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DR AJAY'S  CLINIC, Hyderabad

DR AJAY'S CLINIC

  4.5  (117 ratings)

General Physician Clinic

Sri Sai Srinivasa Hospital Beside Deepak Theatre, Keshav Memorial Lane, Narayanguda, Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹300 · 14 Reviews
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DR AJAY'S CLINIC   4.5  (117 ratings) General Physician Clinic Sri Sai Srinivasa Hospital Beside Deepak Theatre, Keshav Memorial Lane, Narayanguda, Hyderabad
1 Doctor · ₹300 · 14 Reviews
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Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of HIV Specialist . We are dedicated to providing you with the personalized, quality health care that you d......more
Our medical care facility offers treatments from the best doctors in the field of HIV Specialist . We are dedicated to providing you with the personalized, quality health care that you deserve.
More about DR AJAY'S CLINIC
DR AJAY'S CLINIC is known for housing experienced General Physicians. Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala, a well-reputed General Physician, practices in Hyderabad. Visit this medical health centre for General Physicians recommended by 64 patients.

Timings

MON-SUN
11:00 AM - 01:00 PM 05:00 PM - 08:00 PM

Location

Sri Sai Srinivasa Hospital Beside Deepak Theatre, Keshav Memorial Lane, Narayanguda,
Narayanguda Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh - 500020
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What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV<br/>What are the causes, symptoms and treatme...

What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV

HIV AIDS kaise spread hota hai, iske symptoms kya hai, iska treatment kaise karte hai, iske barey mein aaj hum baat karengey. HIV ek retrovirus hai jo usually sexual mode se transmit hota hai. Sexual mode ke ilawa yeh infected needles se bhi spread ho sakta hai yah infected blood transfusion se bhi spread ho sakta hai, aur lastly mother agar infected hai toh mother se child ko bhi aa sakta hai. Toh hum isko kaise diagnosis karte hai?  Basically blood test se yeh pata chal jata hai, iske do tarah ke blood test available hai, ek se aap directly antigens ko detect kar sakte hai jaise p24 antigens yah aap directly antibodies ko detect kar sakte hai jaise ki ELISA aur western blot. Yeh test se malum ho jata hai ki patient HIV infected hai yah nahin. Agar HIV hai confirm honey ke baad patient ko hum stage kya hai pata karne ke liye further test karte hai jaise ki CD4 Count aur viral load keh ke do test rehte hai iske liye toh iske hisaab se patient ko hum 4 stage mein divide kar sakte hai stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4.

Agar stage 1 mein dekha jaye toh patient mein bilkul sympotoms nahin dikhte hai. 2nd stage mein patient ko khasi se chhotey motey bukhar aur skin infections jaise herpes infection jaise problems aa sakte hai. 3rd stage mein patient ko long term problems aatey hai jaise ki fever yah chronic lose motions jo ek mahine do mahine se zyada rehte hai aur jo dawa lene ke bawajud bhi kam nahin hota hai, yah patient ko agar tb ho jata hai, HIV patients mein 80% se zyada logo ko TB aa jata hai, toh yeh sab infections stage 3 mein aa sakte hai. Agar yeh stage mein bhi dawa nahin lete hai patient toh 4th stage yaani ki AIDS stage mein phuch jatey hai. Jismein ki patient ka CD4 count bohut kam hota hai, usually less than 100 rehta hai. Aur yeh stage mein patient ko opportunistic infections aa jaatey hai jaise ki TB, extrapulmonary TB, Lungs ke ilawa dusre jagah bhi aa sakta hai jo ki very common hai yeh stage mein.

Aur iske ilawa patient ko esophageal infections like fungal infections, oral candidiasis jaise problems aa sakte hai. Yah patient ko dusre malignancies aa sakte hai jaise lymphoma malignancies. Toh yeh stage pata karne ke baad humko kaunse treatment start karna hai iske liye hum anti retroviral treatment start karte hai jo ki HIV ko phailne se rok deta hai aur HIV ko khatam karne ke liye best treatment hai.

HIV treatment ko hum ART Treatment kehte hai. ART Treatment Government se bhi available hai aur private mein bhi available hai. ART treatment se kya hota hai, jo virus hai who kam ho jata hai. Iske wajah se hum cd4 ko badha sakte hai. CD4 count normal person mein 500 se le kar 1500 tak rehta hai, jo HIV infected rehte hai unka CD4 count kam ho jata hai. Patient ko dawa start karne se pehle counseling karte hai. Counseling mein hum patient ko iske dawa ka important effects kya hai batate hai.

Main important cheez hai dawa ko regular lena hai, isko rok nahin sakte, aise important cheez hum patient ko batate hai, aur patient ko motivate karte hai ki jo regular aap dawa logey toh apko koi bhi symptoms nahin ayengey, aur dawa lene se cd4 improve hoga aur immunity improve hoga, appetite badhega aur apka swasth thik rahega. Hum advice karte hai patient ko hamesha condom use karey aur agar aap ART treatment lete ho iske affect se HIV dusro mein phailne se rukk jata hai, to hiss tarah se humlog HIV ko prevent bhi kar sakte hai.
Aaj ke liye bus itna hi HIV ke barey mein. Agaar aap ko koi doubts hai yah apko treatment ke barey mein baat karna hai toh aap mujhe Lybrate se contact kar skte hai. Agar aap Hyderabad mein ho toh aap mujhe Srinivasa Hospital mein morning yah evening time mil sakte hai. Dhanyabaad.

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Here are side effects and follow-ups of HIV treatment<br/><br/>Hi, this is Dr, Ajay. In the previ...

Here are side effects and follow-ups of HIV treatment

Hi, this is Dr, Ajay. In the previous video, I talked to you about diagnosis of HIV and the various tests that are done. I also spoke briefly about HIV. In this video, I would be talking more about HIV treatment, its side effects and the follow up of the patient.

So once the patient is diagnosed with HIV, we subject the patient for further screening of CD4 viral load. The latest guidelines of DHHS and WHO state that you do nt have t wait for the CD4 count to drop. That means, if the patient is HIV+ , you can straight away start HIV treatment without waiting for the CD4 counts. So, after the patient is prepared for the treatment, the counseling is done where we have to assess the patient whether he is ready to start the treatment. You have to do preparedness counseling. We usually start the 3 Drug Regimen which is very popularly known as Combined Antiretroviral Treatment. Once we start the treatment we also monitor the patient for the side effects of the treatment because not all ART medicines are free of side effects. We choose the regimen which has the least side effect.

So for examples, if the patient is on Ziloudine, we monitor the patient for any signs of anemia, weakness, fatigue or nausea. Some patients develop loss of fat which we call lypotrophy and lypodystrophy. Then there are other side effects like Skinofovea causes renal kidney dysfunction, retardation of kidney function. Like this, we monitor the patient. Some people taking Adesanovith can develop yellowish discoloration of eyes. So, we tailor make the medicine to suit the patient. When we start the patient on antiretroviral treatment, on every follow up we insist the patient to take the medicines regularly because adherence is the most important step in the success of antiretroviral medicine. The tests that we do in the follow up are again the baseline function like the liver function, kidney function and we also assess the CD4 viral load at the end of 6 months.

So, by doing these tests, we will know whether the patient is responding to treatment or not. We will also know whether the patient is developing any side-effects to the treatment or not. By this monitoring at every step, we also counsel the patient for adherence. Taking ART treatment also helps in preventing the HIV transmission. For example, if a patient in a couple in HIV positive that is only husband is positive and wife is negative or vice versa, what we call discarded couple, in them if one of the patients is taking antiretroviral treatment, by decreasing the viral load to undetectable levels, we can also prevent the transmission of HIV from one partner to the other but we also recommend the patient to use condom.

