Treatment of Mellitus
Treatment Of Male Sexual Problems
Dilatation And Curettage (D C) Procedure
Treatment Of Childhood Diabetes
Diabetic Diet Counseling
Egg Donation Procedure
Pre And Post Delivery Care
Adult Diabetes Treatment
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
Type 2 Diabetes Treatment
Treatment Of Erectile Dysfunction
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The body produces a number of chemicals called hormones which are essential for the regulation of various functions including growth and metabolism. These hormones are produced by endocrine glands which are located in various parts of the body. One such important gland is the pituitary gland which produces the important growth hormone. This is essential for regulating optimal growth during the growing years and for maintaining proper amounts of body fat, muscles, and bones in the later years of life.
Causes: Deficiency of the growth hormones can occur due to a number of causes, some of which are listed below. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life.
The congenital issue could be due to problem in the pituitary gland structure, leading to complete absence or reduced secretion of the hormone.
With age, there is a decrease in the amount of secretion. However, infections, injuries, brain tumors, surgery and radiation can also lead to altered amounts of secretion.
Symptoms: While growth hormone deficiency can occur at any age, symptoms differ depending on the age when the deficiency sets in.
In the early ages:
- Lower rate of growth for a given age
- Delayed developmental milestones
- Delayed onset of puberty
- Short stature/reduced height
- Younger looking compared to other children their age
- Fat deposition around the waist
- Delayed dental development
When the deficiency sets in during the later years, there is
- Low energy levels, constant tiredness
- Decreased strength
- Decreased exercise tolerance
- Decreased overall muscle mass
- Thin and dry skin
- Increased fat deposition and weight gain around the waist
- Changes in social behavior including alternate cycles of anxiety and depression
- Lack of motivation
- History of pituitary tumors
- High levels of fat and cholesterol
The diagnosis depends on the age of the person
- Blood tests are carried out to check the hormone levels in circulation
- In children, in addition to the hormone levels, x-rays to see the status of growth plates is very helpful.
- An insulin hypoglycemia test where insulin is given intravenously to see the levels of the growth hormone after 30 minutes.
- Total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglyceride levels can be used to supplement the above tests.
- CT scan and/or MRI of the brain may be needed if tumors are suspected.
Treatment: Once diagnosed, replacement therapy is given as shots a few times a week under the skin. This restores normal growth and helps in controlling the symptoms in adults too.
In cases of tumor, radiation or surgery may be required, but most cases are managed with hormone replacement.
Watch out for the symptoms if your child has delayed developmental milestones and early intervention can help restore growth and function to normal levels. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
Enlarged pancreas can result beacuse of factors such as:
- An abscess in your pancreas: This refers to a dangerous formation inside the pancreas. Neglecting its occurrence can also turn out to be fatal. An abscess is a cavity containing pus that further infects the rest of the organ. Presence of harmful bacteria in the pancreas leads to such a case.
- A cyst in the lining of your pancreas: Epithelial cysts in the pancreas can also cause the organ to swell up. Such cysts are mostly benign but they are accompanied by disabling pain.
- Pancreatitis is one disease with an array of threats: Highly active enzymes within the organ can make its tissues wear down thus, affecting the size of your pancreas. If you are an alcoholic, you are more prone to develop this condition. It could also be contracted due to an excess of calcium or fats in the blood.
- Cancer of the pancreas is dreadful too: Due to the unanticipated growth of cancer cells in the pancreas, the organ grows bigger. A person suffers from excruciating pain under the influence of this condition.
- Pseudocysts in the pancreas can have serious ill effects: When benign cysts become unmanageably harmful, they result into pseudocysts. The cysts contain remains of your tissues and other damaging fluids that can increase the size of the pancreas.
An enlarged pancreas surfaces in the form of these symptoms:
- The kind of stool you pass indicates a lot about your health. Oily poop can be indicative of an enlarged pancreas. Persisting diarrhea can also be a symptom of pancreatic ailments.
- You may even experience an accelerated pulse rate.
- You may feel feverish continually. Bouts of fever can impede your free movement and general health.
- Health issues with your pancreas can make you suffer from jaundice. It could be a one- time affair or it could reappear from time to time.
- Constant queasiness could hint at some underlying problem in your pancreas.
- You may even lose more than a few pounds over a short span of time. Such a thing should not be taken lightly as it not only makes you look sick but also degrades your immunity.
The pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized attached to the base of the brain. It controls growth, functioning and development of other hormonal glands. Deficit of one or more pituitary hormones is a state of Hypopituitarism. This clinical term is used by endocrinologists to mean that one or more pituitary glands are deficient. In hypopituitarism, the pituitary gland does not produce the normal amounts of hormones.
Hypopituitarism has the following causes—
Sarcoidosis (A lung disorder)
Tumours in the pituitary gland
Hemochromatosis (Too much iron in the body)
Tumours in hypothalamus (Controls the production of hormones)
Histiocytosis X (A rare autoimmune disease where the immune cells damage the organs)
Sheehan syndrome (Excessive blood loss during childbirth)
Lymphocytic hypophysitis (An inflammation in the pituitary gland)
Radiation treatments like chemotherapy
Symptoms depend on which hormones is not being produced.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACH): Lack of ACH affects the adrenal glands (endocrine glands producing hormones) and cortisol (steroid hormone). Symptoms include—
Low sodium levels
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Deficient TSH mostly affects the thyroid (produces growth-regulating hormones) gland. The symptoms are—
Sensitivity to cold
Luteinizing hormone (LH): Low luteinizing hormone in women affects their ovaries and ovulation. Symptoms include-
loss of libido
In men, lack of LH affects their testes and sperm production. Symptoms include-
loss of libido
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): This hormone affects men and women the same way the luteinizing hormone does. Thus the symptoms are the same.
Growth Hormone: In children, the growth hormone affects their bone, fat and muscle. They have the following symptoms—
Lack of height
Increase in body fat
Abnormal peak bone mass (bone tissue present after the skeleton matures)
In adults, the whole body is affected. Body fat increases while muscle and bone mass decreases.
Prolactin: Prolactin deficiency only affects women. The prolactin hormone gets the production of milk started after childbirth. Lack of prolactin thus affects breastfeeding.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): The kidneys are affected by lack of ADH. Symptoms include—
Feeling excess thirst
Oxytocin: Lactation and childbirth are affected by lack of oxytocin. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an endocrinologist.
The thyroid gland, in the lower front of the neck, releases hormones in the bloodstream that affect almost every part of your body, from your brain and heart, to your skin and muscles. It also controls metabolism which is the process of changing the food you eat into energy. When the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone, it is called hypothyroidism.
Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:
- Hair loss and dry hair
- Dry skin
- Sensitivity to cold
- Decreased heart rate
- Goitre (swollen thyroid glands)
- Weight gain and difficulty in losing that weight
- Persistent jaundice
Hypothyroidism is not curable, but it can be controlled with the right medication. Along with taking your medicines, you can also adopt the following lifestyle changes:
- Eat right: While there is no specific diet for hypothyroidism, you should consume vegetables, fruits, whole grains, healthy fats and lean proteins. Since gaining weight is a common symptom of hypothyroidism, eating the right things can help you maintain your weight.
- Regular exercise: Exercising can reduce stress, improve energy and help you maintain your optimum weight. Aerobics (for example, cardio), flexibility and strengthening workouts can help with hypothyroidism. Other than that, light weightlifting, yoga and walking, are also beneficial. Do not forget to consult your doctor before you start on any of these exercises.
- Reduce stress: Hypothyroidism is chronic, and the one thing that worsens chronic diseases is stress. Stress has serious repercussions on your overall health. So it is important to reduce your stress as much as you can. Meditate daily, at least for five minutes, and schedule a weekly massage to deal with your stress.
- Get enough sleep: Fatigue is a symptom of hypothyroidism; you feel tired and sluggish throughout the day. The best way to counter this is to establish a schedule for sleeping. Try to sleep and wake up every day at the same time in the night and in the morning. Generally, sleeping for seven to eight hours is recommended. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a endocrinologist and ask a free question.
Diabetes refers to a medical condition where the glucose level in your blood increases. It usually happens if there is an excess amount of glucose in your body and your body is unable to utilize it efficiently. In this condition your pancreas either stops producing insulin or fails to produce the requisite amount and hence prevents glucose from entering the cells of your body.
This in turn affects your blood glucose level. Millions of people around the globe are affected by diabetes irrespective of their gender or age. For most people diabetes is generally a lifelong medical condition and can affect your health seriously if it gets severe.
There are many stages and types of diabetes, such as Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, Gestational diabetes, Pre-diabetes, Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus. Not all diabetes can be prevented but some of the above mentioned ones can be prevented with proper care. Below mentioned are eight tips to prevent diabetes
1. Eating the right portion: The primary key for preventing diabetes is choosing the right amount of food. Eating the right portions can help you to stay away from diabetes. Consider seeking advice from a nutritionist or dietician for knowing the exact portion size you should eat according to your age.
2. Exercise on a regular basis: Exercising regularly for at least half an hour a day can help you to prevent diabetes. You may consider walking or running exercises.
3. Choose the right food: Opt for whole grains as this can help you to maintain your blood sugar level and keep diabetes at bay. Also, try and avoid red meat as it contains high levels of iron which can affect insulin production and increase your chances of developing diabetes.
4. Get rid of obesity: If your BMI is more than thirty then you are suffering from obesity. Obesity increases your chances of developing diabetes. So in order to prevent diabetes you should work at maintaining a balanced weight.
5. Avoid carbonated drinks: Carbonated drinks contain high levels of sugar. This can increase your chances of developing diabetes. So you should try and avoid drinks like colas.
Following the above mentioned tips can help you to avert diabetes.