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Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is characterized by an infection in the vagina. The vagina consists of both good and bad bacteria which remain in a state of balance. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina gets disrupted. The count of bad bacteria in the vagina tends to increase as compared to the count of good bacteria.
It occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina is upset. There are certain factors that may make you prone to this disorder; some of them are:
Douching: Douching is a process of cleaning the vagina with water or cleansing agents. This process leads to an imbalance in the amount of good and bad bacteria in the vagina.
Multiple Sex Partners: Women who have multiple sex partners are at an increased risk of getting affected by bacterial vaginosis.
Lack of Good Bacteria in the Vagina.
The usual symptom of this disorder is a foul smelling vaginal discharge. The color of the discharge may be yellow or gray. The foul smell emanating from the vagina may intensify post coitus.
Given below are the treatments for this disorder –
Clindamycin: Clindamycin is a cream that helps treat bacterial vaginosis.
Metronidazole: This medication may be either administered orally or applied in the form of gel. It is advised to stay away from alcohol during the course of this treatment, as it reduces the efficacy.
Tinidazole: This is an oral medication administered to treat bacterial vaginosis. Akin to metronidazole, it is advised to avoid alcohol during the course of this treatment.
Following certain tips can help prevent bacterial vaginosis.
Avoid Douching: Douching can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina; hence it is best to avoid it entirely.
Do not use scented toiletries: Using scented toiletries is not good for the vagina as it can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the vagina.
Practice safe sex: Use protection while engaging in sexual intercourse to prevent STIs. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. Of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. Hiv positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. Hiv is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion.
Mentioned below are a few issues that a hiv positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment.
1. Menstrual disorders: changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by hiv infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the hiv positive women suffer from amenorrhea i. E. The unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to hiv but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.
2. Contraception: it is very important that the contraception a hiv positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and hiv. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the hiv virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for hiv serodiscordant couples.
3. Surgical complications: hiv positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in hiv positive women.
4. Fertility: there has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal hiv transmission. Studies show that undergoing hiv treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of hiv. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in hiv positive women than hiv negative women.
1. Complete hydatidiform moles
2. Partial hydatidiform moles
3. Invasive moles
5. Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (pstt)
6. Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ett)
It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far the cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.
Testing for cancer
1. Chest x-ray
This is simply an x-ray of the chest.
An mri is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.
3. Ct scan
This is similar to an x-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure. There are several ways to treat it depending on how far the cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:
Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.
This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous.
1. Chromosomal abnormalities: Incompatible chromosomes can result into pregnancy losses. When an egg and a sperm meet, of which one of them is faulty, they can't line up properly resulting into chromosomal abnormality. Such conditions lead to miscarriages.
2. Uterine abnormalities or Incompetent cervixes: Miscarriages occur if the uterus is abnormally shaped since the embryo is not properly implanted or even if it gets implanted, it may not get sufficient nourishment to survive. If the woman has a weak cervix, it cannot hold the developing embryo, leading to miscarriage.
3. Immunologic disorders: Under rare cases, the embryo itself is not accepted by the body. Antiphospholipid antibodies are those, which attack self tissues, such as embryos and prevent them from building up. This leads to recurrent miscarriage.
4. Untreated thyroid problems: Conditions such as thyroid or uncontrolled diabetes result in uterine conditions which make it tough for the embryos to survive.
5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have high levels of male hormones which, result in irregular menstruation and ovulation. This can prevent the lining of the endometrium from maturing that is required for holding the embryo.
6. Bacterial infections: There may be presence of a number of microorganisms inside the reproductive tract that may be harmless for the person. But there may be certain bacteria lined up in the reproductive tract, which can prevent development of embryo, thus leading to miscarriages.
7. Lifestyle: Smoking and drinking are harmful lifestyle habits, which may increase the chance of miscarriage to a great extent. It is always advised to avoid smoking or drinking when you wish to conceive. Other lifestyle conditions, such as working in certain environments like hospital environments, farms, laboratories, etc, may lead to miscarriages; however, the exact reason has not been identified yet.
Respected sir/madam, Am 24 years old married woman. Today I went through a ultra sound scanning & the report shows that I have simple left ovarian cyst. "Left oavry is mildly enlarged in size snd shows a simple cyst measuring 2.2 * 1.6 * 2.1 cms, vol -4.1 ml. Kindly please let me know the causes & all.
Are you living with the uncertainty of a lump in your breast? It's time you take the first step and consult a specialist here.">
Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.
Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.
A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.
A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.
A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.
It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics.
Are you living with the uncertainty of a lump in your breast? It's time you take the first step and consult a specialist here.
Sex also plays an important role. However, there are some things which you must remember before you start having sexual intercourse. Following these will not only lead to safe sex, but also will result in a better relationship.
1.Increase activities you do before coitus such as hugging and kissing
Women usually take a longer time to get aroused according to researchers. This is a problem for men and they must counter this by having increased moments of hugging and kissing. It helps more than you think. A long hug secretes oxytocin which is the primary hormone which women get aroused by.
2. Increased foreplay
Women fantasize a lot when they are in the middle of sexual intercourse as well. Therefore, to stop these fantasies, it is important to perform a lot of foreplay. The foreplay not only reduces the fantasies of women but it helps keep the fantasies on you as well.
3. Feel comfortable with sex toys
These allow for many things to happen including but not limited to the woman being on top when you are engaging in coitus. Feel comfortable with these sex toys as a women being on top helps in better stimulation.
4. Oral sex is needed
It has been proven by researchers that oral sex stimulates much more than sexual intercourse and that oral sex allows women to orgasm more than coitus.
5. Understand the anatomy of a woman
Women have several very sensitive nerve cells on the clitoris. If you overuse these nerve endings, then your woman will not derive as much sexual satisfaction and may even get hurt. Therefore, to minimize damage to your woman, you must go back and forth otherwise it may be painful for her in the later stages.
Hi, I am 32 years old Male. I use KS dotted condom. But I don't know my partner is getting urine infection after sex (her assumption is bcoz of the condom). She doesn't like to use the condom while having sex. Also she do not want to get pregnant as well. But I can't have happy sex while ejaculation without condom. Pls advice which condom can I use to avoid urine infection to my partner or because of any other issue she is getting urine infection. Thank you.
There are certain dishes which are low on mercurial content and high on minerals and beneficial acids, which are recommended to consume during pregnancy. These include fishes like Salmon, Anchovies, Herring, Sardines, Trout, Pollock, Catfish, Atlantic and Pacific Mackerel. As per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pregnant women can safely eat up to 12 ounces (340 grams) of seafood in a given week. Here are certain reasons which make fish consumption essential for a pregnant woman.
The presence of omega-3 fatty acids: One of the main highlights of fish meat is Omega-3 fat or Omega-3 fatty acids. It is a form of unsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in fish oils secreted by the meat of the fish. These acids, mainly help the baby to develop its brain and the eyesight faster and better. Additionally, it also helps in energy storage, oxygen transport, cell membrane function, and regulation of inflammation in the mother's body.
Low Fat Substitute-It is a known fact that fishes are rich sources of protein and vitamins like Vitamin C and D. They are usually low on all forms of fat, saturated fat and fatty acids. This helps to avoid fat accumulation in the fetus as well as in the mother's body.
Better development of the baby-It is a scientifically proven fact that, higher fish consumption by women during their pregnancy is associated with increased cognitive scores, and decreased the risk of autistic symptoms (a brain development disorder found in children).
Conclusively, fishes have always been a desirable food to consume during pregnancy by women. But, you should always be careful while fish consumption, due to pollutants like mercury and PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, which is a form of a chemically reactive substance), which are harmful to the baby as well as the mother.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and more dangerous form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Premenstrual syndrome describes symptoms a woman may have a few days before her menstrual cycle. The most common ones include tender breasts, bloating, cramps, mood swings, and headaches. The symptoms of PMDD are similar to those of PMS but are severe enough to interfere with your routine work, social activities, and relationships.
What causes PMDD?
The exact cause behind this medical condition is unknown but most doctors and researchers believe that the disease is caused due to the bodily changes that you undergo due to the rapidly changing hormones in your body.
What are the most common symptoms associated with it?
The symptoms of PMDD show a very close resemblance to the symptoms of PMS, and they are mostly the same but differ in terms of intensity and severity. The most common symptoms of the condition include the following:
- Mood swings
- Depression or feelings of hopelessness
- Unnecessary anger resulting in increased interpersonal conflicts
- Tension and anxiety
- Decreased interest in everyday activities
- Difficulty in concentrating
- Change in dietary patterns
- Sleep problems
- Physical problems such as bloating, breast tenderness, swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain
How can PMDD be treated?
A host of effective and efficient treatments are available for the treatment of PMDD. However, this condition is diagnosed by a doctor only when the symptoms of the disorder are identified. The common measures to treat the PMDD disease are as follows:
- Good nutrition
Vaginal yeast infection occurs when too many yeast cells grow in the vagina, causing inflammation. It can spread by sexual contact but is not considered as a sexually transmitted infection. A yeast infection results in soreness or itching in the vagina with a burning sensation while urinating.
Causes of yeast infections in the vagina:
The vagina contains a balanced mix of yeast and bacteria; but if the balance is disrupted, it can lead to yeast infection. The reasons for overgrowth of yeast infections are:
- If antibiotics are used more than usual, they can decrease the level of lactobacillus bacteria present in the vagina, changing the pH of vagina
- Having high estrogen levels during pregnancy by using high dose birth control pills and hormone therapy can lead to the overgrowth of yeasts.
- Having diabetes, especially when the blood sugar level is not checked and tends to be high
- Having a weak or impaired immune system
- Being overweight and having poor eating habits, including foods high in sugar level
Risk factors associated with the condition:
A number of factors can increase your risk of getting a vaginal yeast infection.
- Using antibiotics heightens your risk of developing vaginal yeast infection as it disrupts the balance between yeast and bacteria. Excessive intake of antibiotics can kill healthy bacteria, leading to overgrowth of yeast organisms.
- Having a weak immune system with conditions such as poorly controlled diabetes and HIV can lead to an overgrowth of yeast in the vagina. Corticosteroid medicines also weaken the immune system.
- Wearing pants that are tight-fitting, nonabsorbent and undergarments that trap warmth and moisture
- Having high estrogen levels due to an imbalance of hormone levels during pregnancy or menstrual cycle can also lead to vaginal yeast infection.