There is an option of taking HIV medicine for preventing HIV, what we call as pre-exposure profile axis and post-exposure of profile axis. Here, if a patient accidentally has a needle exposure through an HIV positive patient or if the patient has any sexual exposure, then immediately after the exposure he can take medicines within 72 hours. By taking these medicines for 28 days, he can prevent HIV transmission. This is what we call as post-exposure profile axis. Then there is another entity called pre-exposure profile axis wherein if the patient is getting involved in high-risk activity like for instance, most of the sexual workers unknowingly meet many partners. So to avoid getting HIV infection, they can take preventive treatment which is again taken for 28 days to prevent HIV transmission.

You can always consult me through lybrate or directly in my clinic at Hyderabad, Narayanguda. Thank you.

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Here are the symptoms , diagnosis , prevention & treatment of HIV<br/><br/>This is Dr. Ajay. Last...

Here are the symptoms , diagnosis , prevention & treatment of HIV

This is Dr. Ajay. Last time I spoke to you about HIV the symptoms, the staging and how to identify the patient with HIV phase down symptoms. So today in this video I will be discussing more about how to diagnose the patient with HIV.

What are the tests available? What are the treatment options available? And how to prevent HIV?

So when we come across the patient with HIV the only way we can diagnose the patient with HIV is by doing blood test. There are different kinds of blood tests available. They can be from the tests that detect the antibodies for HIV. There are tests to detect the antigens on HIV like P-24. Then there are tests to detect the virus itself like PCR. So when a patient is exposed the HIV positive patient either sexually or through injections. Then the patient develops antibodies in his body. So these antibodies take at least three to six months’ time to develop. So in this duration which is called as window period. In this period we won’t be able to detect antibodies. So all the tests like Elisa, Tridot, and Western blot. These tests won’t be able to pick up the patient’s window period when the antibodies are not there. So if you want to detect the antibodies you need to wait for three months or three to six months after exposure.

So if you can’t wait for three to six months you can do the other tests which can pick up the virus directly. So once we diagnose the patient with HIV then the next step would be to monitor the disease I mean how to stage the patient. So because HIV damages the immune system. So there are the tests which can assess the immune system of the patient so these tests are called cd4 count and viral load. CD-4 is nothing but it is a sub site of T-cell. So the normal CD count for a patient would range from 500-1500 which is a normal range. The other test which is available is viral load. The viral load is nothing but it detects how many viral copies are present in the body. After diagnosing the patient with HIV. The next step would be to start the treatment. So the treatment what we give for HIV is what we call is antiretroviral treatment or ART. ART is the most popular treatment available for treatment and in this ART there are different medicines available.

The most important thing which determines is the CD-count and the viral load. So before we start the antiretroviral treatment we assess the patient. First we counsel the patient whether the patient is prepared to start the treatment or not. Then we also rule out the other opportunistic infections. Because patients who have HIV already have other opportunistic infections. So before you start the antiretroviral treatment you need to assess whether the patient is having any opportunistic infection. You have to rule out those then you also have to assess the baseline function of the patient like whether the patient is having any liver abnormalities or if the patient is having normal liver function, normal kidney function and we also have to do the complete blood picture.

So if the patient is having all the parameters normal and if the patient is not having any opportunistic infection. Then we do preparedness counselling for the patient that is when we start the treatment. So before we start the treatment we see the CD-4 count. Now previously the guideline was to depend on the CD-4 count. They use to start the treatment when the CD-4 count is low but now the guidelines say that HIV treatment can be started irrespective of the CD-4 count.

So this is all about HIV treatment and in the subsequent video I will be talking more about the HIV treatment and I would like to thank lybrate and if you want to consult me you can consult me through lybrate or you can directly walk in or take an appointment and meet me at my clinic at Narayanguda.

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Here are Symptoms, Transmission, and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)<br/><br/>Hel...

Here are Symptoms, Transmission, and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hello, I am Dr. Ajay Kumar. I have done my diploma in medicine and also done my fellowship in HIV from CMC Vellore. So today I am going to talk about HIV.

What are the symptoms of HIV, how it is transmitted and also about the diagnosis of HIV? HIV is a retrovirus which is transmitted sexually. Apart from the sexual contact which is the most common mode of transmission, there are other modes of transmission for HIV like it can be transmitted through injections, through blood transfusions or by contaminated instruments or through mother to a child also it can be transmitted. And also it can be transmitted breast feeding. I will be just showing the short video how the virus affects the cells in the body. This is a virus, HIV virus immunodeficiency virus, which infects all the cells in our body. It especially affects the CD4 cells which are responsible for the immunity of a person. Once the virus enters the cell it will multiply. It will first replicate from RNA becomes DNA, and this DNA virus which then copies itself to our nucleus and then it starts multiplying. So over a period of time, these cells start multiplying and will be affecting so many cells, all the cells like Red blood cells, White blood cells, and other platelets. So the patient will have multiple immune deficiencies. So you can see here how the virus is replicating itself after every minute some thousands of viruses will be affecting these cells and within a short span of time new virus copies will be released. So these virus copies again will be affecting other cells and again they will be multiplying in those cells.

So here we can see the virus which has infected us come out, new more copies have produced. So once the virus infects the cells it starts killing the cells and the patient’s immunity will be gradual will be decreasing so then the patient will complain of the symptoms. So what are the symptoms of HIV? In generally in initial stages, patients will not have any symptoms. Patients will be absolutely a symptomized. Later on, when the patient’s immunity declines than the patients complain of some fatigue and they will complain of weakness. Then, later on, the patient might complain of fever, cough and the virus because it affects so many organs so the symptom will depend on the organ of infection. Suppose for instance when the patient is having a lung problem, like for instance the patient because of low immunity if he gets infected with some lung infection he will be presenting with a cough, shortness of breath or fever. Like for instance if the patient is getting any a headache or the patient is having some infections in the brain he can present like with a headache, it can present like with seizures like fits or it can present with loss of consciousness. Likewise, if the patient is having symptoms in the stomach like sometimes patient against of loose motions, vomiting then we might suspect that the patient is having some abdominal infection. So depending upon the organ of infection the patient might complain about various symptoms. So there is no symptom which is very specific to HIV but depending upon the organ of infection the symptoms might vary.

So WHO has given staging of HIV? Basically, there are four stages of HIV according to WHO-

  • In the first stage, the patients will be completely asymptomatic. They won’t have any symptoms.
  • When they come to the second stage they will develop some minute skin infections like for instance proretipeplamatitions what we call. Patients complain of itching and sometimes the state develops skin reactions. This patient has come up with Herpes reaction. Likewise, some patients might develop skin reactions like if the patient is having herpes which is very common in HIV. So when the patients enter into stage two they will be developing all these kind of skin problems.
  • When the patient is not taking any treatment, adequate oral treatment then the patient enters into stage three. In stage three what happens a patient develops a lung infection, they can develop diarrhea, and they can develop loss of weight more than 10percent. They will be having a prolonged fever of more than one month, prolonged diarrhea of one month. Sometimes the patient can develop oral infections like oral candidiasis which is very common in HIV patients. You see this picture the patient is having a severe oral infection in the mouth.
  • Likewise, if the patient is not taking any treatment even at this stage the patient enters to stage four for what is we call as AIDS, AIDS stage that is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. In this syndrome the patient will be developing all late complications of HIV like patients can develop severe nemesis pneumonia where the patient will have severe breathlessness, won’t be able to sit comfortably without taking oxygen, supplemental oxygen or the if the patient is developing some abdominal TB, the patient can present with severe abdominal distension and patient can develop severe diarrhea. Likewise, if the patient can develop multiple malignancies like cot skin lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. These malignancies can affect any part of the body. They are especially a prediction for the brain. Once the patient develops malignancies it’s almost in a very late stage. So by seeing the symptoms also, you can tell what the patient is in. So these are all the symptoms seen in HIV and complications.

