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Overview

Cystoscopy: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

A cystoscopy is an operational procedure that allows the doctor to examine the urethra, urinary bladder, and openings to the ureters. This procedure is performed by using the cystoscope which is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end. During a cystoscopy, a doctor inserts this tube through the urethra and into the bladder. This helps to visualize the inside portions of the bladder. The camera provides the magnified images of the interior which is displayed on a screen where the doctor can see them.

Cystoscopy helps to check inside the bladder which is not well displayed on X-Rays. This helps to detect tumors, sites of bleeding, signs of infection, stones (calculi) and causes of bladder outlet obstruction. Cystoscopy also assists in removing tumors and stones from the bladder.

How is the treatment done?

Prior to the treatment, that is, operational prcedure, the doctor usually prescribes antibiotics in case of a urinary tract infection. Right before the operation, the patient is asked to urinate and make the bladder empty. People are often given anaesthesia before inserting the tube. Depending on the doctor and the patient, anaesthesia may be regional, local or general. After this, the doctor inserts the tube into the urethra. After its examination, the scope is moved into the bladder and it is continuously being filled and periodically drained with sterile water or an alternative solution. This helps the doctor look into the inside easily. Lenses are placed at different angles on the end of the cystoscope so that the urologist is able to view the entire bladder. Apart from just viewing cameras, cystoscope has channels in it that allows the passage of instruments. This enables the urologist to perform transurethral procedures such as stone removal, prostate or bladder tumor resection, and cauterization. After completion of the procedure, the tube is removed.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

People with urinary problems, like constant need to urinate or painful urination may be prescribed cystoscopy for internal detection. Also, when there is blood in the urine along with frequent urinary tract infections, an overactive bladder and pelvic pain, people should consult a doctor and on advice, get a cystoscopy treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Urinary tract infections or UTI which can be cured with medicines and routine urine sample tests do not require cystoscopy. Only when the underlying cause for the problem cannot be distinguished, or tumors and stones need to be removed, or shocks need to be inserted, cystoscopy is performed.

Are there any side effects?

Insertion of a tube through the urethra, to bladder does cause a burning sensation. This lasts for two to three days and happens specially while urinating. Blood in the urine is also common after the procedure. Although serious complications are rare, some people develop complications like Swollen urethra (urethritis), infection leading to fever, strange smelling urine, nausea, and lower back pain. Often blood clots in the bladder and the person feels a constant stomach ache and an uneasiness while emptying the bladder.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Depending on the anaesthesia and the patient’s condition, they are either discharged immediately or kept for a day at the unit. A complete rest for a minimum for 24 hours is a must after cystoscopy. The patient cannot perform driving or any other complex or dangerous tasks. There will be dizziness and physical limitations, including sexual activity. Medicines should be taken as prescribed by the urologist.

How long does it take to recover?

Patients undergoing biopsy requires time to recover, and for other cases, a minimum of two or three days is needed by the person to recover.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Cystoscopy is an expensive treatment method and its cost differs on the basis of places, facilities, consultation and operation theatre fee, the cost for the treatment itself along with other factors. Generally, the price ranges between Rs. 20,000/- Rs. 2,00,000 /-

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Cystoscopy is a medical method that helps to look inside the bladder with cameras aligned at the base of the cystoscopies. This detects if any tumor or stones are there in the inside, and even functions of remove them. Biopsy or other tests can be done using cystoscopy. This is done in order to find the root cause of the problems like UTI or blood in the urine. So, this as such, cannot be called as a permanent treatment. In cases where it aids to remove stones or blood clot or insert something into the bladder, then, the treatment can be called as a permanent one. So, it depends on what cystoscopy is being used for.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There is no surgical alternative to a cystoscopy. Sometimes an ultrasound and/or X-ray of the bladder and kidneys (KUB) as a non surgical alternative may be advised. But these are anyway done before performing cystoscopy.

Safety: Very High Effectiveness: High Timeliness: High Relative Risk: Medium Side Effects: Low Time For Recovery: Low Price Range:

Rs. 20,000/- Rs. 2,00,000 /-

Popular Health Tips

Causes And Types Of Bladder Tumor!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, M. Ch. (Urology), DNB (General Surgery), MBA
Urologist, Noida
Causes And Types Of Bladder Tumor!

