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Overview

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Test

C1 Esterase Inhibitor Test

also known as: C1 Esterase Inhibitor, Antigen , C1 Inactivator , C1 Inhibitor , Esterase Inhibitor , HANE Assay , Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema Test

C1 esterase inhibitor test or C1-INH test is one of the tests carried out to check your complement protein levels. The complement system is part of your innate immune system. It consists of a set of nine proteins, numbered C1 through C9.They help your body recognize foreign cells that may cause disease. The C1-INH test can also be used to check causes of unexplained inflammation or swelling, known as edema and deficiency in C1 esterase inhibitor protein. The test includes functional C1 esterase inhibitor, C3 and C4 levels.

You don’t need to take special steps to prepare for a C1-INH test. The doctor should be informed if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing C1 Esterase Inhibitor. Your doctor, depending on your condition, will give specific instructions.

It is performed to confirm Congenital Inflammatory Disorder, Edema and Inflammation and also during treatment and after treatment of Congenital Inflammatory Disorder, Edema and Inflammation. It is also used in diagnosis of hereditary angioedema (HAE). Diagnosis of C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency The C1-INH test assesses you for hereditary angioedema (HAE). The C1-INH test is also used to learn how you’re responding to treatment for autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

A blood sample is taken. This is most often taken through a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture. A blood sample of minimum 5mL is required for this test.

Specimen
Serum
Volume
1 mL
Container
Red-top tube or gel-barrier tube.
Type Gender Age-Group Value
C1 Esterase Inhibitor
Unisex
All age groups
16 - 33mg/dl
Average price range of the test is between Rs.1200 to Rs.4410 depending on the factors of city, quality and availablity.

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Popular Questions & Answers

I recently did a urine routine, it tested positive for leukocyte esterase and also 5-7 WBC/HPF were detected. I am 26 weeks pregnant. Do I need to take some antibiotics fir this, or will this cure on its own if I increase my fluid intake?

MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Pune
I recently did a urine routine, it tested positive for leukocyte esterase and also 5-7 WBC/HPF were detected. I am 26...
Take lot of fluid intake. App 4 lit per day. If you have no symptoms of infection wait for sometime. Repeat urine. As a rule one should consume drugs in pregnancy if it is utterly essential
1 person found this helpful

Hi I am a diabetic n under insulin control. I do get erections very quickly but I cannot hold it for long due to PE problems. Kindly let me know how to get out of dis problem.

MBBS, CCEBDM, Diploma in Diabetology, Diploma in Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Cetificate Course In Thyroid Disorders Management (CCMTD)
Endocrinologist, Hubli-Dharwad
Hi I am a diabetic n under insulin control. I do get erections very quickly but I cannot hold it for long due to PE p...
Mr. lybrate-user, If diabetes is there for long time and even if it well controlled, there is certain amount of damage to small vasculature, which can cause ED. But it is absolutely important to achieve a strict blood glucose control with fasting closer to 100 mg, PP 150 to 160 mg & HbA1c%<6.8. Then you might consider using a drug like PDE-V Inhibitor. Thanks.

Dr. Sir this is my present test reports. Cholesterol Total 197.00 mg/dL <200.00 Triglycerides 255.00 mg/dL <150.00 HDL Cholesterol 44.00 mg/dL >40.00 LDL Cholesterol 113.00 mg/dL <100.00 VLDL Cholesterol 40.00 mg/dL <30.00 Non-HDL Cholesterol 153.00 mg/dL <130.00 Glucose Fasting 177.00 Test Name Results Units Bio. Ref. Interval URINE EXAMINATION, ROUTINE; URINE, R/E (Dipstick, Microscopy) Physical Colour Deep Yellow Pale yellow Specific Gravity 1.030 1.001 - 1.030 pH 5 5.0 - 8.0 Chemical Proteins Nil Nil Glucose Present (0.25 g/dL) Nil ketone Nil Nil Bilirubin Nil Nil Urobilinogen Normal Normal Leucocyte Esterase Negative Negative Nitrite Negative Negative Microscopy R.B.C. 2-3 RBC/HPF Negative Pus Cells 2-3 WBC/HPF 0-5 WBC / hpf Epithelial Cells Few Few Casts Nil Nil /lpf Crystals Negative Nil Others Nil Test Name Results Units Bio. Ref. Interval HbA1c (GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN), BLOOD (Boronate Affinity) 9.10. Name Results Units Bio. Ref. Interval BUN; BLOOD UREA NITROGEN, SERUM (areas Colorimetric) 11.35 mg/dL 6.00 - 20.00 CREATININE, SERUM (Enzymatic) 0.80 mg/dL 0.67 - 1.17 Sir please advice me medicine . Thanks Doctor.