So in the next video, we will be talking more about the complications of HIV, how to diagnose HIV and how to treat HIV and what are prevention steps that can be taken to prevent HIV. I am thankful to Lybrate for providing me this opportunity to reach patients all over India.

If you want to contact, you can contact me at Sriniwasa Hospital at Narayanguda. It is beside Deepak Theatre in Hyderabad. You can contact me through Lybrate or my website www.hivaidsclinic.in. Thank you.

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Dr. Ajay Kumar Pujala

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician
90%  (117 ratings)
18 Years experience
300 at clinic
₹300 online
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05:00 PM - 08:00 PM
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Understand The Correlation Between Stress And HIV!

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Understand The Correlation Between Stress And HIV!

Stress is a major factor that leads to various complications in most of the health conditions. Hence, it is essential to deal with stress because doctors emphasize that if you can manage your stress, then you are already halfway through the treatment. But with HIV building up in your body it can be challenging to stay stress-free.

Effect of stress on HIV patients
Evidence has been found after extensive research that death may increase at times by 22% when an HIV patient starts taking lots of stress. So you can guess from the number what a huge impact stress has on HIV. Some other studies had brought to light a different angle of the effect caused by stress on HIV. It is said that the CD4 count and viral load increases by many folds in patients who have HIV and are under stressful conditions which have made them fall into the clutches of depression.

Steps that can be taken to curb stress-

  1. As the first step, you must identify the reasons or factors that are leading you to take the stress. These factors may be straightforward ones and something from your day-to-day activities. For instance, some might feel depressed about consuming too many medicines for HIV on a daily basis while some others might feel stress out because of the financial strain imposed by the disease. Sometimes the stress results from emotional reasons like departing from a loved one or being separated from the mainstream life.
  2. Once you have identified the reason behind your stress, you must put in some effort to get back to your daily routine and make your day organized. Mostly, it happens that people tend to extend their hours of regular activities and mess up with their biological clock. This should be avoided. Always keep fixed hours for your sleep, work and other activities. Add appropriate physical activities and proper diet to your routine which will help with your general health and help with managing stress.
  3. You must also learn to handle your emotions. Seek help in this case by attending counseling sessions with trained professional, especially when it comes to managing your sex life. Talk to your doctor and get all your questions answered because sometimes lack of knowledge leads to the development of doubts which lead to anxiety and then depression. And most importantly, spend time with your loved ones to obtain complete stress relief. This is one of the best methods to have a positive outlook on life while suffering from HIV.

So, while under treatment for HIV make an effort to avoid stress entirely to improve the situation. Follow the advice of your doctor, take the necessary medications and adopt lifestyle changes to lead a happy life.

1 person found this helpful

Living a Healthy Life with HIV!

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Living a Healthy Life with HIV!

HIV infection and AIDS (commonly referred to as HIV/AIDS) are caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). HIV is transmitted sexually and through exchange of body fluids, such as blood. The HIV attacks our defense system (immune system) giving opportunity to many illnesses to attack the body. These infections (called opportunistic infections) range from common cold and diarrhea to life-threatening illnesses including uncommon pneumonias and cancers. The type, range and intensity of opportunistic infections vary with the severity of the HIV infection and the extent to which our immunity is compromised.

AIDS is the last stage disorder of the HIV infection. Though there is no complete cure for the HIV-infection till date - despite thousands of scientists across the world working on it, spending countless hours of research involving billions of dollars - there has been tremendous progress in medicare improving the quality of life of the HIV-infected, in extending their life-span to almost normal levels and in preventing mother-child transmission.

The key factors in extending the life-span, and in keeping good immunity and good health are

  1. balanced and nutritious diet
  2. regular physical exercise
  3. correct, consistent and lifelong use of the prescribed medicines
  4. periodic medical checkups
  5. staying psychologically positive and strong
  6. good family support and
  7. good lifestyle habits.

The last one involves maintaining good personal hygiene, avoiding smoking (active as well as passive), alcohol, recreational drugs, unhygienic and disease-prone environments and sedentary life style. Those who follow these will guidelines certainly have better prognoses.

Diet:

A nutritious diet is of utmost importance to the HIV-infected, as adequate nutrition contributes to the development of the immune system, prevents malnutrition and wasting, achieves and maintains optimal body weight and strength, enhances the body’s ability to fight opportunistic infections, helps delay the progression of HIV, improves the effectiveness of drug treatments, and improves the quality of life.

  1. Ensure that the food contains adequate macronutrients, that is, carbohydrates, proteins and fat, otherwise the patient may end up with - protein-energy malnutrition, manifesting itself in the weight loss and wasting that is typical of AIDS patients.
  2. As per WHO, an HIV-infected person has additional nutrient requirements: 10-15 percent additional energy intake and 50 to 100 percent increase in protein intake as compared to a non HIV-infected person.
  3. Consuming micronutrients (especially Vitamins A, B6 and B12, iron and zinc) is important for building a strong immune system and fighting infections.
  4. Try and maintain a daily diet containing rice/roti, vegetables, legumes, and fruits which provide you energy and micronutrients. Choose foods that are low in saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol.
  5. Eat at least two servings of fish each week. Oily fish, which contain omega-3 fatty acids, are best. If you cannot eat fish, you can also get omega-3 fats from omega-3 eggs, walnuts, flax seeds.
  6. Better avoid fast foods. Consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
3513 people found this helpful

Things You Should Know About HIV - CARE for AIDS

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Things You Should Know About HIV - CARE for AIDS

HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a type of immune disorder which attacks the immune system of the body and slowly destroys it overtime. The HIV virus targets the immune system and makes the body susceptible to other diseases. HIV infection can progress to AIDS although it may take up to 10 or 12 years to fully go into the last stage.

Risks and Causes
HIV is a communicable disease which spreads through only the following methods

  1. It can spread from one person to another by means of unprotected sexual intercourse due to the exchange of bodily fluids.
  2. The virus spreads if you share drug needles with someone who is already contaminated with HIV virus. It can also occur due to improperly trained medical staff that may reuse syringes although this is very uncommon.
  3. The HIV virus transmits from the mother to the child during pregnancy through the placenta.
  4. Any exchange of blood in significant amounts such as blood transfusion from a contaminated patient will result in infection as well although this is very rare.

Any other form of contracting the disease such as through kissing or food is a untrue and only propagates due to ignorance.

Symptoms
The initial symptoms of HIV infection are noticed after a few weeks although it can take a few months to come up as well. The initial symptoms may include

  1. Severe headache along with intense pain in the muscles and the joints of the body.
  2. Frequent appearances of rashes
  3. Inflation of the lymph nodes
  4. Itchy skin
  5. Disorders which stay for sustained periods such as an upset stomach or a cold.

The early symptoms disappear within 2 to 3 weeks without any treatment. The later symptoms might appear after few years (sometimes up to or more than a decade), which will stay. This is usually the time HIV is diagnosed. The symptoms now may also include

  1. Severe muscle fatigue
  2. Severe loss in body weight,
  3. High fever and recurrent instances of sweating at the night time.

HIV is suspected if the later symptoms tend to last for a long time without any other diagnosable cause.

Treatment
HIV can be treated by means of antiretroviral therapy which reduces the rate at which the virus multiplies. However, there is no cure for HIV as of yet.

Prevention
In order to prevent yourself from getting HIV, you should adopt the following precautionary measures:

  1. You should use protection every time when engaging in sexual intercourse and if you are unsure of your partner’s HIV status.
  2. You should use new blades in barbershops for shaving purposes in order to prevent yourself from HIV as well
  3. If you are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS while you are pregnant, to prevent spreading it to your unborn baby, you might immediately need undergo a medical check-up and follow the doctor’s advice.
  4. Ensure that disposable syringes are used whenever they are being use for medical tests or treatments. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.
3095 people found this helpful

STDs - 5 Ways You Can Avoid!

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
STDs - 5 Ways You Can Avoid!

A STD is transmitted by means of physical intimate contact and intercourse. These diseases are caused by parasites, virus or bacteria. Usually STDs are preventable provided you make the right choices concerning your sexual health. Refraining from sex isn’t a feasible idea at all. But fortunately there are alternatives too to curb the menace that STDs are:

  1. Mutual monogamy: Two people who have sex only with one another don’t have any opportunity to bring a new STD into the relationship. If you and your partner have been tested and are healthy, remaining faithful to each other is a very good way to reduce your chances of contracting an STD.
  2. Get Vaccinated: One important prevention tool against STIs is vaccination. Currently, vaccines are available to protect against infection with HPV, hepatitis A and B. Talk to your healthcare provider to see which vaccines might be recommended for you.
  3. Protect Yourself: Condoms work really well in stopping most STIs from being passed from an infected partner to another when they are used consistently and correctly every time a person has oral, vaginal or anal sex. Consistently and correctly means that a person makes sure they use a condom every time they have oral, vaginal or anal sex and put it on and use it the right way.
  4. Avoid alcohol and drug use: Avoiding alcohol and recreational drug use reduces the risk of contracting an STI, having an unwanted pregnancy, or being coerced to have sex. Alcohol and drug use can reduce our ability to make good decisions. It may also make us more likely to be talked into into participating in an activity without being able to give our full consent.
  5. Consider male circumcision: There's evidence that male circumcision can help reduce a man's risk of acquiring HIV from an infected woman (heterosexual transmission) by as much as 60 percent. Male circumcision may also help prevent transmission of genital HPV and genital herpes.

Coping and Support

It's traumatic to find out you have an STI. You might be angry if you feel you've been betrayed or ashamed if there's a chance you infected others. At worst, an STI can cause chronic illness and death, even with the best care in the world. Between those extremes is a host of other potential losses is trust between partners, plans to have children and the joyful embrace of your sexuality and its expression. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.

3106 people found this helpful

STDs - Ways You Can Prevent Them!

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
STDs - Ways You Can Prevent Them!

What are STDs?
STDs or STIs are infections that are caused by intimate contact that involves exchange of bodily fluids. These are also called venereal diseases and can be caused by vaginal, anal or oral sex. Most of these infections do not show any symptom initially, but they develop over time. The causative organisms can include viruses, bacteria or parasites. The signs and symptoms can be in the form of unnatural vaginal discharges, or penile discharges, or warts and ulcers in the pelvic area.

It is a very serious disease as some of those are not curable, such as HIV/AIDS or Hepatitis-B. Other diseases may include gonorrhoea, syphilis, Chlamydia etc. While there surrounds a stigma around STDs and people may feel ashamed to even go forward to ask for any help, there is nothing to be ashamed of and it is the best to seek medical attention when you feel you may have contracted a STD.

But as we know, prevention is always better than cure. Here is a list of tips that might help you prevent it in the first place:

  1. Prevention: It is actually the cure to some diseases such as HIV and herpes
  2. Vaccines: It can prevent you from concurring diseases such as Hepatitis- A and Hepatitis-B. It is advised to get yourself vaccinated before sexual contact to prevent the disease.
  3. Anti-microbials: Anti-microbials such as Nonoxynol-9 can be used in the vagina to prevent any sort of venereal disease. However, the efficacy of the anti-microbials may vary depending on the efficiency in application and the type of micro-organism.
  4. Condoms: Female or male condoms can help to prevent venereal diseases tremendously. They help to prevent the interaction of body fluids by keeping a barrier between if used properly. Otherwise the uncovered will still be susceptible to infection.

Ways to use a male condom properly:

  1. Never reuse a condom
  2. Always keep a certain space on the tip of the condom for the ejaculation, as it may reduce the incidence of it bursting
  3. Be careful with the condom, if your nails are long
  4. Flavoured condoms should only be used for oral sex as the sugar in the condoms can cause yeast infections, if used in the vagina
  5. Do not wear the condom if it is too loose, it can come off 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.

6821 people found this helpful

Can We End HIV Epidemic

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Can We End HIV Epidemic

By taking PEP we can prevent HIV Transmission

2 people found this helpful

HIV/AIDS: Diet, Nutrition and Food Safety You Must Follow

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV/AIDS: Diet, Nutrition and Food Safety You Must Follow

HIV/AIDS is a type of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) which is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The HIV virus attacks the immune system and makes the body vulnerable to other diseases. AIDS is the last stage of the HIV infection; HIV takes about 10 to 12 years to fully culminate into AIDS. AIDS completely destroys the immune system and leads to fatal health conditions and diseases such as cancers and other infections because of AIDS.

Causes-

HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs of the human immune system. The virus progresses in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. The rate of virus progression varies widely between individuals and depends on many factors (age of the patient, body’s ability to defend against HIV, access to healthcare, existence of coexisting infections, the infected person’s genetic inheritance, resistance to certain strains of HIV).

HIV can be transmitted through:

  1. Sexual Transmission. It can happen when there is contact with infected sexual secretions. This can happen while having unprotected sex, including vaginal, oral and anal sex or sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV.
  2. Perinatal Transmission. The mother can pass the infection on to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
  3. Blood Transmission. The risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion is nowadays extremely low in developed countries, thanks to meticulous screening and precautions. Among drug users, sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is extremely hazardous.

Contrary to popular belief, HIV can never spread by means of kissing as the virus cannot survive outside the body.

Symptoms-

  • The early symptoms of HIV appear within a few weeks of contamination by the virus. The early symptoms include headache, pain in the muscles and the joints, rashes and inflated lymph nodes. These symptoms tend to disappear within 2 to 3 weeks.
  • The next set of symptoms might appear after a few years and these are persistent. The symptoms include, but are not limited to fatigue, loss of body weight, inflated lymph nodes, fever, a sensation of numbness near the limbs, pain when you try to swallow, sores in the mouth and sweating at night.

If you are diagnosed with HIV, you should:

  • Try to maintain a daily diet containing vegetables, legumes, and fruits which provide you energy.
  • Try to include a little bit of fat, carbohydrates (at least 3 servings of vegetable per day), calcium (dairy products) and low-fat protein sources (generally 80-150 gram per day of fish, skinned chicken, low-fat cheese etc.) in your everyday meal.
  • Maintain a daily calorie intake of 17-25 calories per pound depending on whether the person is losing weight.
  • Vitamins and minerals are particularly necessary to repair the cells damaged by the HIV virus.

So, it is necessary to intake foods such as eggs, milk, peanuts, green vegetables, meat, beans and broccolis on a regular basis, if you have been diagnosed with HIV.

If you are suffering from HIV, you must maintain the following food safety measures:

  • You should try to restrict the intake of fat
  • Restrict your alcohol intake
  • You should try to avoid fast foods
  • You should also limit your regular sugar intake and should avoid foods with extra sugar 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.

HIV/AIDS: Diet, Nutrition and Food Safety You Must Follow

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV/AIDS: Diet, Nutrition and Food Safety You Must Follow

HIV/AIDS is a type of STDs (sexually transmitted diseases) which is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The HIV virus attacks the immune system and makes the body vulnerable to other diseases. AIDS is the last stage of the HIV infection; HIV takes about 10 to 12 years to fully culminate into AIDS. AIDS completely destroys the immune system and leads to fatal health conditions and diseases such as cancers and other infections because of AIDS.

Causes-

HIV is a retrovirus that infects the vital organs of the human immune system. The virus progresses in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. The rate of virus progression varies widely between individuals and depends on many factors (age of the patient, body’s ability to defend against HIV, access to healthcare, existence of coexisting infections, the infected person’s genetic inheritance, resistance to certain strains of HIV).

HIV can be transmitted through:

  1. Sexual Transmission. It can happen when there is contact with infected sexual secretions. This can happen while having unprotected sex, including vaginal, oral and anal sex or sharing sex toys with someone infected with HIV.
  2. Perinatal Transmission. The mother can pass the infection on to her child during childbirth, pregnancy, and also through breastfeeding.
  3. Blood Transmission. The risk of transmitting HIV through blood transfusion is nowadays extremely low in developed countries, thanks to meticulous screening and precautions. Among drug users, sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood is extremely hazardous.

Contrary to popular belief, HIV can never spread by means of kissing as the virus cannot survive outside the body.

Symptoms-

  • The early symptoms of HIV appear within a few weeks of contamination by the virus. The early symptoms include headache, pain in the muscles and the joints, rashes and inflated lymph nodes. These symptoms tend to disappear within 2 to 3 weeks.
  • The next set of symptoms might appear after a few years and these are persistent. The symptoms include, but are not limited to fatigue, loss of body weight, inflated lymph nodes, fever, a sensation of numbness near the limbs, pain when you try to swallow, sores in the mouth and sweating at night.

If you are diagnosed with HIV, you should:

  • Try to maintain a daily diet containing vegetables, legumes, and fruits which provide you energy.
  • Try to include a little bit of fat, carbohydrates (at least 3 servings of vegetable per day), calcium (dairy products) and low-fat protein sources (generally 80-150 gram per day of fish, skinned chicken, low-fat cheese etc.) in your everyday meal.
  • Maintain a daily calorie intake of 17-25 calories per pound depending on whether the person is losing weight.
  • Vitamins and minerals are particularly necessary to repair the cells damaged by the HIV virus.

So, it is necessary to intake foods such as eggs, milk, peanuts, green vegetables, meat, beans and broccolis on a regular basis, if you have been diagnosed with HIV.

If you are suffering from HIV, you must maintain the following food safety measures:

  • You should try to restrict the intake of fat
  • Restrict your alcohol intake
  • You should try to avoid fast foods
  • You should also limit your regular sugar intake and should avoid foods with extra sugar 

    If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general physician.

6421 people found this helpful

Top 5 Myths and Misconceptions About HIV and AIDS

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Top 5 Myths and Misconceptions About HIV and AIDS

For nearly 30 years, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) have been shrouded in myths and misconceptions. In some cases, these mistaken ideas have prompted the very behavior that cause more people to become HIV positive. Here are the top five myths about HIV, along with the facts to dispute them.

Myth No. 1: I can get HIV by being around people who are HIV-positive.

The evidence shows that HIV is non communicable and does not spread through touch, tears, sweat or saliva. You cannot catch HIV by:

  • Breathing the same air as someone who is HIV-positive
  • Touching a toilet seat or doorknob handle after an HIV-positive person
  • Drinking from a water fountain
  • Hugging, kissing, or shaking hands with someone who is HIV-positive
  • Sharing eating utensils with an HIV-positive person
  • Using exercise equipment at a gym

You can get it from infected blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or mother's milk.

Myth No. 2: I can get HIV from mosquitoes.

Because HIV is spread through blood, people have worried that biting or bloodsucking insects might spread HIV. Several studies, however, show no evidence to support this, even in areas with lots of mosquitoes and cases of HIV. When insects bite, they do not inject the blood of the person or animal they have last bitten. Also, HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect.

Myth No. 3: I'm HIV positive, my life is over.

In the early years of the disease epidemic, the death rate from AIDS was extremely high. But today, antiretroviral drugs allow HIV positive people and even those with AIDS to live much longer, normal and productive lives.

Myth No. 4: My partner and I are both HIV positive there's no reason for us to practice safer sex.

Practising safer sex, wearing condoms or using dental dams can protect you both from becoming exposed to other (potentially drug resistant) strains of HIV.

Myth No. 5: You can't get HIV from oral sex.

It's true that oral sex is less risky than some other types of sex. But you can get HIV by having oral sex with either a man or a woman who is HIV positive. Always use a latex barrier during oral sex. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a General Physician.

6815 people found this helpful

HIV/AIDS - How It Can Be Prevented

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV/AIDS - How It Can Be Prevented

Hearing that a person is HIV positive instantly makes us wary of him or her and unconsciously we may begin avoiding social interactions with them. However, HIV does not spread through the air or by water and hence there is no reason to ostracize HIV positive people. To understand how to prevent the transmission of HIV it is essential to first understand how the virus is transferred from one person to another. There are three ways in which this virus can be transmitted from an HIV positive person to another. These are:

  1. Through blood
  2. Through bodily fluids such as semen and vaginal or rectal fluids
  3. From a mother to a child

Keeping this in mind, here are a few ways to prevent the transferring of HIV from one person to another:

  1. Use only Disposable Syringes: Getting pricked by a needle that has been used on a HIV positive patient can increase your risk of suffering from the disease. Hence, insist on using a fresh needle for blood tests etc. Also ensure that the syringe and needle and destroyed after being used.
  2. Registered Blood Banks: In case you need a blood transfusion, get blood only from registered blood banks. These blood banks need to run HIV screening tests before collecting blood and hence are guaranteed to have only HIV negative blood as opposed to local quacks.
  3. Use a Condom: The only way to prevent the transference of HIV cells while having intercourse is by using a condom. This is essential not only for vaginal intercourse but for anal intercourse as well.
  4. Get Tested: Today, an HIV screening test can be easily done and your results are guaranteed to be kept confidential. STDs can increase your risk of getting infected with HIV or spreading it to others. Get tested regularly for STDs and insist that your partners are checked for it as well. This is crucial if you have more than one sexual partner.
  5. Limit the Number of Sexual Partners: The more number of people you have sex with, the higher your chance of getting infected with the virus and transmitting it to others. Remember, HIV has no overt symptoms that are visible to the naked eye.

HIV cannot be cured but it can be controlled through medication. Hence, if you suffer from this disease, follow the doctor's prescription religiously to prevent transmitting the virus to your partner. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

5986 people found this helpful

Know More About HIV

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Play video

What are the causes, symptoms and treatment for HIV

HIV AIDS kaise spread hota hai, iske symptoms kya hai, iska treatment kaise karte hai, iske barey mein aaj hum baat karengey. HIV ek retrovirus hai jo usually sexual mode se transmit hota hai. Sexual mode ke ilawa yeh infected needles se bhi spread ho sakta hai yah infected blood transfusion se bhi spread ho sakta hai, aur lastly mother agar infected hai toh mother se child ko bhi aa sakta hai. Toh hum isko kaise diagnosis karte hai?  Basically blood test se yeh pata chal jata hai, iske do tarah ke blood test available hai, ek se aap directly antigens ko detect kar sakte hai jaise p24 antigens yah aap directly antibodies ko detect kar sakte hai jaise ki ELISA aur western blot. Yeh test se malum ho jata hai ki patient HIV infected hai yah nahin. Agar HIV hai confirm honey ke baad patient ko hum stage kya hai pata karne ke liye further test karte hai jaise ki CD4 Count aur viral load keh ke do test rehte hai iske liye toh iske hisaab se patient ko hum 4 stage mein divide kar sakte hai stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4.

Agar stage 1 mein dekha jaye toh patient mein bilkul sympotoms nahin dikhte hai. 2nd stage mein patient ko khasi se chhotey motey bukhar aur skin infections jaise herpes infection jaise problems aa sakte hai. 3rd stage mein patient ko long term problems aatey hai jaise ki fever yah chronic lose motions jo ek mahine do mahine se zyada rehte hai aur jo dawa lene ke bawajud bhi kam nahin hota hai, yah patient ko agar tb ho jata hai, HIV patients mein 80% se zyada logo ko TB aa jata hai, toh yeh sab infections stage 3 mein aa sakte hai. Agar yeh stage mein bhi dawa nahin lete hai patient toh 4th stage yaani ki AIDS stage mein phuch jatey hai. Jismein ki patient ka CD4 count bohut kam hota hai, usually less than 100 rehta hai. Aur yeh stage mein patient ko opportunistic infections aa jaatey hai jaise ki TB, extrapulmonary TB, Lungs ke ilawa dusre jagah bhi aa sakta hai jo ki very common hai yeh stage mein.

Aur iske ilawa patient ko esophageal infections like fungal infections, oral candidiasis jaise problems aa sakte hai. Yah patient ko dusre malignancies aa sakte hai jaise lymphoma malignancies. Toh yeh stage pata karne ke baad humko kaunse treatment start karna hai iske liye hum anti retroviral treatment start karte hai jo ki HIV ko phailne se rok deta hai aur HIV ko khatam karne ke liye best treatment hai.

HIV treatment ko hum ART Treatment kehte hai. ART Treatment Government se bhi available hai aur private mein bhi available hai. ART treatment se kya hota hai, jo virus hai who kam ho jata hai. Iske wajah se hum cd4 ko badha sakte hai. CD4 count normal person mein 500 se le kar 1500 tak rehta hai, jo HIV infected rehte hai unka CD4 count kam ho jata hai. Patient ko dawa start karne se pehle counseling karte hai. Counseling mein hum patient ko iske dawa ka important effects kya hai batate hai.

Main important cheez hai dawa ko regular lena hai, isko rok nahin sakte, aise important cheez hum patient ko batate hai, aur patient ko motivate karte hai ki jo regular aap dawa logey toh apko koi bhi symptoms nahin ayengey, aur dawa lene se cd4 improve hoga aur immunity improve hoga, appetite badhega aur apka swasth thik rahega. Hum advice karte hai patient ko hamesha condom use karey aur agar aap ART treatment lete ho iske affect se HIV dusro mein phailne se rukk jata hai, to hiss tarah se humlog HIV ko prevent bhi kar sakte hai.
Aaj ke liye bus itna hi HIV ke barey mein. Agaar aap ko koi doubts hai yah apko treatment ke barey mein baat karna hai toh aap mujhe Lybrate se contact kar skte hai. Agar aap Hyderabad mein ho toh aap mujhe Srinivasa Hospital mein morning yah evening time mil sakte hai. Dhanyabaad.

3729 people found this helpful

Identification and Management of Perinatal HIV Treatment

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Identification and Management of Perinatal HIV Treatment

HIV testing in pregnancy should be done early so as standard care can be taken for the pregnant women. The HIV testing must be repeated in the third trimester, usually before 36 weeks of gestation. This should be done in women with HIV seronegative and also in pregnant women who are at a high risk of developing HIV infection.

Expedited HIV tests should be performed at the time of delivery and labor and this is a must in women who have not been documented for HIV. The results of the test should be available within an hour of the test and the testing should be available 24 hours. In case the results are positive then, infant postnatal antiretroviral and intrapartum drug prophylaxis should be started immediately.

Women who have not been able to get tested for HIV at the time of labor and delivery are suggested expedited screening for HIV. Their screening can be done immediately postpartum or their babies should undergo screening. In case the infant and mother, both are positive, then infant antiretroviral drug prophylaxis should be started immediately. These mothers should avoid breastfeeding their babies, until the supplemental HIV tests are negative. In infants with positive HIV, prophylaxis should be discontinued and antiretroviral drug therapy should be started.

In case of acute HIV infection during pregnancy, that is in the intrapartum period, or during breastfeeding, initial testing can be performed with an antigen/antibody combination immunoassay. If the supplemental test is negative, then an additional test which is the virologic test (DNA, RNA) are necessary for the diagnosis of the HIV infection. If the mother is HIV positive, then this information must be documented in the infant's medical record and also communicated to the infant's care provider.

The knowledge of an antenatal maternal HIV infection allows the:

  1. Women with HIV infection to get the correct antiretroviral therapy along with prophylaxis for the infections, which might occur due to the immunocompromised state of the body. This also prevents and decreases the risk of transmission to their partners.
  2. When there is provision for antiretroviral therapy for the mother during pregnancy and labor along with antiretroviral drug prophylaxis for the baby there is less risk of perinatal transmission of the HIV.
  3. The HIV-infected women should be counseled for a cesarean delivery. The option of an elective cesarean reduces the perinatal transmission of the HIV.
  4. The HIV women should be counseled about the risk of breastfeeding. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
6268 people found this helpful

HIV and Sex

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV and Sex

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV is a virus which causes HIV infection and leads to "acquired immunodeficiency syndrome" or AIDS.  HIV is transmitted by different means and ways.

Unprotected sex is a primary mode of transmission of the HIV virus from an infected person to a healthy person.  Unprotected sex refers to having sexual intercourse without using a condom or any other mode of protection. It leads to HIV transmission along with other sexually transmitted infections.

How does HIV occur from unprotected sex?
While having sex without protection, the HIV present in the body fluids such as blood, sperm, vaginal fluid, pre-cum or anal mucus of an HIV infected patient can pass on to the body of his/her partner. The transmission occurs through the membranes of the penis in men, vagina in women, the rectum and also through mouth and throat. It is more likely for an HIV patient to pass on the virus during the first few months after getting infected. This is because the virus spreads over body fluids during this stage.

Which types of sex are more risky?
HIV is transmitted the most by having vaginal or anal sex. Anal sex accounts for being the riskiest because the lining present in the anus is much more delicate than the vaginal lining. It is prone to more damage, easily. There are two types of anal sex: receptive anal sex and insertive anal sex. Receptive anal sex is more risky.

HIV can also be acquired from oral sex. This can happen in case the person giving oral sex has ulcers in the mouth, sore and bleeding gums. In case the person receiving the oral sex is already infected, the other person gets HIV.

A person who has sex with multiple partners regularly is at a high risk of getting HIV because of unprotected sex. You can also take the package for Having Safe Sex.

Prevention:
Getting HIV from unprotected sex can be avoided if you use these precautions:

  1. Condoms: Condoms offer the precaution against HIV infection from anal or vaginal sex. They should be used by men before any kind of sexual contact to restrict the passing of semen or fluid, which may be infected by HIV.
  2. Lubricants: Sex is made easier by using lubricants and reduces the risk of tearing in the vagina or anus due to friction. The risk of a condom breaking is reduced using lubricants.
  3. Dental Dams: This is another precautionary device, which is a small sheet of plastic. It has to be placed to cover the mouth of the vagina or anus and reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

Unprotected sex is the primary cause of HIV and people who do not take precautions before sex are likely to be infected by HIV. If you wish to discuss about any specific sexual problem, you can consult a specilized sexologist and ask a free question.

6011 people found this helpful

HIV

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Play video

Here are the symptoms , diagnosis , prevention & treatment of HIV

This is Dr. Ajay. Last time I spoke to you about HIV the symptoms, the staging and how to identify the patient with HIV phase down symptoms. So today in this video I will be discussing more about how to diagnose the patient with HIV.

What are the tests available? What are the treatment options available? And how to prevent HIV?

So when we come across the patient with HIV the only way we can diagnose the patient with HIV is by doing blood test. There are different kinds of blood tests available. They can be from the tests that detect the antibodies for HIV. There are tests to detect the antigens on HIV like P-24. Then there are tests to detect the virus itself like PCR. So when a patient is exposed the HIV positive patient either sexually or through injections. Then the patient develops antibodies in his body. So these antibodies take at least three to six months’ time to develop. So in this duration which is called as window period. In this period we won’t be able to detect antibodies. So all the tests like Elisa, Tridot, and Western blot. These tests won’t be able to pick up the patient’s window period when the antibodies are not there. So if you want to detect the antibodies you need to wait for three months or three to six months after exposure.

So if you can’t wait for three to six months you can do the other tests which can pick up the virus directly. So once we diagnose the patient with HIV then the next step would be to monitor the disease I mean how to stage the patient. So because HIV damages the immune system. So there are the tests which can assess the immune system of the patient so these tests are called cd4 count and viral load. CD-4 is nothing but it is a sub site of T-cell. So the normal CD count for a patient would range from 500-1500 which is a normal range. The other test which is available is viral load. The viral load is nothing but it detects how many viral copies are present in the body. After diagnosing the patient with HIV. The next step would be to start the treatment. So the treatment what we give for HIV is what we call is antiretroviral treatment or ART. ART is the most popular treatment available for treatment and in this ART there are different medicines available.

The most important thing which determines is the CD-count and the viral load. So before we start the antiretroviral treatment we assess the patient. First we counsel the patient whether the patient is prepared to start the treatment or not. Then we also rule out the other opportunistic infections. Because patients who have HIV already have other opportunistic infections. So before you start the antiretroviral treatment you need to assess whether the patient is having any opportunistic infection. You have to rule out those then you also have to assess the baseline function of the patient like whether the patient is having any liver abnormalities or if the patient is having normal liver function, normal kidney function and we also have to do the complete blood picture.

So if the patient is having all the parameters normal and if the patient is not having any opportunistic infection. Then we do preparedness counselling for the patient that is when we start the treatment. So before we start the treatment we see the CD-4 count. Now previously the guideline was to depend on the CD-4 count. They use to start the treatment when the CD-4 count is low but now the guidelines say that HIV treatment can be started irrespective of the CD-4 count.

So this is all about HIV treatment and in the subsequent video I will be talking more about the HIV treatment and I would like to thank lybrate and if you want to consult me you can consult me through lybrate or you can directly walk in or take an appointment and meet me at my clinic at Narayanguda.

3414 people found this helpful

HIV Treatment

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Play video

Here are side effects and follow-ups of HIV treatment

Hi, this is Dr, Ajay. In the previous video, I talked to you about diagnosis of HIV and the various tests that are done. I also spoke briefly about HIV. In this video, I would be talking more about HIV treatment, its side effects and the follow up of the patient.

So once the patient is diagnosed with HIV, we subject the patient for further screening of CD4 viral load. The latest guidelines of DHHS and WHO state that you do nt have t wait for the CD4 count to drop. That means, if the patient is HIV+ , you can straight away start HIV treatment without waiting for the CD4 counts. So, after the patient is prepared for the treatment, the counseling is done where we have to assess the patient whether he is ready to start the treatment. You have to do preparedness counseling. We usually start the 3 Drug Regimen which is very popularly known as Combined Antiretroviral Treatment. Once we start the treatment we also monitor the patient for the side effects of the treatment because not all ART medicines are free of side effects. We choose the regimen which has the least side effect.

So for examples, if the patient is on Ziloudine, we monitor the patient for any signs of anemia, weakness, fatigue or nausea. Some patients develop loss of fat which we call lypotrophy and lypodystrophy. Then there are other side effects like Skinofovea causes renal kidney dysfunction, retardation of kidney function. Like this, we monitor the patient. Some people taking Adesanovith can develop yellowish discoloration of eyes. So, we tailor make the medicine to suit the patient. When we start the patient on antiretroviral treatment, on every follow up we insist the patient to take the medicines regularly because adherence is the most important step in the success of antiretroviral medicine. The tests that we do in the follow up are again the baseline function like the liver function, kidney function and we also assess the CD4 viral load at the end of 6 months.

So, by doing these tests, we will know whether the patient is responding to treatment or not. We will also know whether the patient is developing any side-effects to the treatment or not. By this monitoring at every step, we also counsel the patient for adherence. Taking ART treatment also helps in preventing the HIV transmission. For example, if a patient in a couple in HIV positive that is only husband is positive and wife is negative or vice versa, what we call discarded couple, in them if one of the patients is taking antiretroviral treatment, by decreasing the viral load to undetectable levels, we can also prevent the transmission of HIV from one partner to the other but we also recommend the patient to use condom.

There is an option of taking HIV medicine for preventing HIV, what we call as pre-exposure profile axis and post-exposure of profile axis. Here, if a patient accidentally has a needle exposure through an HIV positive patient or if the patient has any sexual exposure, then immediately after the exposure he can take medicines within 72 hours. By taking these medicines for 28 days, he can prevent HIV transmission. This is what we call as post-exposure profile axis. Then there is another entity called pre-exposure profile axis wherein if the patient is getting involved in high-risk activity like for instance, most of the sexual workers unknowingly meet many partners. So to avoid getting HIV infection, they can take preventive treatment which is again taken for 28 days to prevent HIV transmission.

You can always consult me through lybrate or directly in my clinic at Hyderabad, Narayanguda. Thank you.

3765 people found this helpful

Asthma: Debunking Myths About Using Inhalers

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Asthma: Debunking Myths About Using Inhalers

Asthma is a chronic lung condition wherein the air passage gets blocked or constricted due to the production of extra mucus. It is an age old condition which has been creating problems for people since a long time. Despite the seriousness of the condition, there are various myths people tend to believe about asthma.

Here are a few myths about asthma and the usage of inhalers:

  1. Regular Usage of Inhalers is Addictive: This is a total myth. Using inhalers is not at all addictive, it is a necessity. Just because you use your inhaler regularly does not mean you are addicted to it.  Just like brushing your teeth every day isn't an addiction, taking your daily medicine from an inhaler isn't an addiction as well. Using an inhaler will just help you with your asthma condition.
  2. Oral Medicine Gets Better Results than Inhalers: Absolutely not. In fact, it is proven that inhalers give better results than oral medications. Oral medication takes longer to act during a sudden asthma attack while inhalers deliver the drug directly to the lungs.
  3. Inhalers Are Meant For Severe Asthma Cases: Well, this again is not true. Inhalers are used for treating asthma. Period. Asthma is a condition where your lungs inflame which is best cured with steroids, and the easiest way to have steroids administered to you is through the inhalation method. When you use the inhalers, the steroids are delivered directly to your lungs. They also have a minimum number of side effects when administered through inhalers.
  4. Asthma is Curable: You might tend to think that asthma can be cured with the help of proper medications. You might think that asthma is not a constant condition. But it is not what you think. The symptoms of asthma might not be present all the time but that doesn't mean you do not have asthma. Asthma is a long-term condition where the airways swell up causing you to suffer from breathlessness. If you suddenly stop taking your daily medicines because the symptoms have not surfaced, then it will take you a long time before you will be able to totally recover from the next attack you suffer from.

If you have asthma, remember to take your medicines daily and timely. 

3055 people found this helpful

I have taken HIV antibody screening test at 12 weeks by using tridot kit. My result came non-reactive. Should I go for further hiv test?

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
I have taken HIV antibody screening test at 12 weeks by using tridot kit. My result came non-reactive. Should I go fo...
Antibody based tests are done only after 6 months of sexual exposure. There are other tests which are can be done to detect hiv after 1 week.
1 person found this helpful
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Ways to Avoid Fatigue in HIV Patients

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
Ways to Avoid Fatigue in HIV Patients

HIV or the human immunodeficiency virus is a virus which causes HIV infection and leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS. HIV affects a person in various ways over time. HIV patients are commonly characterized by tiredness and intense fatigue. There are many causes, which lead to fatigue and there are ways to reduce fatigue as well.

  • HIV virus as a cause of fatigue: HIV is a long-term infection in nature, and our body provides strong immunity to respond the virus. A lot of energy is capitalized for constantly fighting against the HIV. Fatigue slowly develops as a result of this. Some HIV patients have a high viral load and are likely to develop more fatigue. Energy is regained after starting HIV treatment.
  • HIV treatment as a cause of fatigue: Anti-HIV drugs help to improve energy levels in patients, but they lead to fatigue as well. These medicines include a lot of side effects such as tiredness and excess fatigue. These side effects are more common in the early phase of treatment.