The urinary bladder is a hollow purse like storage organ which collects urine from the kidneys and stores it until it can be passed out of the body through the urethra during the process of micturition or urination. It has a thin inner lining of cells called urothelial cells and a thick muscular wall, which exerts pressure to push the urine out of the body. 

Causes of Bladder Tumors

In most cases, the bladder tumor develops on the inner layer due to a combination of some of the following factors.

  1. Hereditary: A strong family history of cancer predisposes a person to cancer.
  2. Gender: Men are 3 times more prone for bladder cancer than women. 
  3. Ethnicity: White people are more prone for bladder cancer black people. 
  4. Smoking / Tobacco use: Smokers develop bladder cancer 2-6 times more frequently than non-smokers. Tobacco contain toxic, carcinogenic substances which reach the kidney and are stored in the bladder, leading to cancerous changes in bladder.
  5. Occupational hazards: Some workplaces have a higher likelihood of causing bladder cancers, especially dye and rubber industries. The effects can be damaging, and the person may develop cancers years after the exposure has happened.
  6. Recurrent bladder infections: In some people, this can also lead to bladder cancer in the long run. 

Types of Bladder Tumor Depending on the extent of the cancerous spread, it can be of two types: 

  1. Non-muscle-invasive bladder tumors: The tumor spread is limited to the inner part of the bladder (urothelial cells)
  2. Muscle-invasive bladder tumor: The tumor has spread to the thick muscular outer layer. 

This is more advanced and prognosis is poor compared to the noninvasive type. The most common and diagnostic symptom of bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine without pain in abdomen, known as painless hematuria. This is usually intermittent and stops on its own. Therefore any person who is more than 40 year old, has blood in urine, must be checked to rule out bladder tumor. If you miss these early warning symptoms by just thinking simple infection, you may miss the tumor and will be diagnosed later when tumor is advanced. Other symptoms include pain in the lower abdomen and frequent urination

Diagnosis 

From the most non-invasive to the most invasive diagnostic test, these include:

  1. Urine microscopy and cytology to detect blood and cancer cells in the urine 
  2. Ultrasound and CT Scan can define the bladder tumor, its size and spread. 
  3. Cystoscopy and biopsy is when a is tube inserted into the urethra to look into the inner wall of the bladder and biopsy is taken from lesion. It is highly diagnostic and confirmatory

Treatment TURBT

Once the tumor is diagnosed, first step of the treatment is endoscopic surgery known as transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT). The cancerous bladder lesion is resected and removed through a cystoscope. Muscle tissue from the base of tumor is also resected to check the spread of tumor in the muscle. The bladder is then flushed with chemotherapy agent to kill any residual cancer cells in the bladder.

  • Intravesical BCG Therapy: If muscle is not involved with tumor, this is called superficial tumor. As there is high chance that this tumor may recur or progress, bladder is treated with BCG injection therapy repeatedly for at least 6 weeks to many months. Check cystoscopy is usually done thereafter to check for any recurrence at frequent intervals.
  • Radical Cystectomy with Ileal conduit or Neo-Bladder: If tumor is involving muscle layer of bladder then whole urinary bladder is removed surgically and urine passage is made at abdominal wall using part of intestine called Ileal conduit. Patient has to wear a bag on abdomen to urine collection and discharge. Now-a-days, artificial bladder is made by patients own intestine which functions like normal bladder and patient passes urine per urethra.
  • Radical Radiotherapy: This is also an alternative treatment for muscle invasive bladder cancer where bladder is preserved and treated by radiotherapy. Repeated check cystoscopy is required thereafter to check for recurrence.
  • Chemotherpy: If tumor has advanced to lymph nodes and other body organs, then treatment is chemotherapy where anticancer drugs are injected into veins. In Summary, Bladder cancer is usually caused by Tobacco consumption. Blood in urine even if it stops on its own or by medications, in person over 40 years of age must be evaluated for bladder cancer. In early stage it can be treated by cystoscopy. If it involved muscle, bladder is removed and neo-bladder is made.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3409 people found this helpful

11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!

MBBS, MD - Internal Medicine , DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Bangalore
11 Most Common Types of Endoscopy!

A cut on your skin can be seen by the naked eye, but injuries and infections to internal organs are not so easily visible to the eye. The procedure to view and operate on the body’s internal organs is known as an endoscopy. An endoscopy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera attached at one end known as an endoscope. This is inserted into the body though a natural opening in the body such as the mouth or through a small incision on the body.

While the camera gives the doctor a view of the internal organs, forceps or a pair of scissors can be used to operate or remove tissue that needs to be biopsied. Since an endoscopy is performed without making large incisions, it negates the development of scarring.

Types of Endoscopies

Endoscopies can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is also one of the means for early detection of cancer. There are 11 main types of endoscopies which include:

  1. Arthroscopy: This is used to get a closer look at joints. In such cases, the endoscope is inserted into a small incision near the joint being examined.
  2. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Examining the esophagus and upper intestinal tract by inserting a scope through the mouth is known as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.
  3. Colonoscopy: In this procedure, a scope is inserted through the anus to get a view of the colon.
  4. Bronchoscopy: This procedure is used to examine a patient’s lungs. It involves the insertion of a scope into the nose or mouth to give a view of the lungs.
  5. Cystoscopy: When the bladder needs to be examined closely, an endoscope is inserted through the urethra. This is known as a cystoscopy.
  6. Enteroscopy: This is a procedure where the scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to get a look at the small intestines.
  7. Hysteroscopy: Here a scope is inserted through the vagina to get a look at the inside of the uterus.
  8. Laparoscopy: It is an endoscopy to examine the abdominal area is known as a laparoscopy. This scope is inserted through an incision in the abdomen.
  9. Laryngoscopy: This type of endoscopy involves inserting a scope through the mouth or nose to examine the voice box.
  10. Mediastinoscopy: By inserting a scope into an incision above the breastbone, doctors can get a look at the area between the lungs. This is known as a mediastinoscopy.
  11. Ureteroscopy: This procedure is used to examine the patient’s ureter by inserting a scope through the urethra.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3810 people found this helpful

Types of Endoscopy and Why Each One is Used

DM - Gastroenterology
Gastroenterologist, Jaipur
Types of Endoscopy and Why Each One is Used

A cut on your skin can be seen by the naked eye, but injuries and infections to internal organs are not so easily visible to the eye. The procedure to view and operate on the body’s internal organs is known as an endoscopy. An endoscopy is performed using a flexible tube with a camera attached at one end known as an endoscope. This is inserted into the body though a natural opening in the body such as the mouth or through a small incision on the body.

While the camera gives the doctor a view of the internal organs, forceps or a pair of scissors can be used to operate or remove tissue that needs to be biopsied. Since an endoscopy is performed without making large incisions, it negates the development of scarring.

Types of Endoscopies

Endoscopies can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. It is also one of the means for early detection of cancer. There are 11 main types of endoscopies which include:

1. Arthroscopy: This is used to get a closer look at joints. In such cases, the endoscope is inserted into a small incision near the joint being examined.

2. Bronchoscopy: This procedure is used to examine a patient’s lungs. It involves the insertion of a scope into the nose or mouth to give a view of the lungs.

3. Colonoscopy: In this procedure, a scope is inserted through the anus to get a view of the colon.

4. Cystoscopy: When the bladder needs to be examined closely, an endoscope is inserted through the urethra. This is known as a cystoscopy.

5. Enteroscopy: This is a procedure where the scope is inserted through the mouth or anus to get a look at the small intestines.

6. Hysteroscopy: Here a scope is inserted through the vagina to get a look at the inside of the uterus.

7. Laparoscopy: It is an endoscopy to examine the abdominal area is known as a laparoscopy. This scope is inserted through an incision in the abdomen.

8. Laryngoscopy: This type of endoscopy involves inserting a scope through the mouth or nose to examine the voice box.

9. Mediastinoscopy: By inserting a scope into an incision above the breastbone, doctors can get a look at the area between the lungs. This is known as a mediastinoscopy.

10. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: Examining the esophagus and upper intestinal tract by inserting a scope through the mouth is known as an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

11. Ureteroscopy: This procedure is used to examine the patient’s ureter by inserting a scope through the urethra.

3018 people found this helpful

Hematuria And Its Causes!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, MCh - Urology
Urologist, Noida
Hematuria And Its Causes!

The presence of blood in urine is known as Hematuria. It is categorized under 2 types:

  1. Macroscopic haematuria, which means the patient has seen blood.
  2. Microscopic dipstick haematuria, which means blood is identified by urine microscopy or by dipstick testing either in association with other urological symptoms (symptomatic microscopic haematuria) or during a routine medical examination. It has been variably defined as 3 or more , 5 or more or 10 or more Red Blood Cells (RBCs) per high - power field.

Urological and other Causes of Haematuria

  1. Cancer: Bladder, Kidney and Prostate Cancer
  2. Stones: Kidney, Ureteric
  3. Bladder Infections: Bacterial tuberculosis, infective urethritis Inflammation
  4. Interstitial Cystitis Trauma : Kidney, bladder, urethra, pelvic fracture causing urethral rupture
  5. Renal cystic disease: (e.g. medullary sponge kidney)
  6. Other urological causes: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, vascular malformations
  7. Other medical causes of haematuria: anticoagulation therapy (e.g. asprin, antiplatelet therapy) Nephrological Causes: more likely in children and young adults, proteinuria; red blood cell casts.
  8. Urological investigations: Urine culture, urine cytologycystoscopy, renal ultrasonography and intravenous Urography and CT Urography.

Management of haematuria depends on the cause as determined by the urologist. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

1836 people found this helpful

Causes and Treatment for Hematuria

Fellowship of the Royal College of Surgeons (FRCS), MS, MBBS
Urologist, Delhi
Causes and Treatment for Hematuria

The presence of blood in urine is known as Hematuria. It is categorized under 2 types:

  1. Macroscopic haematuria, which means the patient has seen blood.
  2. Microscopic dipstick haematuria, which means blood is identified by urine microscopy or by dipstick testing either in association with other urological symptoms (symptomatic microscopic haematuria) or during a routine medical examination. It has been variably defined as 3 or more , 5 or more or 10 or more Red Blood Cells (RBCs) per high - power field.

Urological and other Causes of Haematuria

  1. Cancer: Bladder, Kidney and Prostate Cancer
  2. Stones: Kidney, Ureteric
  3. Bladder Infections: Bacterial tuberculosis, infective urethritis Inflammation
  4. Interstitial Cystitis Trauma : Kidney, bladder, urethra, pelvic fracture causing urethral rupture
  5. Renal cystic disease: (e.g. medullary sponge kidney)
  6. Other urological causes: Benign prostatic hyperplasia, vascular malformations
  7. Other medical causes of haematuria: anticoagulation therapy (e.g. asprin, antiplatelet therapy) Nephrological Causes: more likely in children and young adults, proteinuria; red blood cell casts.
  8. Urological investigations: Urine culture, urine cytology, cystoscopy, renal ultrasonography and intravenous Urography and CT Urography.

Management of haematuria depends on the cause as determined by the urologist.

3684 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Can urethral stricture occurs after cystoscopy in 2 to 3 months? As I start feeling pain in urethra and slow stream even after taking alpha blocker as I have prostatitis Thanks.

MS
General Surgeon, Panipat
Mr. lybrate-user. Stricture can develop in urethra after instrumentation but infection chances are also there so get your urine complete examination done if pus cells present get the urine culture done and then see your treating doctor.
1 person found this helpful

I Have 1) WEIGHT LOSS 10 KGS IN 3 Months, 2) Flank Pain OR Left/Right Lower abdominal Pain, 3) Blood in Urine then Block Urine, 4) 3-4HPF Pus Cells in Urine. UROLOGIST Doctor done Cystoscopy and finds 1) PUS In Prostate Gland, 2) Bladder trabeculation, 3) Mild Narrow of Left Ureter. NCCT KUB is NORMAL. Can You Please tell me the 1) CAUSE of Weight Loss and Pus in Prostate Please tell.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Respected lybrate-user weight. Loss of 10 kg in 3 months is usually not correlating with pus in prostate. That requires further detail evaluation by physician. Cause of pus in prostate is bacterial infection only. Thanks

I just had a cystoscopy and it seems like I am headed for a TURP. My local urologist seems quite competent but I am wondering if I would do better with a large medical center perhaps equipped with robotic surgery like Da Vinci. Advice will be greatly appreciated.

M. Ch. (Urology)
Urologist, Tirupati
Turp is commonly done surgery. Any urologist can do it reasonably well. Turp cannot b done robotically. So go ahead with your surgery.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice