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सर्वाइकल कैंसर इन हिंदी - Cervical Cancer In Hindi!

Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Lakhimpur Kheri
सर्वाइकल कैंसर इन हिंदी - Cervical Cancer In Hindi!
महिलाओं को होने वाले कैंसरों में सर्वाइकल कैंसर प्रमुख है. ये कैंसर महिलाओं में योनि से गर्भाशय की ओर एक संकीर्ण खुलाव जिसे गर्भाशय ग्रीवा भी कहते हैं, में जन्म लेता है. महिलाओं में इसकी गंभीरता का अनुमान इसी से लगाया जा सकता है कि यह दुनियाभर की महिलाओं में होने वाला दूसरा सबसे आम प्रकार का कैंसर है. भारतीय महिलाओं में कैंसर से होने वाली मृत्यु में सर्वाइकल कैंसर दूसरा कारण रहा है. दुर्भाग्य से, भारत के परिप्रेक्ष्य में तो यह महिलाओं के लिए काफी गंभीर स्थिति पैदा करता है. इसमें सबसे ज्यादा चिंता का विषय तो यह है कि इस बीमारी को लेकर महिलाओं में जागरूकता का घोर अभाव है. हालांकि इंस्पेक्शन स्क्रीनिंग्स, जो प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य कर्मचारी भी कर सकते हैं, के आगमन से सर्वाइकल कैंसर के मामले कम दर्ज किये जा रहे हैं. आइए सर्वाइकल के लक्षणों को जानें ताकि इस विषय में जागरूकता फैल सके.

सवाईकल कैंसर के लक्षण-
कैंसर से पहले कोशिकाओं में होने वाले बदलावों और सर्विक्स के शुरूआती कैंसर आम तौर पर कोई लक्षण नहीं दिखाते. इस वजह से पैप और एचपीवी टेस्ट्स की नियमित स्क्रीनिंग करवाते रहने से कोशिकाओं में बदलाव का पता लगाया जा सकेगा और कैंसर को बनने या बढ़ने से भी रोका जा सकता है. बीमारी के अग्रिम चरण में होने वाले संभावित लक्षण हैं
* असामान्य या अनियमित योनिक रक्तस्त्राव
* संभोग के वक़्त दर्द
* योनिक स्त्राव
* नियमित मासिक धर्म चक्र के बीच असामन्य रक्तस्त्राव
* यौन संभोग के दौरान रक्त स्त्राव
* पेल्विक एग्ज़ाम के बाद
* मेनोपॉज़ के बाद रक्तस्त्राव.

श्रोणिक दर्द जो मासिक धर्म चक्र से सम्बंधित नहीं है. भारी और असामान्य स्त्राव जो तरल, गाढ़ा और बदबूदार हो सकता है. मूत्रत्याग करने में दर्द. यह लक्षण किसी और स्वास्थ्य समस्या के कारण भी हो सकती हैं. कोई भी लक्षण दिखने पर डॉक्टर से अवश्य सलाह करें.

सवाईकल कैंसर के कारण-
कैंसर असामान्य कोशिकाओं के अनियंत्रित विभाजन और विकास के कारन होता है. असामान्य कोशिकाओं की दो परेशानियां होती हैं: ये मरते नहीं ये विभाजित होते रहते हैं ये असामन्य कोशिकाएं इस वजह से एकत्रित होकर ट्यूमर बन जाती हैं. सर्वाइकल कैंसर सर्विक्स में असामन्य कोशिकाओं के बन जाने से होता है. हालांकि, निम्न लिखित कुछ कारक हैं जो सर्वाइकल

कैंसर होने का जोखिम बढ़ाते हैं:

ह्यूमन पेपिलोमा वायरस : यह एक यौन संचारित वायरस है. इसके कई प्रकार होते हैं जिनमें से कम से कम 13 सर्वाइकल कैंसर का कारण बन सकते हैं.

