Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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It is perfectly normal for women to experience the periodic monthly bleeding cycle. However, if a woman experiences uterine bleeding which is abnormal and dysfunctional, it could be a symptom of infection. Other causes of abnormal uterine bleeding include hormonal imbalance, infection in cervix and cancer of the uterus. Many women can also experience abnormal uterine bleeding during first trimester of pregnancy.
The following are considered to be abnormal or dysfunctional uterine bleeding:
- A menstrual cycles occurs between 21 to 35 days, anything shorter or longer than this is abnormal
- No period for 3–6 months (amenorrhea) is abnormal
- Spotting or bleeding between periods
- Spotting or bleeding after intercourse
- Bleeding that is heavier or lasts longer than usual
- Spotting or bleeding after menopause
What can cause such a situation?
Some of the common causes leading to abnormal bleeding are as follows:
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Cervical or uterine infections
- Hormonal imbalances
- Problems with blood clotting
- Polycystic ovaries
- Endometrial hyperplasia
- Cancer of the reproductive tract
How to Diagnose it?
Most women tend to ignore abnormal bleeding, taking it as something to do with age or hormones. A detailed physical examination and history is done to understand menstrual cycle patterns and family history. In addition, the following would be used.
- Ultrasound: The pelvic organs are examined through sound waves to locate the problem area
- Hysteroscopy: Through a thin device that is inserted into the vagina, the doctor takes a look at the inside of the organs and identify the cause for the bleeding
- Endometrial biopsy: The uterine lining tissue is removed and examined under microscope to look for tissue changes that could be causing the bleeding
How Best to Treat It?
This would depend on the reason for the abnormal bleeding. However, in most cases, combinations of the following are useful in treatment.
- Hormone replacement can be done depending on the age and gynecological history, the type and the dose of the hormone would be decided upon. These could be in the form of tablets, vaginal creams, injections, or through an intrauterine device
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen are useful in reducing bleeding and controlling cramps during excessive menstrual bleeding.
- Antibiotics may be useful if there is infection of the pelvic organs.
- Polyps, cysts, cancers, and other growths can be removed via hysteroscopy and sent for biopsy to confirm they are not cancerous.
- Endometrial ablation where the endometrial tissue is treated with heat can be used to control bleeding permanently.
- Hysterectomy would be done if other forms of treatment have failed. This could depend on their gynecologic history and other considerations as she cannot get pregnant after this.
Do not ignore if you see a change in the pattern of your uterine bleeding. It definitely calls for medical attention and if identified early, can be managed in much simpler ways.
Infertility is a medical condition in which the patient fails to conceive after one year of having unprotected sex. It is advisable that women who are above 35 years of age and often experience irregular menstrual cycles should consult a doctor on being unable to conceive within six months.
Is infertility a common issue?
Infertility has become a common problem for the new age women. Sedentary lifestyle and stress are believed to hamper the fertility of women nowadays. According to a report, about 6 percent women in US in the age group 15-44 years are infertile.
Infertility: It’s not just a woman’s problem
Infertility is not an issue with only women. Both, men and women can be infertile or are responsible for the condition. The process of reproduction requires mutual co-operation from both sexes. Therefore, they can together contribute towards infertility as well. It is wrong to blame the woman only. According to the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth data, it has been found that about 7.5 % men in the age group of 18-45 years (who have has sexual exposure) visited infertility clinics at least once in their lifetime. Of these men, about 18% were affected with male-related infertility issues.
Infertility in men: Men can suffer from infertility due to various factors. The infertility can be detected by analysis of the semen. A doctor can evaluate the concentration of the semen or determine the sperm count, the mobility of the sperm and its shape or morphology. These are important for fertility. Semen analysis can be hampered due to the following conditions:
1. Varioceles - The veins on the man’s testicles are unnaturally large and leads to overheating of the sperms
2. Diseases like diabetes, cystic fibrosis, trauma and infection.
3. Unhealthy lifestyle
4. Environmental toxins
Infertility in women: Women must have proper functioning of the reproductive organs to become fertile. The fallopian tubes, ovaries and uterus must be physically and physiologically fit for getting pregnant. A woman may get infertile due to following reasons:
1. Irregular periods that suggests the woman is not ovulating properly.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
3. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) or excessive physical or emotional stress causing missed periods
4. Diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) or inability of the ovary to produce sufficient eggs
5. Premature ovarian insufficiency: The ovary stops functioning properly before 40 years of age
6. Blocked, swollen or open fallopian tubes
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of the endocrine system in women. It has been found that women suffering from PCOS have enlarged ovaries. These bigger ovaries contain fluids called follicles. During an ultrasound examination, these follicles are seen. If you are suffering from irregular or prolonged menstrual periods, acne, obesity and uncontrolled hair growth, you can get yourself tested for PCOS. However, doctors have failed to determine the exact cause of PCOS. This condition can have dangerous consequences and affect the overall health of the patient. If left untreated, it can cause type 2 diabetes or heart diseases.
What happens in PCOS?
Women suffering from this disorder experience a hormonal imbalance in their body. The hormone changes triggers multiple issues in the body. Sometimes, the body produces an excess of sex hormone. Women may develop masculine features due to overproduction of male hormones or androgens. There might be an imbalance in insulin levels, increasing the risk of developing diabetes.
What causes PCOS?
Surprisingly, the exact cause of PCOS is not known. Researchers have not been able to pinpoint the exact cause for developing PCOS. However, some believe that the cause has hereditary links. People with a family history of diabetes are more prone to have PCOD.
Symptoms of PCOS
The symptoms of PCOS are usually mild in nature during the initial stage. In the beginning, only a few symptoms are detectable. These include acne, obesity and extra hair growth on the face, thinning of hair on the scalp and irregular periods. The symptoms often get unnoticed by the patient first. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can gynaecologist a doctor and ask a free question.
One of the most severe forms of pain is the pain that a woman experiences during the process of childbirth. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being the most severe, it is believed to be 8 to 10. In the earlier days, a number of women would die during childbirth and survival was considered as a second lease of life. This belief has however, changed with the advancements in medical science. The delivery has now become an almost painless procedure.
How it works: The pelvis and the lower limbs receive nerve supply through the nerves coming out of the spinal cord. A strong anesthetic is injected into the lower back to numb the pelvis and down below. This ensures that the mother is comfortable and awake during the whole procedure and is able to see the child being delivered but has reduced pain in the lower half of the body.
What are its benefits?
- The mother has a painless delivery and is conscious and able to see the process of delivery.
- Significant relief from the painful experience of childbirth. The pain induces secretion of stress hormones in the mother, which adversely affects both the mother and the child.
- Blood pressure is better controlled using this procedure.
- Additional instruments can be used during the delivery if required without the need for additional anesthesia.
- If required, the procedure can be converted to a cesarean section too, by adding an epidural catheter.
- The duration of childbirth has been significantly decreased.
- Suitable for patients who have preeclampsia and heart disease
It has some disadvantages too
There are minor complications, including:
- This can develop after the painless delivery and the onset and intensity vary from one individual to another
- Post-procedure headache
- Pain at the site of injection
- Difficulty during urination
- The normal pushing effect by the woman is reduced due to the numbness and so vacuum may be used or delivery may have to be converted to a cesarean one.
- In rare cases, there could also be a sudden drop in the blood pressure
In the following cases, the doctor would advise the mother to go for a painless delivery
- Medical conditions like preeclampsia, high BP, or other heart conditions
- Subsequent births after having had a cesarean section (VBAC – vaginal birth after cesarean)
- People who have previously had prolonged or complicated labor, a painless delivery is easy on both the mother and the child
When it should be best avoided
In some cases, like the ones listed below, the painless delivery should be avoided
- Women with bleeding disorders.
- Women who are on blood thinners like aspirin, heparin, etc.
- Women who have had prior low back surgeries
- Women with neurological conditions
A detailed discussion with your gynecologist is the best way to identify, if this would work for you.
Here are benefits of Preventive Screening
Premature labor is also known as preterm labor. This is the term given when the body gets ready for an early delivery in the pregnancy. Labor is considered to be premature if it starts almost three weeks prior to the due date. Premature labor usually leads to early birth, but now this can be delayed with medical help. It is better that the baby grows inside you because there are fewer chances of problems after birth.
Risk of Preterm Labor:
Some of the things, which can increase the risk of a preterm labor are:
- Being underweight or overweight before pregnancy
- Poor prenatal care
- Use of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy
- Health conditions, such as preeclampsia, infections, diabetes, high blood pressure and clotting disorders
- Pregnant with a bay with birth defects
- Getting pregnant through vitro fertilization
- Pregnant with multiples like twins and triplets
- Becoming pregnant soon after having a baby
Symptoms of preterm labor:
Warning signs should be heeded to stop the stop premature labor, as acting quickly can help. Consult your doctor or midwife immediately in case you have the following:
- Backache, especially in the lower back. Back ache can be a constant feature or might keep coming in intervals, but does not change with a change in position.
- Contractions that take place in each 10 minutes.
- A leaking feeling in the vagina or fluid leakage from the vagina.
- Cramps in the lower abdomen very similar to menstrual cramps. These usually give a feeling of gas pains and come with a diarrhea.
- Symptoms of flu like vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. Must to see a doctor if the liquids cannot be tolerated for more than 8 hours.
- The pressure in the vagina or pelvis increases.
- Vaginal discharge increases.
- There might be light bleeding from the vagina.
Ways to check for contractions:
To spot and early labor one must be sure to check for the contractions. Contractions can be checked by the following:
- When the fingertips are placed on the abdomen and the uterus feels too soft or tight then these are contractions.
- Contractions if felt, should be timed and the starting time of these should be noted.
- Contractions should be stopped by changing the position and drinking some water or by walking around.
- Doctor or midwife should be contacted if the contractions occur every 10 minutes and the symptoms worsen.
- Sometime women might experience false labor also known as Braxton Hicks contractions. These are not so strong, are erratic and stop on moving around.
Puberty is a time when a girl's body begins to define itself in more womanly terms. This is the start of a process that will usher in decades of sexual activeness and child bearing years. The changes that a girl goes through during this period can be quite challenging with a play of hormones as well as physical changes, such as growth of hair in private parts and the development of breasts, among various other changes. When these changes come at an early age, it can be all the more challenging to cope and comprehend the process. The onset of early puberty is something that is becoming more and more common with girls between the age bracket of 12 & 13. How can you help deal with early puberty? Here's a list of tips!
1. Self-Image: One of the most important side effects of early puberty remains one's image of the self, as this phase in life is characterised by the most dramatic physical changes that can leave a lifelong effect on the girl's mind. The reinforcement of positive self-image to help the girl grow more comfortable in her skin despite the wide array of feedback she may be getting from sources outside the home, will help in creating a positive impact on a lifelong basis.
2. Doubts: This is a time when the child goes through a number of doubts regarding looks and appearance as well as how well she may be able to cope with the onset of the new process. As parents, the best thing to do is to let the child explore this terrain even as you remain firmly in the background for hand holding when the child asks for it. This will help the girl become even more confident to take life's decision more efficiently and seriously.
3. Talking About It: The best thing to do is to talk things out. Once you start seeing the changes in the girl's appearance by way of hair growth and sudden sprouting of breasts and height, it is important to understand that puberty may be close by. So have a talk about menstrual cycles and the changes that the child will be seeing soon. This will help in mentally preparing the child and giving her the leeway to ask questions that you can answer over a period of time.
4. Opposite Sex: It would also be beneficial to discuss the changes in the behaviour of boys towards her, as this will help her blossom into a more confident lady in the years to come.
Remember to love and support your child through this important milestone of her life, as the way you reach can have a lasting impact on her.
Simple Ways to Treat Dysmenorrhea
Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual disorder in which women suffer painful menstrual cramps along with other symptoms during their periods. It affects about 20 percent of the women of menstrual age. This happens at the start of the periods and may last for three days till the end of the period.
Few Common Symptoms are:
- Abdominal pain with menstrual cramps
- Joint pain, especially in the lower back hips and sometimes in the inner thighs
- May also result in vomiting sometimes
- In certain cases, may also cause an upset stomach
The causes behind dysmenorrhea
The primary cause behind this is usually the contracting of the uterus. The uterus does normally contract a little during menstruation but it may contract a bit too much, affecting the blood vessels and nerves within the abdominal region causing this condition. Some basic steps to reduce pain from cramps.
Some of the steps to be followed to allay the symptoms are:
- Taking ample rest during the days of bleeding
- Staying away from alcohol or any other food or drink that may dehydrate the body
- Avoiding smoking
- Avoid coffee or any food products high in caffeine
- Avoiding foods high in salt
- Massaging the lower back gently
- Using a hot water bag on the abdomen to relieve some of the pain
The steps mentioned above are meant primarily as preventive and pain reducing measures, but for more severe symptoms medications such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen or others may be necessary.
However, the best advice would be to consult a doctor in case of prolonged pain during the days of bleeding rather than self-medicating or only relying on home remedies.
Light periods refer to menstrual periods that have very light flow and are characterized by a lesser number of days than usual. Although the menstrual cycles vary from a woman to another, the duration for a normal period is around every 28 days. Each period lasts for approximately four to seven days. The amount of blood loss in a normal period is around 20 ml to 80 ml. However, loss of blood below 20 ml can be considered as light periods.
The causes of light periods can vary for different woman. Some of them are:
- An imbalance in hormone levels in the body like PCOD (polycystic ovarian disease).
- Light periods are most common in women who are approaching menopause. This is because, at this time, women tend to produce less estrogen, a hormone responsible for regulating menstrual periods.
- Light periods can be common in girls who have just started to menstruate.
- Excessive bouts of exercise, a thyroid condition or an eating disorder can be also responsible for light periods in women.
- Women who use hormonal or oral contraceptives may also have a chance of experiencing light periods.
- An important cause of scanty menses is implantation bleeding. That means sometimes, despite being pregnant, little amount of bleeding can happen at the expected time of menses in the first three months of Pregnancy. So it's important to rule out pregnancy at the earliest.
Certain symptoms usually follow light periods. These symptoms vary according to the underlying causes of this condition.
Some of the common symptoms which accompany light periods are:
- Abdominal pain
- Frequent infections, namely yeast and other fungal infections
- Painful sexual intercourse
- Missed periods
In some cases, light periods might turn out to be a sign of a fatal condition that should be immediately administered to. An example of such would be an ectopic pregnancy, which can cause light or heavy bleeding. Although light periods are rarely due to serious diseases, neglect can lead to heightened complications and irreversible damage.
Some of the complications can are:
- Serious discomfort and pain
- Difficulty in conception or infertility
- Osteoporosis and osteopenia
Related Tip: All About Irregular Periods - Their Types and Causes