myth #1: It is often believed that if the heart rate is slow, it implies that the heart is weak. It is not always the case. There are certain reasons why people get this disease which is not related to the heart. For example, calcium content or disorders with Thyroid gland are also reasons for Bradycardia but they don’t imply a weak heart. When the heart tissues catch the infection, in those cases it can be said that heart is weak, but chances are that it is a temporary condition and can be fixed with the help of treatments.
गला बैठना या लेरिन्जाइटिस क्या है? लेरिन्जाइटिस स्वर यन्त्र में होने वाली सूजन है, जो इसके अत्यधिक प्रयोग या संक्रमण के कारण होती है. लैरिंक्स के अंदर आपकी स्वर तंत्रियाँ होती हैं – मांसपेशी और उपास्थि को चारों तरफ से ढकने वाली श्लेष्मा झिल्ली की दो परतें. आमतौर पर, आपकी स्वर तंत्रियाँ आसानी से खुलती और बंद होती हैं और उनकी गतिविधियों और कंपन के माध्यम से ध्वनि बनती है. लेकिन लेरिन्जाइटिस में, आपकी स्वर तंत्रियों में सूजन हो जाती है. यह सूजन उनके ऊपर से गुजरने वाली हवा द्वारा उत्पन्न ध्वनियों की विकृति का कारण बनती है. परिणामस्वरूप, आपकी आवाज़ कर्कश लगती है. गला बैठने के कुछ मामलों में आपकी आवाज़ को पहचानना भी लगभग मुश्किल हो जाता है.
क्या है कारण?
लेरिन्जाइटिस के कारणों में ऊपरी श्वसन तंत्र संक्रमण या आम सर्दी जुकाम, बोलने, गाने या चिल्लाने के कारण स्वर तंत्रियों का अति प्रयोग; गैस्ट्रोएसोफेगल रिफ्लक्स रोग जो रिफ्लक्स लेरिन्जाइटिस का कारण बनता है, धूम्रपान, धूम्रपान करने वाले किसी व्यक्ति के या प्रदूषित हवा के संपर्क में आना शामिल हैं. लेरिन्जाइटिस अगर संक्रमण के कारण हुआ है, तो संक्रामक होता है.
गला बैठने के सबसे आम संकेत और लक्षण आवाज़ बैठ जाना, आवाज बंद हो जाना और गले में दर्द हैं. वयस्कों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के अतिरिक्त लक्षण और संकेतों में गले में खुष्की और खराश, निगलने में दर्द और गले या गर्दन के फूलने का आभास होना शामिल हो सकते हैं. अगर लेरिन्जाइटिस एक संक्रमण के कारण हुआ है, तो संक्रमित व्यक्ति में बुखार, लिम्फ ग्रंथियों में सूजन के लक्षण भी हो सकते हैं. शिशुओं या बच्चों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के अतिरिक्त संकेत और लक्षण क्रुप के साथ जुड़े हुए हैं और इसमें कर्कश ध्वनि वाली खाँसी व बुखार शामिल हैं.
वयस्कों में आवाज़ का बैठना, आवाज़ बंद हो जाना
लेरिन्जाइटिस के संकेत और लक्षण आवाज़ का बैठना, आवाज़ बंद हो जाना और गले में दर्द वयस्कों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के प्राथमिक लक्षण हैं. वयस्कों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के लक्षण यदि गला बैठने का कारण संक्रामक है, तो इससे प्रभावित व्यक्तियों में वायरल संक्रमण के ये लक्षण होंगे. ऊपरी श्वसन तंत्र संक्रमण या सर्दी सूखी खाँसी गले में खराश बुखार गर्दन में स्थित लिम्फ ग्रंथियों में सूजन निगलने में दर्द होना गले या गर्दन के फूले होने का आभास बहती नाक आवाज बंद होना
शिशुओं और बच्चों में
शिशुओं और बच्चों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के लक्षण क्रुप से पीड़ित शिशुओं और छोटे बच्चों को सांस लेने में कठिनाई होती है. अगर बच्चा सूजे हुए और संकीर्ण स्वर यंत्र के माध्यम से श्वास लेने की कोशिश करता है, तो कार्टिलेज क्षतिग्रस्त हो सकता है. यह ठीक वैसा ही है, जब एक स्ट्रॉ के माध्यम से साँस लेने का प्रयास किया जाता है. शिशुओं और बच्चों में लेरिन्जाइटिस के साथ अक्सर श्वासनली और ब्रोन्कियल ट्यूब्स में सूजन हो जाती है. इसे "क्रुप" कहा जाता है. चूंकि शिशुओं और बच्चों में ये संरचनाएं पूरी तरह से विकसित नहीं हुई होती हैं, इसलिए सूजन के कारण वायु का ऊपरी वायुमार्ग से गुज़रना कठिन हो सकता है. इसके कारण कुक्कुर खाँसी या काली खाँसी हो सकती है. इसे "स्ट्रीडर" भी कहते हैं और यह क्रुप से सम्बन्धित है.
बढ़ती उम्र के साथ कार्टिलेज मज़बूत हो जाता है और गहरी श्वास का सामना करने में सक्षम होता है, लेकिन बच्चों में कार्टिलेज कमज़ोर होता है और हर बार सांस लेने के लिए बच्चे को कड़ी मेहनत करनी पड़ सकती है. स्वर यंत्रीय उपास्थि का परिपक्व होना और वायुमार्ग की चौड़ाई का बढ़ना आमतौर पर 6 या 7 वर्ष की आयु से होता है. क्रुप ऊपरी वायुमार्ग में होने वाला एक वायरल संक्रमण है. इसके लक्षणों में शामिल हो सकते हैं – कर्कश कुक्कुर खाँसी बुखार श्वसन में कठिनाई उत्पन्न होना, जहाँ शिशु या बच्चे को सूजे हुए वॉइस बॉक्स क्षेत्र के माध्यम से हवा को अंदर खींचने के लिए बहुत प्रयास करना पड़ता है रात में अधिक गंभीर लक्षण
गले के फूलने का आभास
लेरिन्जाइटिस के अन्य लक्षण जब गला बैठने का कारण संक्रामक नहीं होता है, तो बैठी हुई आवाज़ के साथ खाँसी एक महत्वपूर्ण लक्षण हो सकता है. गले के फूलने का आभास भी हो सकता है. रोगी को निगलने में कठिनाई और सांस की तकलीफ की शिकायत हो सकती है. कुछ दुर्लभ मामलों में अगर सूजन की वजह से मामूली खून बह रहा हो तो रोगी की खाँसी के साथ थूक में खून निकल सकता है.