MBBS
General Physician, Cuttack
Dr. Sir this is my present test reports.
Cholesterol Total 197.00 mg/dL <200.00 Triglycerides 255.00 mg/dL <150.00 HD...
You are suffering from diabetes mellitus and it is not controlled. Consult diabetologist for advice and treatment. In addition to medicine follow the advice given below 1. Do regular aerobic exercise for 1 hour daily (brisk walking, jogging, running, swimming, cycling etc) 2. Reduce weight if overweight 3control diet a) avoid sweets, sugar/honey, milk, milk product excess calorie and carbohydrate rich diet like white bread, cereal, rice, pasta b) avoid all refined food like maida, pasta, starchy food like rice, potato, bakery item, processed food, c) include more fiber like pulse, green leafy vegetable, cucumber, carrot, tomato, j legume. D) avoid sweetened fruit like banana, mango, litchi, chickoo, sapota, seethaphal jack fruit, grape etc. Can have fruits like guava, pineapple, papaya, orange, mousambi, strawberry, watermelon, pomegranate, jack fruit, sweet potato, a handful of walnut daily (akhrot) e) avoid white/polished rice, take unpolished rice like brown rice/wheat/jowar/ragi, moong and chana dal. F) avoid ghee/ butter./coconut oil/excess salt intake like papad/pickle. G) avoid red meat. Take fish/chicken. H) avoid alcohol and carbonated drinks like soft drink 4. Adhere to a strict diabetic diet by consulting dietitian 5. Monitor your fasting, pp blood sugar 3 monthly and hba1c six monthly 6. Consult diabetologist for advice and treatment.
3 people found this helpful

My 7 month old baby girl has viral fever and is under paracetamol drops medication. I got her urine routine test done which shows 20-40 WBC/hpf and positive leucocyte esterase. Does this mean that she has UTI or it could be because she already has viral infection.

MD - Paediatrics, MBBS
Pediatrician, Tumkur
My 7 month old baby girl has viral fever and is under paracetamol drops medication. I got her urine routine test done...
More then 10 wbcs are suggestive of urine infection. You must start antibiotics immediately after giving early morning urine sample for culture and sensitivity test report of which you will be getting after 48 hours and you must change the antibiotics according to that.

Popular Health Tips

Can Dementia Be Treated?

DNB (Psychiatry), DPM, MBBS
Psychiatrist, Mumbai
Can Dementia Be Treated?

Ageing is a natural process, and as much as we don’t like it, it is inevitable. The effect of ageing is different from different organs, and with regard to the brain, dementia is one of the main effects. Dementia is not an isolated condition, but a set of symptoms that includes decreased memory and reduced thinking ability, making it difficult for the person to perform daily activities efficiently. Ageing is one of the main causes of dementia. Dementia is usually progressive, with a person beginning to forget his/her purse, taking pills, etc., and then progressing to forget more important things like close family members’ names or finding one’s way back home.

Though dementia is not reversible, it is possible to control the rate of progression and arrest symptoms if detected in the early stages. There are various reasons for dementia, with senility or ageing being one of the main reasons. Alzheimer’s, vascular dementia, hypothyroidism, depression, etc., are some of the other reasons and treating these can help control the symptoms of dementia. Treatment for dementia would include a combination of medications aimed at treating the underlying reason for dementia and supportive palliative care, which forms a huge component of the treatment, which includes the following:

  1. Vitamin B12 replacement in people with vitamin deficiency
  2. Treat hypothyroidism with thyroid replacement
  3. Manage depression with antidepressants
  4. Change or substitute medications leading to memory loss
  5. Mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease can be controlled with acetylcholine esterase inhibitors like rivastigmine and galantamine; more severe forms with memantine hydrochloride.
  6. Manage behavioural changes with antipsychotics
  7. Recommend surgical removal if there are brain tumours that cause increased pressure
  8. Treat brain infections like encephalitis, if present.
  9. Manage risk factors by managing high blood pressure, cholesterol, diabetes, and quitting smoking

In addition to the above, supportive palliative care is also very essential. The intention is not to cure, but to improve patient care by including the following:

  1. Help the affected person become independent and manage daily activities on their own.
  2. Include cognitive stimulation with activities and games to improve memory and cognitive functioning.
  3. Validation therapy and behaviour therapy are also used, depending on the symptoms.
  4. The affected person would usually feel mixed feelings of anger, fear, anxiety, and sadness. To address this, use medications that improve the mood, control the behaviour, and improve cognitive functions. Support and counselling from friends and family are very helpful.
  5. As much as it might be uncomfortable, decisions such as caretaker, type of care, financial planning, etc., should be discussed and decided.

As dementia is irreversible, the key is to detect the symptoms in their early stages. This will help in effective management by arresting the symptoms from progressing, thereby improving the quality of life. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.

2883 people found this helpful

Hereditary Angioedema And It's Treatment!

