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Cystoscopy: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A cystoscopy is an operational procedure that allows the doctor to examine the urethra, urinary bladder, and openings to the ureters. This procedure is performed by using the cystoscope which is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end. During a cystoscopy, a doctor inserts this tube through the urethra and into the bladder. This helps to visualize the inside portions of the bladder. The camera provides the magnified images of the interior which is displayed on a screen where the doctor can see them.

Cystoscopy helps to check inside the bladder which is not well displayed on X-Rays. This helps to detect tumors, sites of bleeding, signs of infection, stones (calculi) and causes of bladder outlet obstruction. Cystoscopy also assists in removing tumors and stones from the bladder.

How is the treatment done?

Prior to the treatment, that is, operational prcedure, the doctor usually prescribes antibiotics in case of a urinary tract infection. Right before the operation, the patient is asked to urinate and make the bladder empty. People are often given anaesthesia before inserting the tube. Depending on the doctor and the patient, anaesthesia may be regional, local or general. After this, the doctor inserts the tube into the urethra. After its examination, the scope is moved into the bladder and it is continuously being filled and periodically drained with sterile water or an alternative solution. This helps the doctor look into the inside easily. Lenses are placed at different angles on the end of the cystoscope so that the urologist is able to view the entire bladder. Apart from just viewing cameras, cystoscope has channels in it that allows the passage of instruments. This enables the urologist to perform transurethral procedures such as stone removal, prostate or bladder tumor resection, and cauterization. After completion of the procedure, the tube is removed.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

People with urinary problems, like constant need to urinate or painful urination may be prescribed cystoscopy for internal detection. Also, when there is blood in the urine along with frequent urinary tract infections, an overactive bladder and pelvic pain, people should consult a doctor and on advice, get a cystoscopy treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Urinary tract infections or UTI which can be cured with medicines and routine urine sample tests do not require cystoscopy. Only when the underlying cause for the problem cannot be distinguished, or tumors and stones need to be removed, or shocks need to be inserted, cystoscopy is performed.

Are there any side effects?

Insertion of a tube through the urethra, to bladder does cause a burning sensation. This lasts for two to three days and happens specially while urinating. Blood in the urine is also common after the procedure. Although serious complications are rare, some people develop complications like Swollen urethra (urethritis), infection leading to fever, strange smelling urine, nausea, and lower back pain. Often blood clots in the bladder and the person feels a constant stomach ache and an uneasiness while emptying the bladder.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Depending on the anaesthesia and the patient’s condition, they are either discharged immediately or kept for a day at the unit. A complete rest for a minimum for 24 hours is a must after cystoscopy. The patient cannot perform driving or any other complex or dangerous tasks. There will be dizziness and physical limitations, including sexual activity. Medicines should be taken as prescribed by the urologist.

How long does it take to recover?

Patients undergoing biopsy requires time to recover, and for other cases, a minimum of two or three days is needed by the person to recover.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Cystoscopy is an expensive treatment method and its cost differs on the basis of places, facilities, consultation and operation theatre fee, the cost for the treatment itself along with other factors. Generally, the price ranges between Rs. 20,000/- Rs. 2,00,000 /-

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Cystoscopy is a medical method that helps to look inside the bladder with cameras aligned at the base of the cystoscopies. This detects if any tumor or stones are there in the inside, and even functions of remove them. Biopsy or other tests can be done using cystoscopy. This is done in order to find the root cause of the problems like UTI or blood in the urine. So, this as such, cannot be called as a permanent treatment. In cases where it aids to remove stones or blood clot or insert something into the bladder, then, the treatment can be called as a permanent one. So, it depends on what cystoscopy is being used for.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There is no surgical alternative to a cystoscopy. Sometimes an ultrasound and/or X-ray of the bladder and kidneys (KUB) as a non surgical alternative may be advised. But these are anyway done before performing cystoscopy.

Safety: Very High Effectiveness: High Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Low Time For Recovery: Low Price Range:

Rs. 20,000/- Rs. 2,00,000 /-

Popular Health Tips

Bladder Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Of It!