असुरक्षित यौन सम्बन्ध : सर्वाइकल कैंसर का कारण बनने वाले HPV के प्रकार लगभग हर बार संक्रमित व्यक्ति के साथ यौन सम्बन्ध बनाने से फैलते हैं. जो महिलाएं एक से अधिक साथियों के साथ यौन संबंध बना चुकी हैं या जो कम उम्र में यौन सम्बन्ध बना चुकी होती हैं, उनमें इस कैंसर के होने का जोखिम ज़्यादा होता है.

धूम्रपान : धूम्रपान कई कैंसर के जोखिम को बढ़ता है.

कमज़ोर प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली : कमज़ोर प्रतिरक्षा प्रणाली सर्वाइकल कैंसर का कारण बन सकती है.

दीर्घकालिक मानसिक तनाव : जो महिलाएं लम्बे समय तक तनाव के उच्च दर का अनुभव करतीं हैं उनमें HPV से लड़ने की क्षमता कम हो जाती है.

बहुत छोटी उम्र में गर्भधारण करना : जो महिलाएं 17 वर्ष की उम्र से पहले गर्भधारण कर लेती हैं उनमें सर्वाइकल कैंसर के बनने का जोखिम ज़्यादा होता है (उन महिलाओं की तुलना में जो 25 वर्ष के बाद पहली बार गर्भधारण करती हैं).

बार बार गर्भधारण करने से : जो महिलाएं तीन से ज़्यादा बच्चों को जन्म दे चुकी हैं उनमें इस बीमारी के होने का जोखिम ज़्यादा होता है.

गर्भनिरोधक गोलियां : ज़्यादा समय तक गर्भनिरोधक दवाओं का प्रयोग भी कैंसर के जोखिम को बढ़ता है.

अन्य यौन संचारित बीमारियां : जो महिलाएं क्लैमाइडिया, सूजाक या उपदंश से संक्रमित हो चुकी हैं उनमें सर्वाइकल कैंसर का जोखिम अधिक होता है. सामाजिक-आर्थिक स्थिति: कई देशों में हुए अध्ययनों में पाया गया है कि जो महिलाएं वंचित इलाकों में रहती हैं उनमें सर्वाइकल कैंसर होने का जोखिम ज़्यादा होता है.
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My mom is 67 year old and she is suffering from ovarian cancer 3rd stage. 2 days back chemo was given. Since from yesterday she is having acute stomach pain. Is it safe to take cyclopam tablet. And is this cancer curable.

MS ( General Surgery)
Oncologist, Mandsaur
Cyclopam can be taken but under supervision of treating doctor. This cancer is potentially curable, but many factors are to be considered.
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Women Related Cancer - Knowing The Prevention & Treatment Of It!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - General Medicine, Fellowship in Medical Oncology
Oncologist, Mumbai
Women Related Cancer - Knowing The Prevention & Treatment Of It!
With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer.

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier.

Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer:

The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded.
Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt)
Skin irritation or dimpling
Breast or nipple pain
Nipple retraction (turning inward)
Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin
Nipple discharge (other than breast milk)
Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer:

Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography.
Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist.
For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered.
Treatment Options:

Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are:

Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue.
Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further.
Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance.
The other options to treat breast cancer are chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy and radiotherapy.

Cervical cancer ( Carcinoma Cervix)

Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is the opening of the uterus and connects the uterus to the vagina. Indian women in particular are susceptible to cervical cancer as more than 1/3rd of the cervical cancer related deaths in the entire world happens here in India, which is about 74000 deaths annually. The leading cause for cervical cancer is HPV or Human Papillomavirus infection, which if left untreated and unchecked will result in cancer.

Alarming Signs of Cervical Carcinoma:



Early lesions and precancerous lesions have no symptoms
Abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods or longer/heavier periods
Abnormal vaginal discharge
Pelvic pain
Late stage disease may cause lower extremity swelling, problem with urine and/or stool passage
Screening Guidelines:

Cervical cancer screening is most effective screening programme of any cancer disease resulting in significant decrease in mortality from carcinoma cervix
United state preventive services task force (USPSTF) recommend cervical cancer screening starting at age 21 yrs.
Between age 21-30 years cytology recommended at 3 year interval and HPV testing is not recommended.
Between 30-65 years cytology every 3 year or cytology +HPV testing every 5 year.
If previously adequately screened screening can be discontinued after 65 years.
Women with prior total hysterectomy and no CIN can discontinue screening.
Apart from breast and cervical cancers, certain other cancers have also reported an alarming increase such as:-

Ovarian cancer (Carcinoma Ovary)

Starting in the ovaries, diagnosis of this type of cancer is usually delayed due to lack of visible symptoms in the initial stages. About 85% to 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Epithelial ovarian cancers tend to spread to the lining and organs of the pelvis and abdomen (belly) first. This may lead to the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (called ascites). As it advances, it may spread to the lung and liver, or, rarely, to the brain, bones, or skin. The main treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery and chemotherapy.

Cancer of the endometrium (Carcinoma Endometrium)

Endometrium is the lining of the uterine wall and has along with ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer is also increasing in occurrences throughout India and the world.

The grade of an endometrial cancer is based on how much the cancer forms glands that look similar to those found in normal, healthy endometrium.

Treatment Options:

Cervical cancer along with Ovarian, uterine and endometrial cancer can be treated using the following methods:

1. Surgery: Radical Hysterectomy primarily preferred option for early stage disease. Both open and minimal invasive approaches are suitable.

For precancer high grade lesion conisation is also option for compliant patient.
In young suitable patient willing for childbearing trachelectomy is also possible in very early lesion.
Depending on risk factors after surgery adjuvant treatment may be advised.
2. Radiation therapy or Combined Radiation therapy+Chemotherapy: Alternative to surgery in early stage and choice in late stage.

Prevention:

Certain prevention techniques that would be advisable to detect cancer in its early stages would be,

Regular Pap smear tests for cervical cancer
Taking vaccines for cervical cancer
Regular mammograms and checkups for breast cancer
Changing lifestyles to reduce stress
Changes in diet to reduce risks
Leading a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise

Prevention From Cervical Cancer - Its Vaccine And Other Measures!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Fellowship in Infertility
General Physician, Chandigarh
Prevention From Cervical Cancer - Its Vaccine And Other Measures!
Cervical cancer is a kind of cancer that develops in the cervix of a woman. Cervix an area between the uterus and vagina. It is preventable if diagnosed in early stages. Going for regular Pap tests and taking an HPV vaccine can significantly lower the risk of cervical cancer. These symptoms include abnormal bleeding between menstrual periods, low back and lower abdominal pain, postcoital bleeding and strange smelling discharge. If not diagnosed in time, it can be life-threatening and requires intense treatment.

Prevention of cervical cancer: There is usually no certain way of preventing cervical cancer, but by following a number of practices there is a possibility that you can prevent it. There are 3 major ways of prevention of cervical cancer, which include the following:
Cervical screening and vaccination: Having a cervical screening or pap smear test on a regular basis is an efficient way to detect abnormal changes in the cervix cells, at a very early stage. Even if you are being vaccinated for the HPV virus, cervical screening is essential as the vaccines against HPV virus are not always successful in providing protection from cervical cancer. If you had been previously treated for abnormal changes in the cervix cells, you should undertake more frequent screening tests. The regularity of undergoing cervical screening depends on the severity of the cell change. You should report any symptom you experience in spite of having regular cervical screening. Several vaccines are used for protection from HPV infections.
Safe sex: Major cases of cervical cancer are caused due to an infection by a virus known as human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus is usually transmitted by sexual means and having unprotected sex might leave you at the risk of getting infected by this virus during sexual intercourse. You should practice safe sex using protection such as condoms. This reduces your chances of being infected by the virus. This virus is transmitted via all types of sexual contact, which includes skin contact between the genitals. People who have unprotected sex with multiple sexual partners are at an increased risk of getting cervical cancer due to the HPV virus.
Avoid smoking: You can prevent the chances of having cervical cancer by giving up smoking. In the case of smokers, it is more difficult to eliminate the HPV infection from the body, and the chances of cervical cancer get enhanced. You can undertake various measures in order to quit smoking and prescribed medicines can be used to treat withdrawal symptoms.
Cervical cancer causes great strain on the body and it may spread all over the pelvic region. In some cases, distant tissues are also affected by cervical cancer. You should consult a doctor immediately after experiencing any symptom of cervical cancer.
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Cancer Treatment- From Despair To Hope!

DNB Surgical Oncology, MS Surgery, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Oncologist, Noida
Has cancer become a more common disease than what it was a few years ago?

Yes, the incidence of cancer has increased over the last few years and there are several hypotheses to explain this.

First, there is increasing awareness and diagnosis of cancer.
Secondly, there is also a true increase in the incidence of cancer.

Why is there an increase in the incidence of cancer?

Several factors are to be blamed for this increasing incidence including changes in lifestyle, more sedentary lifestyle and less physical activity. The increasing use of tobacco and alcohol, delay in marriage and childbirth, less childbearing (especially relevant to breast cancer). Other factors include a change in
Dietary practices such as consumption of red meats, excessive use of spices and chilies and
Contamination of food items with pesticides to some extent.

How much role does genetics play in cancer occurrence in an individual?

Less that 5% of cancers are attributed to genetic predisposition (i. E. Personal or family history of cancer) in an individual.

Is cancer preventable?

Some cancers are certainly preventable such as those cancers related to consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Some viral infections such as hepatitis and HPV infection predispose to the liver and cervical cancers and therefore can be prevented by use of vaccination against these viral infections.

Which all cancers are related to tobacco consumption?

Both smoked and chewed tobacco can lead to the development of cancers including cancer of mouth, Tongue, throat, voice box, food pipe and lung.

If I have never used tobacco am I still at risk of developing oral cancer?

Although more than ninety percent of oral cancers result from tobacco consumption, chronic injury by sharp teeth can lead to mucosal injury and can predispose to development of oral cancer even in people, Who have never smoked or consumed chewed tobacco.

What has changed in the last few years in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers?

1. The concept of multidisciplinary team and tumor board discussion for all cases ensures the correct sequence and best modality for treatment of cancers.
2. Availability of newer histopathological techniques, such as immunohistochemistry, liquid biopsy and next-generation sequencing for personalized treatment of cancer.
3. Better staging tools such as pet-ct and other new imaging modalities.
4. Advances in surgery cancer surgery have become less mutilating and more and more organ conservation. There is an emphasis on reconstruction, cosmetic and functional outcome. Chest and abdominal surgeries are now performed by minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery.
5. Personalized cancer treatment, e. G. Two women with similar stage breast cancer may be treated differently based on their molecular and genetic factors.
6. Use of precision based radiation therapy techniques (imrt, igrt etc) allows better
Treatment outcomes with minimal side effects.
7. Availability of targeted therapy and immunotherapy offers better disease outcomes with fewer side effects.

How do I take care of myself to prevent cancer?

Adopt a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise and avoid smoking and alcohol consumption. All cancers are not preventable so it is advisable to go for regular check-ups and screening for cancers.
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How Cervical Cancer Screening Can Be Done?

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fellowship In IVF
Gynaecologist, Faridabad
How Cervical Cancer Screening Can Be Done?
Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical Cancer is one of the most common ailments that women suffer from, making it only more important to be taken seriously and treated immediately.

Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms.

Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can lead to cervical cancer. That's why it's important for women to have regular screening. A screening can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer.

Symptoms of Cervical Cancer may include:

Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, or after menopause.
Persistent abnormal discharge.
Cervical cancer is the easiest gynecologic cancer to prevent, with regular screening tests and follow-up. Two screening tests can help prevent cervical cancer or find it early:

The Pap test (or Pap smear) looks for precancers, cell changes on the cervix that might become cervical cancer if they are not treated appropriately.
The HPV test looks for the virus (human papillomavirus) that can cause these cell changes.
When to Get Screened

You should start getting regular Pap tests at age 21. The Pap test, which screens for cervical cancer, is one of the most reliable and effective cancer screening tests available. The Pap test is the best way to find cervical cell changes that can lead to cervical cancer. Regular Pap tests almost always show these cell changes before they turn into cancer. It's important to follow up with your doctor after any abnormal Pap test result so you can treat abnormal cell changes. This may help prevent cervical cancer.

Treatment-

In spite of being a fatal ailment, over the years various treatments have evolved that deal with this problem effectively. Some of them are:

1. Surgery: One of the effective and oft availed treatment to cure cervical cancer is surgery. Depending on the stage on which the disease is detected, doctors may suggest for a hysterectomy or removing the pelvic nymph nodes.

2. Chemotherapy: This has emerged as the most sought after way of treating any form of cancer. The abnormal growth of cells that triggers cancer in the first place is deterred in this method by administering drugs to destroy them.

Pap Smear For Screening Of Cervical Cancer - What Women Need To Know?

MBBS, MS - Obs and Gynae, MRCOG(London), DNB, Fellowship In Uro Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Pap Smear For Screening Of Cervical Cancer - What Women Need To Know?
What is Cervical Cancer?

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When these abnormal cells are present in the cervix, it is called cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix.

Screening Prevents Cervical Cancer and Saves Lives:

The Pap test can find abnormal cells in the cervix. These cells may, over time, turn into cancer. This could take several years to happen. If the results of a Pap test show there are abnormal cells that could become cancerous, a woman can be treated. In most cases, this treatment prevents cervical cancer from developing.

Pap tests can also find cervical cancer early. When it is found early, the chance of being cured is very high. The most important thing you can do to avoid getting cervical cancer is to have regular Pap tests.

Any woman who has a cervix can get cervical cancer, especially if she or her sexual partner has had sex with several other partners. Most often, cervical cancer develops in women aged 40 or older. Abnormal cells in the cervix and cervical cancer don t always cause symptoms, especially at first. That s why getting tested for cervical cancer is important, even if there are no symptoms.

What is the Pap Test?

The Pap test, also called the Pap smear, is a cervical cancer screening test. It is not used to detect other kinds of cancer. It is done in a doctor s office or a clinic.

During the test, the doctor or nurse uses a plastic or metal instrument, called a speculum, to widen the vagina. This helps to examine the vagina and the cervix, and collect a few cells from the cervix. These cells are placed on a slide and sent to a laboratory to be checked for abnormal cells.

Who Should Have a Pap Test?

Doctors recommend that women begin having regular Pap tests and pelvic exams at age 21, or within three years of the first time they have sexual intercourse whichever happens first. After a woman has a Pap test each year for three years in a row, and test results show there are no problems, she can then get the Pap test once every 2-3 years.

Who Does Not Need to be Tested?

The only women who do not need regular Pap tests are:

Those over age 65 who have had regular Pap tests with normal results
Women who do not have a cervix. This includes women whose cervix was removed as part of an operation to remove the uterus. (The surgery is called a hysterectomy.) However, a small number of women who have had this operation still have a cervix and should continue having regular Pap tests. If you re not sure whether you have a cervix, speak to your doctor about it.
How Do I Prepare for the Pap Test?

To prepare for the Pap test, doctors recommend that for two days before the test you should avoid:

Douching
Using tampons
Having sexual intercourse
Using birth control foams, creams, or jellies or vaginal medications or creams
Try to schedule your Pap test for a time when you are not having your menstrual period.

When Will I Get the Results?

It can take up to three weeks to receive Pap test results. Most results are normal. There are many reasons that Pap test results can be abnormal, and usually it does not mean you have cancer.
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Gynecological Cancer - Know The Signs And Symptoms!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
Gynecological Cancer - Know The Signs And Symptoms!
Being diagnosed with cancer is something no one looks forward to and Gynaecological Cancer is every woman s worst nightmare. However, if diagnosed in time, it can be treated. Cancer in any part of a woman s reproductive system is termed as gynecological cancer. It is of five types:

Cervical cancer

Ovarian cancer

Vaginal cancer

Vulvar cancer and

Uterine cancer

Paying attention to your body and understanding its natural rhythm can help you recognize signs of gynecological cancer. This is because signs of gynecological cancer can be difficult to identify unless you know your body. Here are a five signs to watch out for-

Abnormal Vaginal Bleeding: Bleeding in between periods is okay once in a while but if it happens continuously over a period of 2 to 3 months, do not ignore it. Vaginal bleeding after menopause should also never be ignored. Abnormal bleeding could be triggered by a number of conditions including cancer of the lining of the uterus. Sudden changes in your menstrual blood that persist for over 2 cycles such as heavy bleeding can also be a symptom of uterine cancer. Heavy bleeding can be defined as a period that lasts for over 7 days.

Changes in the Vulva: Any change in colour of development of bumps, sores of thickened skin should be immediately shown to a gynecologist. Any form of vulvar itching or burning should also not be ignored. These conditions could be symptoms of vulvar cancer. Hence, it is important to know what your vulva looks like normally.

Bloating: Persistent bloating that lasts for over a fortnight can be a sign of ovarian cancer. This is especially true in cases of bloating accompanied by sudden weight loss or between-period bleeding.

Change in Bathroom Habits: Due to the proximity of the bladder to the reproductive organs, a tumour or swelling in the reproductive organs can trigger symptoms similar to those of a urinary tract infection. This includes pain while urinating, difficulty passing urine, diarrhea or constipation. Urinary incontinence could also a sign of gynecological cancer.

Abdominal or Back Pain: In rare cases, lower back pain could be a sign of ovarian cancer or uterine cancer. Pain in the lower abdomen or pelvic area can also be a sign of ovarian cancer.

The above could also be signs of other health disorders. The only way of knowing for sure is by consulting a doctor. Hence, understand your body and if you notice any of these symptoms consult your gynecologist at the earliest.
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Causes Of Cervical Cancer And Its Treatment!

DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, Diploma In Gynaecology & Obstetrics
Gynaecologist, Kolkata
Causes Of Cervical Cancer And Its Treatment!
Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. Its different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.

Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as the human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.

Symptoms:

Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
Pain is experienced during sex.
Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
Loss of weight.
How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include, Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.

Treatment options available:
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:

Surgery can be undertaken for removal of the cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of the cervical cancer.
Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.
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Cervical Cancer - Everything You Should Know!

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Bachelor of Ayurveda, Medicine and Surgery (BAMS)
Ayurveda, Thane
Cervical Cancer - Everything You Should Know!
Cervical cancer is a malignant neoplasm originating in the cervix uteri. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cause of cancer in women. Lack of screening programs in the developing world means that the disease is not identified until it is too late, resulting in higher mortality.

Symptoms :

Asymptomatic (without any symptom)

Vaginal bleeding on touch

Abnormal vaginal bleeding

Intermenstrual bleeding

Bleeding after coitus

Menstrual bleeding that is longer and Heavier than usual.

Bleeding even after menopause.

Moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge in advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs or elsewhere.

Causes:

(i) The central cause of cervical cancer is HPV - Human Papilloma Virus.

(ii) It is transmitted through sexual contact.

(iii) Low-risk type virus may cause genital warts.

(iv) High-risk type may cause precancer or cancer

(v) Only women with persistent HPV are at risk.

Human papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is cause of 70% of cervical cancer globally.

Other risk factors: chlamydia infection, hormonal contraception, multiple pregnancies, exposure to the hormonal drug diethylstilbestrol, and family history of cervical cancer.

HPV vaccines

There are two HPV vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) which reduce the risk of cancerous or precancerous changes of the cervix and perineum by about 93%.

Treatment:

(i) Surgery (HYSTERECTOMY)(including local excision)

(ii) Chemotherapy in early stages

(iii) Radiotherapy in advanced stages.

Cancer screening: MOST IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOL:

Pap smear can identify precancerous and potentially precancerous changes in cervical cells and tissue. The smear should contain cells from SCJ (squamocolumnar junction), Transformation zone and endocervix. Ayre s spatula and endocervical brush are used. Cells are spread on slide and fixed immediately. The treatment protocol depends upon the findings of the smear report. Liquid-based cytology can also be performed now.

Cervical screening programs have reduced the incidence of invasive cervical cancer by 50% or more.

Colposcopy- a magnified visual inspection of the cervix aided by using a dilute acetic acid (e.g. vinegar), colposcopy guided Biopsy, Endocervical curratage, Pelvic examination are also important tools for screening of cancer.

The screening intervals are:

Guidelines According to Age and Reproductive Status

After a woman becomes sexually active, pap smear testing needs to be done after every 2 years.

After that, if you get 3 consecutive normal pap smears (that is, three normal tests in a row), the doctors may consider spacing this test to every 3 years.

After 65 years of age, you may stop.
However, doctors may recommend for more frequent testings in any of the following conditions if:

You are HIV positive

You have inflammation of cervix in previous pap smear screening test.

You are nutritionally deficient and weak.

Immunocompromised state, like after radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or after a lone term steroid treatment.

Your mother was exposed to DES (diethylstilbestrol) while pregnant.

New HOPE for CERVICAL CANCER:

Cervarix and Garsasil are vaccines against certain types of cancer-causing human papillomavirus.

HPV is a virus, usually transmitted sexually, which can cause cervical cancer.

Gardasil, also known as Gardisil or Silgard or recombinant human papillomavirus vaccine [types 6, 11, 16, 18] is a vaccine for use in the prevention of certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), specifically HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV types 16 and 18 cause an estimated 70% of cervical cancers, and are responsible for most HPV-induced anal, vulvar, vaginal and penile cancer cases. HPV types 6 and 11 cause an estimated 90% of genital warts cases.

Cervarix is designed to prevent infection from HPV types 16 and 18, that cause about 70% of cervical cancer cases.

Administration
Immunization with vaccine consists of 3 doses of 0.5-mL each, by intramuscular injection according to the following schedule: 0, 1, and 6 months. Vaccine is available in 0.5-mL single-dose vials. You may contact to nearest gynecologist for further information about vaccines.

HOW DOES AYURVEDA HELP?

Ayurveda has definite protective influence over the killing disease. Prana is ultimate force that maintains our vitality. In Ayurveda this is named as Vata. We have to balance our Vata to keep away from killing cancer. Cancer prevention is targeted at creating balance and harmony through AAHARA, VIHARA, DINACHARYA RUTUCHARYA , RUTUSANDHICHARYA, SADVRUTA, PRANAYAMA, RASAYANA SEVAN, PANCHAKARMA AACHAR RASAYANA, AND ANTICANCER HERBS. Research has shown that some ayurvedic herbs has anticancer activity. Curcumin, inhibit tumor-promoting enzymes and interfere with the growth of cancerous tumors. As a powerful antioxidant, curcumin neutralizes free radicals that increase the risk of cancer. So HARIDRA TAILA pichoo (A sterile tampoon soaked in oil kept in vagina) is effective.

Ginger not only kills cancer cells, it also prevents them building up resistance to cancer tretment.
Fenugreek seeds were experimentally shown to protect against cancers of the breast, cervix and prostate cancer.
There are many Ayurvedic herbs that have anti-carcinogenic properties, such as Amla, Ashwagandha, Triphala, Guduchi, Tulsi, Neem, and Brahmi.
The role of the mind in healing must be emphasized as mental disturbances are a more subtle cause than the physical imbalances in the doshas.
Spiritual healing is the process of removing or healing our karma, which plays a role in all disease.
So mental and spiritual both the states are important for curing any disease which is explained only in ayurveda.
It is important to continue looking for effective ways to expand screening for each women for reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. So here we all should screen, prevent and treat cervical cancer to improve the quality and logitivity of life of women.
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