MBBS, Diploma in Venerology & Dermatology (DVD), DDV, MD - Dermatology , Venereology & Leprosy
Dermatologist, Pune
Hereditary Angioedema And It's Treatment!

Hereditary Angioedema is a rare skin related disorder and as the name suggests it is also a genetically inherited condition. This condition mainly afflicts the throat, abdomen and the limbs of the patient, with a certain kind of swelling. This swelling can become fatal if not treated on time. Here is everything you need to know about the condition and its treatment.

Causes: A rare genetic mutation of the SERPING1 gene can cause this condition. Usually, this gene is known to produce C1 esterase inhibitor, which is a kind of blood protein. This blood protein is an important element of one’s immune system and is usually involved in the biochemical reactions that control the body’s response to inflammation causing elements. This is done when the blood protein produces a hormone known as Bradykinin. If this blood protein does not function in a normal manner, then there is excessive production of this hormone, which leads to swelling and inflammation.

Type one: There are various types of Hereditary Angioedema that can affect various parts of the body. Type one is one of the most common kinds and can be found on the face, hands, abdomen, throat, as well as feet and genitals of the patient. The severity and frequency of attacks cannot really be predicted and the patient may suffer from attacks throughout his or her life. The best way to treat this type of Hereditary Angioedema is with the help of antihistamine drugs and prednisone which can fight allergic attacks.

Type two: This kind of Hereditary Angioedema has the same symptoms as type one and is caused by a malfunction of the C1 inhibitor, rather than the Bradykinin hormone as one can see in type one. This condition can also be treated with anti-allergy drugs.

Type three: This is very rare kind of Hereditary Angioedema. In fact, medical science is yet to find a conclusive body of knowledge that can point to the exact causes and symptoms of this condition. Coagulation is one of the main causes recognised so far. This condition is much more common in women than it is in men, and it usually shows up as facial swelling.

Timely treatment: While there is no cure for this condition, one can prevent a flare up of the symptoms by taking C1 inhibitors and Bradykinin receptors as well as enzyme inhibitors. It is important to get early treatment for the symptoms and to have constant access to a hospital and its emergency unit. One should also keep track of attacks and symptoms and get regular check-ups done by a doctor to detect the earliest signs of the same to avoid fatalities. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.

3980 people found this helpful

Treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Sexologist, Surat
Treatment for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD is a mental health condition, which is usually triggered by an unfortunate event experienced or witnessed by the affected patient in the past. The symptoms of this condition are flashbacks, nightmares and extreme anxiety. The patient also thinks about the event in an uncontrolled manner.

PTSD is a serious mental health condition that can damage the affected person's personality to a great extent. Therefore, the person should be given proper treatment at the earliest. There are various treatment methods for PTSD that can help you in changing how you think about a traumatic event. The treatment options that can be used have been mentioned below:

Counselling:
There are different forms of counselling for treating PTSD which include:

  1. Cognitive therapy: It is a therapy where you learn how to change your thought patterns regarding the trauma and allow you to eliminate unnecessary fears.
  2. Exposure therapy: It involves talking about the trauma over and over again until the fear departs.
  3. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: It is a process where you are made to focus on several forms of distractions like sounds and hand movements while you think about the trauma. A good therapist is very important to bring positive changes in your life by means of counseling therapy. You require a therapist who will listen to whatever you have to say and guide you through everything to make you feel better.

SSRI medicine:
SSRI or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor is a form of antidepressant medicine, which helps you with your sadness and tension. There are certain medicines that are really effective and can be prescribed by your doctor depending on the condition.

Other forms of treatment:
There are several other types of medicines and procedures that can be used for treating PTSD. They include the following:

  1. There are other counselling forms, which include group therapy, brief psychodynamic psychotherapy and family therapy.
  2. There are other medicines as well for the treatment of PTSD. They include tricyclic antidepressants and atypical antidepressants.
  3. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors like isocarboxazid can also be used for curing PTSD.
  4. Certain mood stabilizers can be taken along with the medicines such as carbamazepine and lithium.
  5. Several antipsychotics, which include risperidone can be used to tackle symptoms such as flashbacks and sleeplessness.
  6. Another medicine known as prazosin is also used for dealing with nightmares and sleep disorders caused by PTSD. All kinds of medicines for the treatment of PTSD should be taken only after being prescribed by a doctor.

Post-traumatic stress disorder is a serious mental health condition in which a patient suffers from continuous negative thoughts regarding a traumatic event which has happened in the past. This condition may give rise to other health problems, and immediate treatment is recommended. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a psychiatrist.

