Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
Menopause is the time in a woman’s life at which she cannot procreate anymore. Side effects of pre-menopause, menopause and post menopause, shift incredibly from woman to woman. Nonetheless, normal side effects of menopause incorporate:
- Hot flashes
- Changes in eating habits
- Vaginal dryness and itching
The majority of the side effects connected with menopause really occur during the pre-menopause stage. A few women experience menopause with no complications or disagreeable symptoms. However, others find menopausal side effects crippling and they usually happen during pre-menopause and go on for quite a long time. The symptoms that women experience are basically identified with decreased levels of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Side effects change generally due to the many impacts that these hormones have on the female body.
Your period may not be as regularly as it used to be. You may bleed heavier or lighter than usual, and at times experience spotting. Additionally, your period might be shorter or longer in time length. In case that you do miss your period, try to rule out pregnancy. In case you are not pregnant, a missed period could show the beginning of menopause. In case you start spotting after not having your period for twelve continuous months, try to converse with your specialist to discount any genuine conditions, for example, cancer.
Symptoms of untimely menopause are frequently the same as those seen by women experiencing common menopause and may include:
- Unpredictable or missed periods
- Periods that are heavier or lighter than normal
- Hot flashes (a sudden warmth that spreads over the abdominal area)
- These symptoms are an indication that the ovaries are delivering less estrogen.
- Vaginal dryness (the vagina may likewise get to be distinctly more dry and less adaptable)
- Bladder fractiousness and increased of loss of bladder control (incontinence)
- Emotional changes (crabbiness, mood swings, mellow stress)
- Dry skin, eyes, or mouth
- Diminished sex drive
Keeping in mind the symptoms recorded above, in case that you are less than forty years old and experience any of the accompanying conditions, you need to see your specialist to figure out if you are experiencing untimely menopause:
- You have experienced chemotherapy or radiation
- You or a relative has an immune system issue, for example, hypothyroidism, Graves' infection, or lupus
- You have unsuccessfully attempted to wind up distinctly pregnant for over a year
- Your mom or sister experienced untimely menopause
To analyze untimely menopause, your specialist will in all likelihood carry out a physical exam and extract blood to diagnose different conditions, for example, pregnancy and thyroid illness. He or she may likewise arrange a test to quantify your estradiol levels. Low levels of estradiol, a type of estrogen, can demonstrate that your ovaries are beginning to fall flat. At the point when estradiol levels are beneath thirty, it might show that you have early menopause.
A mastectomy is surgical removal of a breast. The surgery depends on various factors and choosing a type of mastectomy best suited for an individual suffering from breast cancer requires experience and expertise. With advancing technology, there are more options available for women to opt for surgeries, which are minimally invasive and conserving in nature. Following are the various types of mastectomies and the factors, which influence them:
Types of Mastectomy
1. Total or simple mastectomy
This is a surgical procedure which involves complete removal of the breast including the nipple. The lymph nodes, which are small glands, are an important part of your immune system and are kept intact during the surgery. This form of surgery is most suitable if the cancer has not spread to the lymph nodes.
2. Preventive mastectomy
Preventive mastectomy, also known as prophylactic mastectomy, is an option for women who have a high risk of developing breast cancer. Preventive mastectomy reduces the risk of breast cancer by a huge margin. In certain cases, removal of the entire breast along with the nipple is advisable. Women who develop cancer on one breast often opt for preventive mastectomy and remove the other unaffected breast as well.
3. Partial mastectomy
Women who are in stage I or stage ii of breast cancer can choose this procedure. It is a breast conserving technique where the tumor is removed along with the tissue that surrounds it. It is followed up by radiation therapy on the remaining breast tissue, which terminates the cancer cells and stops them from spreading. There are two types of partial mastectomy, namely, lumpectomy and quadrantectomy.
4. Radical mastectomy
Although this procedure is almost out of use, it is still considered in case the cancer has spread to certain areas like the chest muscle. In this form of surgery, the breast is removed entirety along with muscles beneath it and the lymph nodes.
5. Modified mastectomy
It is a more commonly used procedure characterized by complete removal of the breast including underarm lymph nodes. The chest muscles are untouched in the procedure, therefore allowing a breast reconstruction to follow.
Factors influencing the type of mastectomy:
• Age of the individual
• Health in general
• Size of the tumor
• The spread of the tumor
• The rate of progression of the tumor
• Whether lymph nodes are affected or not
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.
The female reproductive organ is an area of the human body where many microbial organisms inhabit together and it is a necessary requirement for its health. These organisms may include fungi and bacteria and play important roles individually in maintaining the pH levels (the acidic and alkaline balance) levels of the vagina. However, when one of these, especially the fungi go out of balance and begin to propagate, it results in a vaginal yeast infection.
A yeast infection or vaginal candidiasis is a fungal infection that causes extreme itchiness of the vulva (which is the opening of the vagina) and the further insides of the vagina as well. It may result in a white discharge from time to time and causes vaginal inflammation. Some of the other symptoms are:
- Pain in the vagina akin to a burning sensation while urinating or when having sex
- Rashes in the vagina
- General soreness and pain
- White odorless discharge, which is thick in consistency
- Colorless watery discharges can occur as well
- Swelling and redness near the vulva or the vagina in general
The type of fungi that causes vaginal yeast infections is the ‘candida fungus’. Usually, this fungus is present within the vagina, but is kept in check by the Lactobacillus bacteria. These are bacteria naturally present within the vagina and secrete acids, which keep the fungi in check. However, when the levels of bacteria are reduced, it will cause the levels of fungi to increase causing a yeast infection.
The below mentioned factors can aggravate the risks of this disease:
- Problems brought on by diabetes
- A compromised immune system
- Pregnancy may also disturb the balance
- Starting to use or stopping the use of oral contraceptive pills
- Hormone therapy
- Usage of antibiotics that may kill off lactobacillus bacteria within the vagina
Generally, yeast infections are not considered to be sexually transmitted, although yeast infection could be spread through sexual contact as well.
The primary treatment includes a course of anti fungal oral medication to lessen the levels of the fungi within your vagina. It could be supplemented with vaginal creams, which may reduce the itching and the inflammation. If you have recurrent infection multiple times within a year, then you may have to go for a longer course of treatment and correct the underlying conditions that may be causing it. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Skin rashes are a regular problem in both men and women. These can be caused by a variety of factors, both internal and external to the body. However, rashes on the genitals and the groin area can be very problematic, painful and embarrassing. Some could be caused due to problems within the body while some could be contracted externally such as rashes caused by sexually transmitted diseases.
Types of groin rashes in women
Women tend to be affected by rashes as the genital area along with the innerwear tends to be a fertile breeding ground for microorganisms. Infections can also grow uninhibited if medications or appropriate precautions aren’t taken. Some of the common types of groin rashes in women along with their causes are mentioned below.
- Chaffing or intertrigo: This is one of the most common forms of rashes, which are both painful and can be unsightly as well; these look like inflamed spots. This is primarily caused by the rubbing of the inner thighs against each other.
- Jock itch: Although more commonly associated with men, Jock itch can affect women as well. Medically known as ‘tinea cruris’, jock itch occurs when the moisture from your sweat gets trapped within the folds or creases of skin in the groin area thus, encouraging fungi (dermatophyte fungi) to grow there. It is more common among obese people or if you happen to wear tight clothing during exercise. The rash will look like raised papules, which are red in color and quite itchy.
- Infections caused by the imbalance or proliferation of fungi such as yeast: Yeast infections caused by fungi candida usually occur when the pH (the alkaline to acidity) balance of the vagina is disrupted. This will not only result in vaginal discharge, itching pain and discomfort, but will also result in rashes around the vagina along with swelling.
- Contact rashes: Dermatitis may be transferred either through skin to skin contact or by using shared utensils and clothing items such as towels. Contact dermatitis or skin infections look like red rashes and can happen anywhere within the body, including the genitals and groin.
- Friction rashes: Some rashes occur as a result of adverse reactions to items of clothing rubbing against the skin such as jeans or using razors or the use of nylon thongs. These rashes occur due to the body reacting to these and look more like inflammation of the skin.
- Rashes caused by STIs and STDs: Certain rashes may develop on a woman’s groin as a manifestation of sexually transmitted diseases and infections. Some examples of these are Chlamydia, gonorrhea or syphilis and herpes; just to mention a few. These are usually accompanied by mild to severe pain and can only be cured after a proper consultation with the doctor.
Get to the doctor: Heat rashes, intertrigo and friction rashes usually go away by themselves. Vaginal yeast infections may require topical creams while other forms of bacterial infections can be treated by creams or oral antibiotics after proper consultation with a physician. If the pain is unusual and the rashes tend to persist along with other symptoms, you should immediately visit your doctor for further analysis and treatment.
Bacterial vaginosis is a condition which is characterized by an infection in the vagina. The vagina consists of both good and bad bacteria which remain in a state of balance. Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina gets disrupted. The count of bad bacteria in the vagina tends to increase as compared to the count of good bacteria.
It occurs when the balance of bacteria in the vagina is upset. There are certain factors that may make you prone to this disorder; some of them are:
Douching: Douching is a process of cleaning the vagina with water or cleansing agents. This process leads to an imbalance in the amount of good and bad bacteria in the vagina.
Multiple Sex Partners: Women who have multiple sex partners are at an increased risk of getting affected by bacterial vaginosis.
Lack of Good Bacteria in the Vagina.
The usual symptom of this disorder is a foul smelling vaginal discharge. The color of the discharge may be yellow or gray. The foul smell emanating from the vagina may intensify post coitus.
Given below are the treatments for this disorder –
Clindamycin: Clindamycin is a cream that helps treat bacterial vaginosis.
Metronidazole: This medication may be either administered orally or applied in the form of gel. It is advised to stay away from alcohol during the course of this treatment, as it reduces the efficacy.
Tinidazole: This is an oral medication administered to treat bacterial vaginosis. Akin to metronidazole, it is advised to avoid alcohol during the course of this treatment.
Following certain tips can help prevent bacterial vaginosis.
Avoid Douching: Douching can upset the balance of bacteria in the vagina; hence it is best to avoid it entirely.
Do not use scented toiletries: Using scented toiletries is not good for the vagina as it can disrupt the balance of bacteria in the vagina.
Practice safe sex: Use protection while engaging in sexual intercourse to prevent STIs. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
People who suffer from Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as 'HIV', are known as HIV positive people. The virus is the agent of AIDS that is currently incurable. HIV is known to alter the human immune system and makes people much more susceptible and vulnerable to diseases and infections.
Body fluids such as semen, blood, breast milk, vaginal fluids etc. of an infected individual contains the virus, which can be passed from one person to another during blood-to-blood and/or sexual contact. HIV positive women may even pass on this virus to their children during pregnancy, delivery or by breast feeding them. HIV is also transmitted during oral, anal or vaginal sex, by contaminated hypodermic needles and by blood transfusion.
Mentioned below are a few issues that a HIV positive woman have to face apart from discrimination and stigma, fear of infecting their children or partners, violence and abandonment.
- Menstrual Disorders: Changes in menstrual cycles are frequently reported by HIV infected women. However, menstrual dysfunctions are due to varied reasons that aren't directly related to the disease. Although most of the HIV positive women suffer from amenorrhea i.e. the unusual absence of periods, it is not just due to HIV but also because of weight loss or immunosuppression.
- Contraception: It is very important that the contraception a HIV positive woman chooses not only acts as birth control, but also to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. Although condoms do not provide exceptional pregnancy prevention, they are excellent at preventing transmission of the HIV virus. Permanent sterilization is usually the most chosen contraceptive method for HIV serodiscordant couples.
- Surgical Complications: HIV positive women are at a higher risk of undergoing gynecologic surgery. This is because they are more vulnerable to pelvic infectious disease that requires surgical intervention. There is also a greater risk of developing vulvar cancer in HIV positive women.
- Fertility: There has been an increase in the number of seropositive women contemplating pregnancy and childbirth. Most couples resort to assisted reproduction to lower the risk of horizontal HIV transmission. Studies show that undergoing HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load is helpful in preventing the transmission of HIV. It is important to consult a medical expert if you are unable to get pregnant after at least 6 months of trying. Fertility problems are more common in HIV positive women than HIV negative women.
Gestational trophoblastic disease is a rare condition. It only happens when trophoblast cells abnormally grow inside the uterus. Also, this only happens after conception. These cells surround the egg which has been fertilized in the uterus. It is also worth note that the trophoblast cells usually connect the fertilized eggs to the uterus' walls and also form a part of the placenta. It is only when there is a tumor that this disease is diagnosed. There are many forms of gestational trophoblastic disease. Here they are:
- Complete hydatidiform moles
- Partial hydatidiform moles
- Invasive moles
- Placental-site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT)
- Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETT)
It is worth note that most of these diseases have different stages. The stage of how far the cancer has developed can be found out using the following techniques.
Testing for cancer:
- Chest X-ray: This is simply an X-ray of the chest.
- MRI: An MRI is an abbreviation of magnetic resonance imaging. It makes use of a form of magnet which transfers radio waves to a computer to find out what is going on within your body.
- CT scan: This is similar to an X-ray except that more detailed and larger pictures inside the body can be taken and the scan has a slightly different procedure. There are several ways to treat it depending on how far the cancer has spread into the body. Here they are:
- Surgery: Surgery is usually done while the mole is still non-cancerous. The chances of the mole becoming cancerous are increased by pregnancy. Therefore, it is crucial that you do not become pregnant until the surgery is complete.
- Chemotherapy: This is a less-ideal option but has to be taken if the mole has become cancerous.
Recurrent miscarriage is a condition when there has been three or more successive pregnancy losses. It is different from infertility as, infertility is the inability to conceive. For many cases, the cause of a recurrent miscarriage has not always been found. A number of factors can cause recurrent miscarriages of which some are treatable.It may not always be possible to identify a cause for recurrent miscarriage in a couple, even after extensive research and treatment procedures. Some of the common causes of recurrent miscarriage are described below:
- Chromosomal abnormalities: Incompatible chromosomes can result into pregnancy losses. When an egg and a sperm meet, of which one of them is faulty, they can't line up properly resulting into chromosomal abnormality. Such conditions lead to miscarriages.
- Uterine abnormalities or Incompetent cervixes: Miscarriages occur if the uterus is abnormally shaped since the embryo is not properly implanted or even if it gets implanted, it may not get sufficient nourishment to survive. If the woman has a weak cervix, it cannot hold the developing embryo, leading to miscarriage.
- Immunologic disorders: Under rare cases, the embryo itself is not accepted by the body. Antiphospholipid antibodies are those, which attack self tissues, such as embryos and prevent them from building up. This leads to recurrent miscarriage.
- Untreated thyroid problems: Conditions such as thyroid or uncontrolled diabetes result in uterine conditions which make it tough for the embryos to survive.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have high levels of male hormones which, result in irregular menstruation and ovulation. This can prevent the lining of the endometrium from maturing that is required for holding the embryo.
- Bacterial infections: There may be presence of a number of microorganisms inside the reproductive tract that may be harmless for the person. But there may be certain bacteria lined up in the reproductive tract, which can prevent development of embryo, thus leading to miscarriages.
- Lifestyle: Smoking and drinking are harmful lifestyle habits, which may increase the chance of miscarriage to a great extent. It is always advised to avoid smoking or drinking when you wish to conceive. Other lifestyle conditions, such as working in certain environments like hospital environments, farms, laboratories, etc, may lead to miscarriages; however, the exact reason has not been identified yet.
Related Tip: "Miscarriage - Ways To Recover"
Respected sir/madam, Am 24 years old married woman. Today I went through a ultra sound scanning & the report shows that I have simple left ovarian cyst. "Left oavry is mildly enlarged in size snd shows a simple cyst measuring 2.2 * 1.6 * 2.1 cms, vol -4.1 ml. Kindly please let me know the causes & all.
Medical science constantly challenges the boundaries by finding not only the cures to the most dangerous diseases, but finds a way to prevent them even before they occur. With years of research, practice and data available for analysis, scientists are using advanced technology in combination with years of research to create a predicting mechanism for often fatal diseases like cancer.
Breast cancer screening has always been done with mammography. The fact is that this method is only 75% accurate, laden with false positives and misses a whole set of women totally- and that too when cancer has already developed. Part of the problem comes from the dense breast tissue which one in three women have. This tissue masks the lumps, which makes it difficult for mammograms to accurately screen cancer.
Some breakthrough scientific methods are changing this by drawing on years of research to predict this deadly disease, years before it can manifest itself.
A genetic test to predict cancer 10-11 years ahead of time
This test was performed to see how environmental factors could influence cancer, along with habits like smoking, abusing alcohol or hormones, genetic changes that occur and are put a large percentage of the women at a high risk of developing this disease.
A simple blood test is used for the genetic analysis of hereditary cancer. Researchers found a biological marker, methylation of the ATM gene, which has a very high ability to predict the risk of developing cancer, several years before diagnosis. 'Methylation' concluded that when one biological indicator is exposed to carcinogenic substances, or other abusive substances like tobacco and alcohol, it may trigger the development of cancer. On the flip side, this test will take time to reach the commercial market and even then cannot give an exact timeline as to when someone may develop the disease.
A simple blood test to predict breast cancer 5 years before it develops
This is the kind of medical miracle the world is looking for. Last year in April, researches in Denmark identified a simple blood test that can predict breast cancer five years before it actually develops with an accuracy of a whopping 80%.
It works by "measuring all of the compounds in the blood to build a 'metabolic profile' of an individual, in order to detect changes in the way chemicals are processed, during a pre-cancerous stage," says Laura Donnelly, health editor at The Telegraph, which covered this development. Danish researchers observed 57,000 participants over 20 years, gathering blood samples along the way, specifically comparing a set of 800 women who remained healthy or developed breast cancer within 7 years of their first blood sample. The researchers found they were able to predict, with 80 percent accuracy, which patients would be affected by the disease, just by looking at the metabolic profiles they built from the participants' blood samples. The results have been published in Metabolomics.
Are you living with the uncertainty of a lump in your breast? It's time you take the first step and consult a specialist here.
It is very essential to be content with each other for a couple in a relationship. Enjoying partner's company and the things one does improve the relationship by notches.
Sex also plays an important role. However, there are some things which you must remember before you start having sexual intercourse. Following these will not only lead to safe sex, but also will result in a better relationship.
- Increase activities you do before coitus such as hugging and kissing: Women usually take a longer time to get aroused according to researchers. This is a problem for men and they must counter this by having increased moments of hugging and kissing:. It helps more than you think. A long hug secretes oxytocin which is the primary hormone which women get aroused by.
- Increased foreplay: Women fantasize a lot when they are in the middle of sexual intercourse as well. Therefore, to stop these fantasies, it is important to perform a lot of foreplay. The foreplay not only reduces the fantasies of women but it helps keep the fantasies on you as well.
- Feel comfortable with sex toys: These allow for many things to happen including but not limited to the woman being on top when you are engaging in coitus. Feel comfortable with these sex toys as a women being on top helps in better stimulation.
- Oral sex is needed: It has been proven by researchers that oral sex stimulates much more than sexual intercourse and that oral sex allows women to orgasm more than coitus.
- Understand the anatomy of a woman: Women have several very sensitive nerve cells on the clitoris. If you overuse these nerve endings, then your woman will not derive as much sexual satisfaction and may even get hurt. Therefore, to minimize damage to your woman, you must go back and forth otherwise it may be painful for her in the later stages.
Hi, I am 32 years old Male. I use KS dotted condom. But I don't know my partner is getting urine infection after sex (her assumption is bcoz of the condom). She doesn't like to use the condom while having sex. Also she do not want to get pregnant as well. But I can't have happy sex while ejaculation without condom. Pls advice which condom can I use to avoid urine infection to my partner or because of any other issue she is getting urine infection. Thank you.
Fishes are depositories of the good nutrients that are essential for maintaining the optimal health of the human body. Broadly speaking, fishes have high protein and low-fat content, which helps to boost up the metabolism and immunity of the body. A fish meat in the diet is very often suggested by doctors for women during their pregnancy, even to the women who are vegetarians.
There are certain dishes which are low on mercurial content and high on minerals and beneficial acids, which are recommended to consume during pregnancy. These include fishes like Salmon, Anchovies, Herring, Sardines, Trout, Pollock, Catfish, Atlantic and Pacific Mackerel. As per the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) pregnant women can safely eat up to 12 ounces (340 grams) of seafood in a given week. Here are certain reasons which make fish consumption essential for a pregnant woman.
- The presence of omega-3 fatty acids - One of the main highlights of fish meat is Omega-3 fat or Omega-3 fatty acids. It is a form of unsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in fish oils secreted by the meat of the fish. These acids, mainly help the baby to develop its brain and the eyesight faster and better. Additionally, it also helps in energy storage, oxygen transport, cell membrane function, and regulation of inflammation in the mother's body.
- Low Fat Substitute - It is a known fact that fishes are rich sources of protein and vitamins like Vitamin C and D. They are usually low on all forms of fat, saturated fat and fatty acids. This helps to avoid fat accumulation in the fetus as well as in the mother's body.
- Better development of the baby - It is a scientifically proven fact that, higher fish consumption by women during their pregnancy is associated with increased cognitive scores, and decreased the risk of autistic symptoms (a brain development disorder found in children).
Conclusively, fishes have always been a desirable food to consume during pregnancy by women. But, you should always be careful while fish consumption, due to pollutants like mercury and PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls, which is a form of a chemically reactive substance), which are harmful to the baby as well as the mother.
Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe and more dangerous form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Premenstrual syndrome describes symptoms a woman may have a few days before her menstrual cycle. The most common ones include tender breasts, bloating, cramps, mood swings, and headaches. The symptoms of PMDD are similar to those of PMS but are severe enough to interfere with your routine work, social activities, and relationships.
What causes PMDD?
The exact cause behind this medical condition is unknown but most doctors and researchers believe that the disease is caused due to the bodily changes that you undergo due to the rapidly changing hormones in your body.
What are the most common symptoms associated with it?
The symptoms of PMDD show a very close resemblance to the symptoms of PMS, and they are mostly the same but differ in terms of intensity and severity. The most common symptoms of the condition include the following:
- Mood swings
- Depression or feelings of hopelessness
- Unnecessary anger resulting in increased interpersonal conflicts
- Tension and anxiety
- Decreased interest in everyday activities
- Difficulty in concentrating
- Change in dietary patterns
- Sleep problems
- Physical problems such as bloating, breast tenderness, swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain
How can PMDD be treated?
A host of effective and efficient treatments are available for the treatment of PMDD. However, this condition is diagnosed by a doctor only when the symptoms of the disorder are identified. The common measures to treat the PMDD disease are as follows:
- Good nutrition
Related Tip: 6 Reasons To Avoid Aerated Drinks During Your PMS