M.Ch - Urology, MS - General Surgery, Fellowship In Uro Oncology
Urologist, Dehradun
Bladder Cancer - Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Of It!

Bladder cancer can be caused by a variety of factors, which include genetic factors, inheritance, drugs, chemicals, environment related factors and smoking. In fact, smoking tobacco is one of the major causes of bladder cancer around the world. The chemicals present in tobacco can irritate the bladder lining which ultimately leads to bladder cancer. Besides smoking other important environmental factors might be chemotherapy, exposure to chemicals from newspaper, dye, leather, paints industries.

Symptoms of bladder cancer are as follows:

Most often it occurs in people more than 50 years of age. It can present in different ways, but common symptoms being :

  1. Painless hematuria - reddish or brownish colored urine with or without clots Increased frequency of urination Pain while passing urine .
  2. Difficulty in passing urine


The diagnosis requires a proper imaging workup including ultrasound, CT scan and urine examinations. Following the initial imaging, a biopsy is required to confirm the diagnosis and stage the disease. This is done by cystoscopy under anesthesia.

Treatment Options:

Treatments for bladder cancer depend on the stage of cancer. Broadly bladder cancers can be categorised into Non-invasive and Invasive cancers.

  1. For non-invasive cancers: It requires recurrent cystoscopic surveillance and resection. For those with high risk of tumor recurrence or progression, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy might be required.
  2. For invasive cancers the various treatment choices are:
    1. Surgery: For localised tumor which are amenable to resection perhaps surgery is the best possible treatment. This is a major undertaking where in whole of bladder along with accessory organs is removed. The surgeon may offer choices for reconstruction between neobladder (refashioning bladder with patient's gut) or ileal conduit (fashioning a stoma over which bag can be worn to collect urine). Following surgery a regular follow up is required and the prognosis is good.
    2. Chemotherapy: This modality is reserved for patient's where surgery is not possible or they have metastatic disease (disease spread to other body parts).In this method, medications are used to target and destroy cancer cells.
    3. Radiation Therapy: This might be and option for patient's that are not suitable for surgery. Radiation therapy uses gamma rays to destroy cancer cells in the body The key to good prognosis in bladder cancers is early detection timely intervention and good follow up.
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Popular Questions & Answers

I have urinate burning for last one year's. I have gone urologist, doctor test for many all is normal, But urine flow is low, then doctor go check cystoscopy. Test result he told bladder neck narrow, he told now no operation me because I have 30 years old, Can solve this. please help me.

MBBS, Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences, Research Centre and Teaching Hospital, Peerancheru, Batra Hospital & Medical Research Centre, New Delhi
Urologist, Cuttack
Yes your urologist is absolutely right. No surgery should be done at this age for high bladder neck .but you can try tab Flotral 10 mg daily once at bed time for one month. Hope your urine culture report is sterile. But I think it's mostly prostatitis. Pliz do a semen culture and sensitivity test. Mostly you need long term antibiotics therapy. But don't start any antibiotics before semen sample collection.

Can urethral stricture occurs after cystoscopy in 2 to 3 months? As I start feeling pain in urethra and slow stream even after taking alpha blocker as I have prostatitis Thanks.

General Surgeon, Panipat
Mr. lybrate-user. Stricture can develop in urethra after instrumentation but infection chances are also there so get your urine complete examination done if pus cells present get the urine culture done and then see your treating doctor.
2 people found this helpful

I Have 1) WEIGHT LOSS 10 KGS IN 3 Months, 2) Flank Pain OR Left/Right Lower abdominal Pain, 3) Blood in Urine then Block Urine, 4) 3-4HPF Pus Cells in Urine. UROLOGIST Doctor done Cystoscopy and finds 1) PUS In Prostate Gland, 2) Bladder trabeculation, 3) Mild Narrow of Left Ureter. NCCT KUB is NORMAL. Can You Please tell me the 1) CAUSE of Weight Loss and Pus in Prostate Please tell.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Respected lybrate-user weight. Loss of 10 kg in 3 months is usually not correlating with pus in prostate. That requires further detail evaluation by physician. Cause of pus in prostate is bacterial infection only. Thanks

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice