A cystoscopy is an operational procedure that allows the doctor to examine the urethra, urinary bladder, and openings to the ureters. This procedure is performed by using the cystoscope which is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end.
During a cystoscopy treatment, a doctor inserts this tube through the urethra and into the bladder. This helps to visualize the inside portions of the bladder. The camera provides the magnified images of the interior which is displayed on a screen where the doctor can see them.
Cystoscopy helps to check inside the bladder which is not well displayed on X-Rays. This helps to detect tumors, sites of bleeding, signs of infection, stones (calculi) and causes of bladder outlet obstruction. Cystoscopy also assists in removing tumors and stones from the bladder.
Prior to the treatment, that is, operational procedures, the doctor usually prescribes antibiotics in case of a urinary tract infection. Right before the operation, the patient is asked to urinate and make the bladder empty. People are often given anaesthesia before inserting the tube.
Depending on the doctor and the patient, anaesthesia may be regional, local or general. After this, the doctor inserts the tube into the urethra. After its examination, the scope is moved into the bladder and it is continuously being filled and periodically drained with sterile water or an alternative solution.
This helps the doctor look into the inside easily. Lenses are placed at different angles on the end of the cystoscope so that the urologist is able to view the entire bladder. Apart from just viewing cameras, cystoscope has channels in it that allows the passage of instruments.
This enables the urologist to perform transurethral procedures such as stone removal, prostate or bladder tumor resection, and cauterization. After completion of the procedure, the tube is removed.
People with urinary problems, like constant need to urinate or painful urination may be prescribed cystoscopy for internal detection. Also, when there is blood in the urine along with frequent urinary tract infections, an overactive bladder and pelvic pain, people should consult a doctor and on advice, get a cystoscopy treatment.
Urinary tract infections or UTI which can be cured with medicines and routine urine sample tests do not require cystoscopy. Only when the underlying cause for the problem cannot be distinguished, or tumors and stones need to be removed, or shocks need to be inserted, cystoscopy is performed.
Insertion of a tube through the urethra, to bladder does cause a burning sensation. This lasts for two to three days and happens specially while urinating. Blood in the urine is also common after the procedure. Although serious complications are rare, some people develop complications like Swollen urethra (urethritis), infection leading to fever, strange smelling urine, nausea, and lower back pain. Often blood clots in the bladder and the person feels a constant stomach ache and an uneasiness while emptying the bladder.
Depending on the anaesthesia and the patient’s condition, they are either discharged immediately or kept for a day at the unit. A complete rest for a minimum for 24 hours is a must after cystoscopy. The patient cannot perform driving or any other complex or dangerous tasks. There will be dizziness and physical limitations, including sexual activity. Medicines should be taken as prescribed by the urologist.
Patients undergoing biopsy requires time to recover, and for other cases, a minimum of two or three days is needed by the person to recover.
Cystoscopy is an expensive treatment method and its cost differs on the basis of places, facilities, consultation and operation theatre fee, the cost for the treatment itself along with other factors. Generally, the cost ranges between Rs. 20,000/- Rs. 2,00,000 /-
Cystoscopy is a medical method that helps to look inside the bladder with cameras aligned at the base of the cystoscopies. This detects if any tumor or stones are there in the inside, and even functions of removing them. A biopsy or other tests can be done using cystoscopy. This is done in order to find the root cause of the problems like UTI or blood in the urine. So, this as such, cannot be called as a permanent treatment.
In cases where it aids to remove stones or blood clot or insert something into the bladder, then, the treatment can be called as a permanent one. So, it depends on what cystoscopy is being used for.
There is no surgical alternative to a cystoscopy. Sometimes an ultrasound and/or X-ray of the bladder and kidneys (KUB) as a non surgical alternative may be advised. But these are anyway done before performing cystoscopy.