Stitching of Wounds
Post Exposure Prophylaxis for Hiv
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Removal of Stitches
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Health Screening for Women
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I found the answers provided by the Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala to be very helpful. Share feedback in your own words...
I found the answers provided by the Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala to be very helpful. Share feedback in your own words...
Dr. Kumar is a highly knowledgeable, friendly and professional Doctor. He treats all his patients with respect and makes himself easily available to discuss any treatment plans that his patients are on or are interested in finding more information about.
Dr.ajaykumar is well experience and good doctor.the time he spends with patients is remarkable.explains the total line of treatment to the patients and to the attenders also.he is a superb doc I have ever seen.long live Dr.ajaykumar
I was beyond impressed with my experience at this doctor’s office. @My first contact I was completely blown away by how helpful and kind he was and how fast he was at getting back to me! Now on to the appointment… my appointment ran on time, Dr Ajay was really knowledgeable and made me feel comfortable throughout the appointment! I would highly recommend him
- hiv testing in pregnancy should be done early so as standard care can be taken for the pregnant women.
- this hiv testing must be repeated in the third trimester, usually before 36 weeks of gestation. This should be done in women with hiv-seronegative and also in pregnant women who are at a high risk of developing hiv infection.
- expedited hiv tests should be performed at the time of delivery and labor and this is a must in women who have not been documented for hiv. The results of the test should be available in one hour of the test and the testing should be available 24 hours. In case the results are positive then, infant postnatal antiretroviral and intrapartum drug prophylaxis should be started immediately.
- women who have not been able to be tested for hiv at the time of labor and delivery are suggested expedited screening for hiv. Their screening can be done immediately postpartum or their babies should undergo screening. In case the infant and mother, both are positive, then infant antiretroviral drug prophylaxis should be started immediately. These mothers should avoid breastfeeding their babies, until the supplemental hiv tests are negative. In infants with positive hiv, prophylaxis should be discontinued and antiretroviral drug therapy should be started.
- in case of acute hiv infection during pregnancy, that is in the intrapartum period, or during breast feeding, initial testing can be performed with an antigen/antibody combination immunoassay. If the supplemental test is negative, then an additional test which is the virologic test (dna, rna) are necessary for the diagnosis of the hiv infection.
- if the mother is hiv positive then this information must be documented in the infant's medical record and also communicated to the infants care provider.
The knowledge of an antenatal maternal hiv infection allows the:
- women with hiv infection to get the correct antiretroviral therapy along with prophylaxis for the infections which might occur due to the immunocompromised state of the body. This also prevents and decreases the risk of transmission to their partners.
- when there is provision for antiretroviral therapy for the mother during pregnancy and labor along with antiretroviral drug prophylaxis for the baby there is less risk of perinatal transmission of the hiv.
- the hiv infected women should be counseled for a cesarean delivery. The option of an elective cesarean reduces the perinatal transmission of the hiv.
- the hiv women should be counseled about the risk of breastfeeding.
Unprotected sex is a primary mode of transmission of the hiv virus from an infected person to a healthy person. Unprotected sex refers to having sexual intercourse without using a condom or any other mode of protection. It leads to hiv transmission along with other sexually transmitted infections.
How does hiv occur from unprotected sex?
While having sex without protection, the hiv present in the body fluids such as blood, sperm, vaginal fluid, pre-cum or anal mucus of an hiv infected patient can pass on to the body of his/her partner. The transmission occurs through the membranes of the penis in men, vagina in women, the rectum and also through mouth and throat. It is more likely for an hiv patient to pass on the virus during the first few months after getting infected. This is because the virus spreads over body fluids during this stage.
Which types of sex are more risky?
Hiv is transmitted the most by having vaginal or anal sex. Anal sex accounts for being the riskiest because the lining present in the anus is much more delicate than the vaginal lining. It is prone to more damage, easily. There are two types of anal sex: receptive anal sex and insertive anal sex. Receptive anal sex is more risky.
Hiv can also be acquired from oral sex. This can happen in case the person giving oral sex has ulcers in the mouth, sore and bleeding gums. In case the person receiving the oral sex is already infected, the other person gets hiv.
A person who has sex with multiple partners regularly is at a high risk of getting hiv because of unprotected sex.
Getting hiv from unprotected sex can be avoided if you use these precautions:
Condoms offer the precaution against hiv infection from anal or vaginal sex. They should be used by men before any kind of sexual contact to restrict the passing of semen or fluid, which may be infected by hiv.
Sex is made easier by using lubricants and reduces the risk of tearing in the vagina or anus due to friction. The risk of a condom breaking is reduced using lubricants.
- dental dams
This is another precautionary device, which is a small sheet of plastic. It has to be placed to cover the mouth of the vagina or anus and reduce the risk of hiv transmission.
Unprotected sex is the primary cause of hiv and people who do not take precautions before sex are likely to be infected by hiv.">
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is a virus which causes HIV infection and leads to "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" or AIDS. HIV is transmitted by different means and ways.
Unprotected sex is a primary mode of transmission of the HIV virus from an infected person to a healthy person. Unprotected sex refers to having sexual intercourse without using a condom or any other mode of protection. It leads to HIV transmission along with other sexually transmitted infections.
How does HIV occur from unprotected sex?
While having sex without protection, the HIV present in the body fluids such as blood, sperm, vaginal fluid, pre-cum or anal mucus of an HIV infected patient can pass on to the body of his/her partner. The transmission occurs through the membranes of the penis in men, vagina in women, the rectum and also through mouth and throat. It is more likely for an HIV patient to pass on the virus during the first few months after getting infected. This is because the virus spreads over body fluids during this stage.
Which types of sex are more risky?
HIV is transmitted the most by having vaginal or anal sex. Anal sex accounts for being the riskiest because the lining present in the anus is much more delicate than the vaginal lining. It is prone to more damage, easily. There are two types of anal sex: receptive anal sex and insertive anal sex. Receptive anal sex is more risky.
HIV can also be acquired from oral sex. This can happen in case the person giving oral sex has ulcers in the mouth, sore and bleeding gums. In case the person receiving the oral sex is already infected, the other person gets HIV.
A person who has sex with multiple partners regularly is at a high risk of getting HIV because of unprotected sex. You can also take the package for Having Safe Sex.
Getting HIV from unprotected sex can be avoided if you use these precautions:
- Condoms: Condoms offer the precaution against HIV infection from anal or vaginal sex. They should be used by men before any kind of sexual contact to restrict the passing of semen or fluid, which may be infected by HIV.
- Lubricants: Sex is made easier by using lubricants and reduces the risk of tearing in the vagina or anus due to friction. The risk of a condom breaking is reduced using lubricants.
- Dental Dams: This is another precautionary device, which is a small sheet of plastic. It has to be placed to cover the mouth of the vagina or anus and reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
Unprotected sex is the primary cause of HIV and people who do not take precautions before sex are likely to be infected by HIV. If you wish to discuss about any specific sexual problem, you can consult a specilized sexologist and ask a free question.
Erectile dysfunction sometimes tends to be extremely embarrassing. You might not want to discuss it with anyone, whether it is a friend or a doctor. So, if you try out these natural treatments, neither will you have to feel embarrassed nor will you regret trying them out. You can be rest assured that these will definitely help your condition.">
Walk: walk for at least 2 miles every day. Walking not helps you to stay healthy, but also helps reverse the situation of impotence which you might be suffering from. It also helps obese men retain their erection while having sex. Walking also helps you maintain a trimmed waistline which helps you fight erectile dysfunction. It helps you to maintain a healthy weight which reduces the risk of suffering from erectile dysfunction.
Exercise: exercise seems to be the key answer to many such disorders. Even erectile dysfunction can be cured or treated with exercise. Pelvic or kegel exercises will help you promote urinary continence as well as sexual well-being. Exercise helps you to strengthen your bulbocavernosus muscles which are responsible in engage the penis with blood while erect. It also helps in ejaculation and clearing the urethra after urination.
Acupuncture: acupuncture is a very popular form of treatment. Treating erectile dysfunction with acupuncture is one of the easiest treatments. This is because in most case erectile dysfunction occurs due to a psychological cause, and acupuncture helps to release this as it can relieve you of stress and anxiety.
Intake of herbal viagra: red ginseng is known as herbal viagra, as it possesses the ability to help treat erectile dysfunction. However, red ginseng needs to grow for 5 years before it can be used as a natural supplement of viagra. A 2008 review has found red ginseng to treat erectile dysfunction effectively.
Watermelon juice: watermelons contain an amino acid called citrulline which helps in improving the blood flow to the penis. Watermelon is also called" nature's viagra" as it helps achieve an erection and retaining it.
Erectile dysfunction sometimes tends to be extremely embarrassing. You might not want to discuss it with anyone, whether it is a friend or a doctor. So, if you try out these natural treatments, neither will you have to feel embarrassed nor will you regret trying them out. You can be rest assured that these will definitely help your condition.
I have taken HIV antibody screening test at 12 weeks by using tridot kit. My result came non-reactive. Should I go for further hiv test?
Hiv virus as a cause of fatigue:
Hiv is a long-term infection in nature, and our body provides strong immunity to respond the virus. A lot of energy is capitalized for constantly fighting against the hiv. Fatigue slowly develops as a result of this. Some hiv patients have a high viral load and are likely to develop more fatigue. Energy is regained after starting hiv treatment.
Hiv treatment as a cause of fatigue:
Anti-hiv drugs help to improve energy levels in patients, but they lead to fatigue as well. These medicines include a lot of side effects such as tiredness and excess fatigue. These side effects are more common in the early phase of treatment.
In order to avoid this fatigue, you may change your mode of treatment or consult your doctor for a change in your medical prescription. Medicines such as cotrimoxazole, dapsone, pyrimethamine, toxoplasmosis and ganciclovir lead to fatigue. Folic acid can be an alternative. Blood transfusion can also be conducted to treat fatigue due to medicines, which produces a quick burst of red blood cells. Injecting a hormone named erythropoietin also stimulates red blood cell production.
Low vitamin and mineral levels
Low levels of vitamins and minerals in the body cause fatigue. You can avoid fatigue of this kind by choosing a balanced diet by consulting a dietician. Changing your diet and taking dietary supplements helps in reducing fatigue. Fatigue may also be caused because of anaemia.
Sleep disorders and stress
Fatigue is bound to develop in hiv patients who suffer from sleeplessness. Insomnia, the most common sleeping disorder, occurs among hiv patients. It happens due to stress, anxiety and depression. Improving upon your sleep ensures correction of the fatigue to a great extent. You can take up counselling or therapies to reduce any kind of sleeping disorder due to stress. You should avoid consuming excess of coffee, alcohol and several recreational drugs. You must also change your lifestyle and daily routine, aiming to be more productive.
Fatigue and tiredness are common among all hiv patients, which occur because of various reasons. There are remedies to get over the fatigue which should be implemented correctly.
Hiv treatment is known as antiretroviral therapy or art. This involves taking a series of hiv medicines on a daily basis. Art can help hiv patients live a longer, healthier life and can also reduce the risk of hiv transmission.
The first step towards getting treated for hiv is to get tested. This can be easily done at your nearest health center and the results will be kept confidential. With hiv prevention is better than cure and hence, if you have more than one sexual partner, you must insist on them getting tested as well.
As soon as you test positive for the virus, start the treatment. Do not wait till you start feeling sick. Art can be taken by anyone at any stage of the condition. If you are pregnant, breast feeding or have been diagnosed with early hiv infection, this is all the more important.
Hiv medication works by preventing the hiv cells from multiplying and thus reduces the amount of hiv cells in the body. A low level of hiv cells gives the immune system a chance to recover and strengthen itself. A lowered hiv count also reduces chances of transferring the virus to another person.
Art involves following a regimen of a number of medicines. There are 25 hiv medicines that can be grouped under six drug classes depending on how they affect hiv cells. These include:
1. Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
2. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
3. Protease inhibitors
4. Fusion and entry inhibitors
5. Pharmacokinetic enhancers and
6. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors
Usually, a person is prescribed 3-4 hiv medicines from a minimum of 2 drug classes. A number of factors go into deciding what form of hiv treatment is most suitable to a patient. This includes the person's individual needs, symptoms presented, potential drug interactions and possible side effects. Convenience of following the regimen and costs are also taken into account while prescribing a form of treatment to a hiv patient.
Once treatment is started, art can be proven to be effective within 3-6 months by lowering the number of hiv cells in the body.
The symptoms of hiv vary from person to person. There are three main stages of hiv infections, where each stage has different symptoms.
Here are some facts about the three stages of hiv infections along with the accompanying symptoms.
Acute hiv infection stage
This is the first stage of hiv infection and after three to four weeks of becoming hiv infected, people experience symptoms, which are similar to flu. This flu usually does not last more than two weeks.
Rashes on the body
A sore throat
Swelling of different glands
Joint and muscle pain
These symptoms appear and indicate that the body is reacting to the hiv. Infected cells circulate throughout the blood, and the immune system produces hiv antibodies in order to attack the viruses. This process is termed as seroconversion, and it takes place within 45 days of getting infected. The levels of virus in your blood are quite high during this stage.
Clinical latency stage
This is the second stage of hiv infection, which follows the early stage. This stage is also known as chronic hiv stage. During this stage, hiv is active, but is reproduced at a very low level. People in this stage may not receive symptoms related to hiv or may get mild indications.
In case of people who do not take medicines for hiv treatment, this stage lasts for a long period. Some people, however, progress faster through this stage. Medicines should be taken to keep the virus in check. During this stage, people can transmit hiv to others very easily in spite of not experiencing any symptoms. People who are on medication stay suppressed virally and have a low level of hiv in their blood, and the risk of transmission is less.
Symptomic hiv infection or aids stage
This is the third stage of hiv infection, which is characterized by severe damage to the immune system of an hiv-virus affected person. A patient is likely to have serious infections and gets bacterial or fungal diseases. The infections are termed as opportunistic infections. The patient is now said to be having aids.
The symptoms of this stage are:
Loss of weight
Sweating at night
Fevers and persistent coughing
Problems in the mouth and skin
Infections on a regular basis
Illness and development of other diseases.
Hiv infection affects the body via three stages and leads to aids in the third stage. Each stage is accompanied by several symptoms.
Unlike other viruses, HIV cannot be transmitted through air, water etc. This virus can only be transmitted through:
1. Blood: Receiving blood transfusions from an HIV positive person is sure to put you at risk of suffering from the disease as well. For this reason, it is essential to only take blood from registered blood banks that run HIV screening tests. This holds true for organ and tissue transplants as well. Being stuck with an HIV infected needle can also put you at risk of coming in contact the virus. In some cases, direct contact between broken skin, wounds and mucous membranes can also lead to the transferring of HIV cells from one person to another. HIV does not spread through saliva, however, if while kissing, both partners suffer from bleeding gums and one partner is HIV positive, there is a risk of the transference of HIV from one person to the other.
2. Bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids: The only way to prevent the transmission of the HIV virus from one partner to another while having intercourse is by using a condom. This creates a barrier between the bodily fluids of both partners and keeps them safe. A condom is needed even if the couple is engaging in anal sex. In fact when comparing anal and vaginal intercourse; anal sex puts HIV negative partners at a higher risk of getting in contact the virus than vaginal sex. Theoretically, this virus can be transmitted even through oral sex is a HIV positive man ejaculates into the woman's mouth. However, this is a rare occurrence.
3. From a mother to an unborn child: A HIV positive mother can transmit the virus to her child when pregnant, at birth or while breastfeeding. However, if the mother follows HIV treatment, the chances of her passing on this virus to her child are significantly lowered.
The above are the only three ways HIV can be transferred from one person to another. HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing utensils, drinking the same water, through mosquito bites or by shaking hands etc. Thus, there is no reason to ostracize an HIV infected person.
I suffer from sever asthma since my Birth. I tried sever allopathic medicines and got no benefit from those. I live in a hot climate region. No one in my family suffers from it. Please help me find a solution.
1. A wound causes quick damage - the skin tissue is cut or punctured while a bruise (also called a closed wound) is where the skin is not torn.
2. A wound is usually caused by a sharp object but bruises are the results of blunt force or trauma.
3. A wound almost certainly bleeds due to ruptured tissue and blood vessels. Blunt injury also damages the blood capillaries of the skin and causes blood to accumulate under the skin tissue, creating a dark patch of skin. Blood vessels can also break due to lifting of heavy objects or overexertion of muscles.
4. A wound carries the risk of infection because the skin is open but a bruise does not get infected.
5. A wound has a burning or stinging sensation but a bruise is characterized by swelling and a blunt throbbing pain.
6. A wound can be healed by antiseptic and antibiotic medication. Large wounds need to be closed by stitching them up to avoid severe infection. On the other hand, a bruise usually heals by itself. A cold compress and pain killers may be used to ease discomfort. Heat can be applied to the injured spot to normalize the blood flow and dissolve the blood clot.
7. A wound can lead to complications like bacterial infections or the healing might be delayed by chronic diseases like diabetes. In case of a bruise, it usually does not cause complications but if there's a blunt injury to sensitive areas like the head, the tailbone or the eyes, medical attention is advised.
8. Wounds and bruises can also be differentiated on the basis of their subtypes. The different types of wounds are:
a. Incision (sharp objects cutting the dermis layer of skin)
b. Abrasion (the epithelial tissue is scraped off)
c. Avulsion (a body structure is torn off)
d. Penetration (a sharp object causes an entry and an exit wound)
e. Puncture (only an entry wound caused by a sharp object)
The different types of bruises are:
a. Hematoma (blood pools under the skin)
b. Purpura (tiny spots of blood on the inside of the mouth)
c. Contusion (similar to hematoma and caused by external trauma)
d. Crush injury (caused due to a large amount of force on the body part for a long time)
If you're not currently taking hiv treatment
Hiv treatment is recommended for all people living with hiv. However if you have chosen not to take treatment for the moment, looking at your viral load and cd4 cell count can help predict your risk of becoming ill because of hiv in the future. While your cd4 cell count is the main indicator your doctor will use to help monitor the health of your immune system, viral load testing can also provide important information.
Among people with the same cd4 cell counts, research has shown that those with a higher viral load tend to develop symptoms more quickly than those with a lower viral load.
In addition, among people with the same viral load, those with lower cd4 cell counts tend to become ill more quickly.
Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment
Effective hiv treatment results in a fall in your viral load. Within about four weeks of starting hiv treatment, your doctor should test your viral load to see how much it has fallen.
The aim of treatment in people who have never taken anti-hiv drugs before is to get viral load to undetectable levels (below 20, 40 or 50, depending on which test your clinic is using) within six months.
If your viral load never becomes undetectable, or increases to become detectable in two consecutive tests after it has been undetectable, your doctor will review the treatment you are on to see if it is still working effectively and talk to you about the possibility of changing treatment.
As your viral load falls, your cd4 cell count should begin to increase slowly.