Hematuria, or blood in the urine, can be either gross (visible) or microscopic (blood cells only visible through a microscope). Gross hematuria can vary widely in appearance, from light pink to deep red with clots. Although the amount of blood in the urine may be different, the types of conditions that can cause the problem are the same, and require the same kind of workup or evaluation. People with gross hematuria will visit their doctor with this as a primary complaint. People who have microscopic hematuria, on the other hand, will be unaware of a problem and their condition will most commonly be detected as part of a periodic checkup by a primary-care physician.
Treatment depends on the cause. Depending on the condition causing your hematuria, treatment might involve taking antibiotics to clear a urinary tract infection, trying a prescription medication to shrink an enlarged prostate or having shock wave therapy to break up bladder or kidney stones. In some cases, no treatment is necessary.
Evaluating blood in urine requires consideration of the entire urinary tract. Tests used for the diagnosis of blood in urine may include a CT scan, cystoscopy, ultrasound, IVP, MRI, urine culture, and urine cytology. Management of blood in the urine depends upon the underlying cause. Be sure to follow up with your doctor after treatment to ensure there's no more blood in your urine.
First and foremost, the doctor will take a detailed history and do a thorough physical examination. The doctor will order for urine testing to look for presence of infection, or presence of minerals in urine that can cause kidney stones. Certain blood tests may be done to look for underlying disease conditions that can cause blood in the urine.
Further tests such as intravenous pyelogram/ x-ray of the urinary tract after injection of a dye or an ultrasonography (use of high-frequency sound waves and computer processing to view your kidneys and bladder) may be done. Imaging tests such as computerized tomography (CT scan) which uses radiation and a powerful computer to create cross sectional images of the inside of the body and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses a magnetic field and radio waves instead of X-rays to produce images may be done to provide detailed images of the urinary tract.
Procedures such as endoscopy or cystoscopy (insertion of a narrow tube fitted with a miniature camera) may be done to visualize the inside the bladder. At times the workup may be negative and the cause of blood in urine is unknown. In such individuals, observation with repeated urine analysis, blood tests, blood pressure monitoring, and assessment of prostate specific antigen (in men over the age of 50) may be done.
The treatment for hematuria varies and is dependent upon the cause. Hematuria does not have a cure; rather, your doctor will treat the condition or disease causing the blood in your urine. If your doctor determines a tumor is present somewhere in the urinary tract, prostate or lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract, possible treatments may include chemotherapy, surgery or radiation therapy.
Blood in urine is a very common symptom with females which is known as menstruation. In that case it is natural phenomenon which needs no treatment unless any irregularity or problem is seen in the menstrual cycle.
No cause will be found for microscopic hematuria in many cases. If initial ultrasound and other investigations reveal no disease, cystoscopy for persistent asymptomatic microscopic hematuria is not warranted in patients under 40 without risk factors for bladder cancer unless gross hematuria, a significant increase in the number of red blood cells, or urinary tract symptoms develop. When no specific cause for persistent microscopic hematuria is found, perform urinalysis and measure blood pressure.1,3,4 If the hematuria persists beyond three months, consider referral to a specialist.
How long hematuria lasts depends on its underlying cause. For example, hematuria related to strenuous exercise typically goes away on its own within 24 to 48 hours. In general, people with exercise-related hematuria do not need any treatment other than to modify their exercise programs. Hematuria resulting from a urinary tract infection will end when the infection is cured. Hematuria related to a kidney stone will clear after the stone is passed or removed. People with drug-related hematuria will improve if they stop taking the medication that caused the problem.
If hematuria is caused as a symptom of any minor urinary tract infection, hematuria will end when the infection is cured. Hematuria related to strenuous exercise typically goes away on its own within 24 to 48 hours. Hematuria related to a kidney stone will clear after the stone is passed or removed. People with drug-related hematuria will improve if they stop taking the medication that caused the problem. But if the hematuria is the cause of any malignant tumor or prostate cancer, prolonged treatment needs to be done. So the result of hematuria will be permanent or not depends on the cause underlying it.
There are several home remedies for hematuria which are simple and are quite safe to use with no risk of side effects and are cost-effective. Some of the popular home remedies for hematuria which are being used since a very long time and have proved to be quite effective in many cases are:
One of the most effective home remedies for hematuria is to drink cranberry juice or take some spinach juice and mix it with coconut water. Now drink this mixture. This mixture will treat the infections in bladder by working as a diuretic.
Bitter gourd is considered to be one of the most efficient home remedies for hematuria. All you need to do is consume bitter gourd on daily basis. Or you can even try drinking its juice which is equally beneficial.
Baking soda is also very helpful in treating hematuria. All you have to do is take eight ounce of water and then add half tablespoon of baking soda in it. Mix well and drink this mixture. This home remedy will fight fungal infections and urinary tract infection. Remember to drink it on regular basis.
Boil a cup of water and then add one teaspoon of lemon juice in it. Allow this mixture to cool down a little bit and then drink it throughout the day at fixed intervals of two hours.
Pomegranate juice is also very beneficial in curing hematuria. Make it a daily habit to drink this pomegranate juice to get good results.
Take one glass of fresh coconut water and then add two teaspoons of fresh drumstick flower juice in it. Mix them well and drink this mixture two times in a day. This natural home remedy will help in getting rid of infections.
Take a pumpkin and mash it into a paste. Now mix it with sugar cane juice and drink immediately. This will quickly heal hematuria.