In order to avoid this fatigue, you may change your mode of treatment or consult your doctor for a change in your medical prescription. Medicines such as cotrimoxazole, dapsone, pyrimethamine, toxoplasmosis and ganciclovir lead to fatigue. Folic acid can be an alternative. Blood transfusion can also be conducted to treat fatigue due to medicines, which produces a quick burst of red blood cells. Injecting a hormone named erythropoietin also stimulates red blood cell production.

  • Low vitamin and mineral levels: Low levels of vitamins and minerals in the body cause fatigue. You can avoid fatigue of this kind by choosing a balanced diet by consulting a dietician. Changing your diet and taking dietary supplements helps in reducing fatigue. Fatigue may also be caused because of anaemia.
  • Sleep disorders and stress: Fatigue is bound to develop in HIV patients who suffer from sleeplessness. Insomnia, the most common sleeping disorder, occurs among HIV patients. It happens due to stress, anxiety and depression. Improving upon your sleep ensures correction of the fatigue to a great extent. You can take up counselling or therapies to reduce any kind of sleeping disorder due to stress. You should avoid consuming excess of coffee, alcohol and several recreational drugs. You must also change your lifestyle and daily routine, aiming to be more productive.

Fatigue and tiredness are common among all HIV patients, which occur because of various reasons. There are remedies to get over the fatigue which should be implemented correctly.

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HIV/ AIDS - How Can it be Treated?

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
HIV/ AIDS - How Can it be Treated?

Sadly, there is no known cure for HIV. However, it can be controlled through medication. HIV or the Human Immunodeficiency Virus attacks the body's immune system and over time leaves it vulnerable to a number of other diseases. In its most advanced stages, it can lead to AIDS. Hence, it is essential to control this virus in its early stages.

HIV treatment is known as Antiretroviral therapy or ART. This involves taking a series of HIV medicines on a daily basis. ART can help HIV patients live a longer, healthier life and can also reduce the risk of HIV transmission.

The first step towards getting treated for HIV is to get tested. This can be easily done at your nearest health center and the results will be kept confidential. With HIV prevention is better than cure and hence, if you have more than one sexual partner, you must insist on them getting tested as well.

As soon as you test positive for the virus, start the treatment. Do not wait till you start feeling sick. ART can be taken by anyone at any stage of the condition. If you are pregnant, breast feeding or have been diagnosed with early HIV infection, this is all the more important.

HIV medication works by preventing the HIV cells from multiplying and thus reduces the amount of HIV cells in the body. A low level of HIV cells gives the immune system a chance to recover and strengthen itself. A lowered HIV count also reduces chances of transferring the virus to another person.

ART involves following a regimen of a number of medicines. There are 25 HIV medicines that can be grouped under six drug classes depending on how they affect HIV cells. These include:

  1. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  2. Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
  3. Protease Inhibitors
  4. Fusion And Entry Inhibitors
  5. Pharmacokinetic Enhancers And
  6. Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors

Usually, a person is prescribed 3 to 4 HIV medicines from a minimum of 2 drug classes. A number of factors go into deciding what form of HIV treatment is most suitable to a patient. This includes the person's individual needs, symptoms presented, potential drug interactions and possible side effects. Convenience of following the regimen and costs are also taken into account while prescribing a form of treatment to a HIV patient.

Once treatment is started, ART can be proven to be effective within 3-6 months by lowering the number of HIV cells in the body.

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

FHM FELLOWSHIP IN HIV MEDICINE, MD, MBBS
General Physician, Hyderabad
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Here are Symptoms, Transmission, and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Hello, I am Dr. Ajay Kumar. I have done my diploma in medicine and also done my fellowship in HIV from CMC Vellore. So today I am going to talk about HIV.

What are the symptoms of HIV, how it is transmitted and also about the diagnosis of HIV? HIV is a retrovirus which is transmitted sexually. Apart from the sexual contact which is the most common mode of transmission, there are other modes of transmission for HIV like it can be transmitted through injections, through blood transfusions or by contaminated instruments or through mother to a child also it can be transmitted. And also it can be transmitted breast feeding. I will be just showing the short video how the virus affects the cells in the body. This is a virus, HIV virus immunodeficiency virus, which infects all the cells in our body. It especially affects the CD4 cells which are responsible for the immunity of a person. Once the virus enters the cell it will multiply. It will first replicate from RNA becomes DNA, and this DNA virus which then copies itself to our nucleus and then it starts multiplying. So over a period of time, these cells start multiplying and will be affecting so many cells, all the cells like Red blood cells, White blood cells, and other platelets. So the patient will have multiple immune deficiencies. So you can see here how the virus is replicating itself after every minute some thousands of viruses will be affecting these cells and within a short span of time new virus copies will be released. So these virus copies again will be affecting other cells and again they will be multiplying in those cells.

So here we can see the virus which has infected us come out, new more copies have produced. So once the virus infects the cells it starts killing the cells and the patient’s immunity will be gradual will be decreasing so then the patient will complain of the symptoms. So what are the symptoms of HIV? In generally in initial stages, patients will not have any symptoms. Patients will be absolutely a symptomized. Later on, when the patient’s immunity declines than the patients complain of some fatigue and they will complain of weakness. Then, later on, the patient might complain of fever, cough and the virus because it affects so many organs so the symptom will depend on the organ of infection. Suppose for instance when the patient is having a lung problem, like for instance the patient because of low immunity if he gets infected with some lung infection he will be presenting with a cough, shortness of breath or fever. Like for instance if the patient is getting any a headache or the patient is having some infections in the brain he can present like with a headache, it can present like with seizures like fits or it can present with loss of consciousness. Likewise, if the patient is having symptoms in the stomach like sometimes patient against of loose motions, vomiting then we might suspect that the patient is having some abdominal infection. So depending upon the organ of infection the patient might complain about various symptoms. So there is no symptom which is very specific to HIV but depending upon the organ of infection the symptoms might vary.

So WHO has given staging of HIV? Basically, there are four stages of HIV according to WHO-

  • In the first stage, the patients will be completely asymptomatic. They won’t have any symptoms.
  • When they come to the second stage they will develop some minute skin infections like for instance proretipeplamatitions what we call. Patients complain of itching and sometimes the state develops skin reactions. This patient has come up with Herpes reaction. Likewise, some patients might develop skin reactions like if the patient is having herpes which is very common in HIV. So when the patients enter into stage two they will be developing all these kind of skin problems.
  • When the patient is not taking any treatment, adequate oral treatment then the patient enters into stage three. In stage three what happens a patient develops a lung infection, they can develop diarrhea, and they can develop loss of weight more than 10percent. They will be having a prolonged fever of more than one month, prolonged diarrhea of one month. Sometimes the patient can develop oral infections like oral candidiasis which is very common in HIV patients. You see this picture the patient is having a severe oral infection in the mouth.
  • Likewise, if the patient is not taking any treatment even at this stage the patient enters to stage four for what is we call as AIDS, AIDS stage that is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. In this syndrome the patient will be developing all late complications of HIV like patients can develop severe nemesis pneumonia where the patient will have severe breathlessness, won’t be able to sit comfortably without taking oxygen, supplemental oxygen or the if the patient is developing some abdominal TB, the patient can present with severe abdominal distension and patient can develop severe diarrhea. Likewise, if the patient can develop multiple malignancies like cot skin lymphoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma. These malignancies can affect any part of the body. They are especially a prediction for the brain. Once the patient develops malignancies it’s almost in a very late stage. So by seeing the symptoms also, you can tell what the patient is in. So these are all the symptoms seen in HIV and complications.

So in the next video, we will be talking more about the complications of HIV, how to diagnose HIV and how to treat HIV and what are prevention steps that can be taken to prevent HIV. I am thankful to Lybrate for providing me this opportunity to reach patients all over India.

If you want to contact, you can contact me at Sriniwasa Hospital at Narayanguda. It is beside Deepak Theatre in Hyderabad. You can contact me through Lybrate or my website www.hivaidsclinic.in. Thank you.

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