6136 people found this helpful

Angioedema - An Overview

MBBS(Hons), MD (Gold Medalist) Dermatology
Dermatologist, Kolkata
Angioedema - An Overview

Allergic reactions are the body’s way of responding to foreign substances. The body recognizes these substances (be it food, pollens, insect bites, etc.) as antigens and produces antibodies. These antibodies can cause various reactions depending on the severity of the allergen, be it skin rash, hives, or angioedema. In severe cases, there could be swelling of the tongue and the respiratory tract, leading to choking of the airways.

Literally, angioedema means swelling of the blood vessels. These are located in the underlying layers of the skin and their swelling can lead to formation of giant hives, which can be extremely itchy, reddish, and oval or circular in shape. The affected area I usually warm and painful to touch.

Causes

Angioedema is caused due to the following:

  1. Food allergies including eggs, peanuts, shellfish, milk, tree nuts, chocolates, etc.

  2. Insect bites or stings

  3. Pollen, latex, animal dander, poison ivy, and other common allergens

  4. Medications like aspirin, penicillin, ibuprofen, and some blood pressure medicines

  5. In response to blood transfusions

  6. Auto-immune disorders like lupus

  7. Conditions like leukemia and thyroid disorders

  8. Infections like hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infections, Epstein-Barr infections, etc.

  9. Weather conditions like extremes of cold, heat, or pressure

  10. Extreme emotional stress

  11. Genetic angioedema, passed on from parents to children, which could last forever

While hives usually develop without any warning, the following condition puts a person at risk of developing angioedema.

  1. Predisposition to allergic reactions (highly active immune system)

  2. Previous history of allergies

  3. Genetic history of allergies or angioedema

Most angioedema cases are limited to the skin and hives, but there could be severe cases leading to respiratory distress.

Diagnosis

If it is the first instance of hives, the doctor would ask detailed questions about similar occurrence in the past. They would also check if there are similar hives on other parts of the body like the back, which you may have missed. If required, this examination is followed by allergy testing and blood testing. The allergy testing will help identify if you are allergic to some of the common things which cause allergy. The blood test will look for your eosinophil count, which is usually high in people prone to allergies. C1 esterase inhibitor test and complement particles also can be checked, if there is suspicion of genetic angioedema.

Treatment

This would depend on the severity of symptoms

  1. In case of angioedema, admission in hospital may be needed.
  2. Tracheostomy may also become essential to save patients life.
  3. Vigorous therapy with intravenous medications like steroid, antihistamines and others may be needed.
  4. Under medical treatment, antihistamines like cetirizine and loratadine are prescribed. However, severe cases may require steroids like prednisolone.

Prevention

Once you know what caused it, avoid exposure to these substances and further attacks can be prevented. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

2152 people found this helpful

What is Hereditary Angioedema and How Can it be Treated?

D.V.D, MBBS
Dermatologist, Delhi
What is Hereditary Angioedema and How Can it be Treated?

Hereditary Angioedema is a rare skin related disorder and as the name suggests it is also a genetically inherited condition. This condition mainly afflicts the throat, abdomen and the limbs of the patient, with a certain kind of swelling. This swelling can become fatal if not treated on time. Here is everything you need to know about the condition and its treatment.

Causes: A rare genetic mutation of the SERPING1 gene can cause this condition. Usually, this gene is known to produce C1 esterase inhibitor, which is a kind of blood protein. This blood protein is an important element of one’s immune system and is usually involved in the biochemical reactions that control the body’s response to inflammation causing elements. This is done when the blood protein produces a hormone known as Bradykinin. If this blood protein does not function in a normal manner, then there is excessive production of this hormone, which leads to swelling and inflammation.

Type One: There are various types of Hereditary Angioedema that can affect various parts of the body. Type one is one of the most common kinds and can be found on the face, hands, abdomen, throat, as well as feet and genitals of the patient. The severity and frequency of attacks cannot really be predicted and the patient may suffer from attacks throughout his or her life. The best way to treat this type of Hereditary Angioedema is with the help of antihistamine drugs and prednisone which can fight allergic attacks.

Type Two: This kind of Hereditary Angioedema has the same symptoms as type one and is caused by a malfunction of the C1 inhibitor, rather than the Bradykinin hormone as one can see in type one. This condition can also be treated with anti-allergy drugs.

Type Three: This is very rare kind of Hereditary Angioedema. In fact, medical science is yet to find a conclusive body of knowledge that can point to the exact causes and symptoms of this condition. Coagulation is one of the main causes recognised so far. This condition is much more common in women than it is in men, and it usually shows up as facial swelling.

Timely Treatment: While there is no cure for this condition, one can prevent a flare up of the symptoms by taking C1 inhibitors and Bradykinin receptors as well as enzyme inhibitors. It is important to get early treatment for the symptoms and to have constant access to a hospital and its emergency unit. One should also keep track of attacks and symptoms and get regular check-ups done by a doctor to detect the earliest signs of the same to avoid fatalities.

2310 people found this helpful