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Sir, I have a girlfriend and now she was affected by cervical cancer. After chemo, they done operation and also uterus and ovaries was removed. And her stage is 3b. Is there any possibilities to comeback. Still I love her alot. Nd need me back. So I asked. I do not knw more details. And sometimes she have pain and vomiting. Today she is admitted due to breathing problem. So I do not have any other ways to know more about her illness. I request you to help me out of this.

B. Sc., BAMS
Ayurvedic Doctor, Madurai
Dear lybrate-user ji I must appreciate your love and concern for your girlfriend. As you might already know that stage iiib, (1) cancer has spread to the pelvic wall; and/or (2) the tumor has become large enough to block one or both ureters (tubes that connect the kidneys to the bladder) or has caused one or both kidneys to get bigger or stop working. Since she already had surgery there is a 60% chances of living for another 5 years with radiation or chemo. The reason for her vomiting and pain might be side effects of the treatment given. You have to be strong and be supportive to her. You both are going through and emotional and physical turmoil. May the almighty give you both strength to go through this tough time. With prayers for good health
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Tips To Prevent Cervical Cancer!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fellowship in Gynae Oncology
Gynaecologist, Jaipur
Tips To Prevent Cervical Cancer!
Cervical cancer (a malignant tumor of the cervix, the lowermost part of the uterus) is one of the most preventable types of cancer. Because of the Pap smear test, the number of cervical cancer cases has actually dropped over the past 20 years. However, many women still develop cervical cancer.

While some cases of cervical cancer cannot be prevented, there are many things a woman can do to reduce her risk of developing cervical cancer.

Reduce Your Risk of Cervical Cancer:

Get a regular Pap smear - A Pap smear can be the greatest defense against cervical cancer. It can detect cervical changes early on before they have a chance to turn into cancer.

Limit the number of sexual partners you have - Studies have shown that women who have many sexual partners increase their risk for cervical cancer. You also increase your risk of developing HPV, which has been shown to lead to cervical cancer.

Quit smoking or avoid secondhand smoke - Smoking cigarettes increases your risk of developing many cancers, including cervical cancer.

If you are sexually active, use a condom - Having unprotected sex puts you at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), which can increase your risk factor for developing cervical cancer.
Follow up on abnormal Pap smears - If you have had an abnormal Pap smear, it is important to follow up with regular Pap smears or colposcopies, and whatever else your doctor has recommended for you. If you have been treated for cervical dysplasia, you still need to follow up with Pap smears or colposcopies.

Get the HPV vaccine - If you are under 27, you may be eligible to receive the HPV vaccine, which prevents high-risk strains of HPV in women. The vaccine is most effective when given to young women before they become sexually active.
Again, cervical cancer prevention should be a top priority for all women. Small lifestyle adjustments, combined with regular medical care, can go a long way in preventing cervical cancer.
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My mother got cervical cancer last year done total hysterectomy stage 1b2. Now after a year its comes back locally advance in bladder wall rectum bladder neck don't know what to do. Is total pelvic exoneration is an option?

MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, FMAS, DMAS, Fellowship in Assisted Reproductive technology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gynaecologist, Burhanpur
Hello, she may require a second look laparoscopy and exenteration followed by ccrt possibly. Please meet an onco-surgeon and medical oncologist for the same.
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Cervical Cancer

MBBS, DGO - Gynecology & Obstetrics, FMAS & DMAS
Gynaecologist, Delhi
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Cervical cancer occurs when the cells of the cervix grow abnormally and invade other tissues and organs of the body. Cervical cancer is slow-growing, so its progression through precancerous changes provides opportunities for prevention, early detection, and treatment.
2091 people found this helpful

STD - Know Forms Of It!

DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Pune
STD - Know Forms Of It!
Sexually transmitted diseases can often be shortened to STDs. STDs often do not show any symptoms. It is possible that you may have had a disease such as chlamydia and not even known you had it. However, it is crucial that you get yourself tested as soon as possible so that the sexually transmitted disease can be treated in the best way possible. Since there are many sexually transmitted diseases and they all have different symptoms and treatment, here are the symptoms and treatment for the most common ones:


HPV stands for human pappilovirus and it may display no symptoms whatsoever that you have the disease. However, when you do get symptoms, you will get symptoms such as genital warts, infection of the throat and mouth as well as cervical cancer, penile cancer and various other cancers. The treatment for HPV is to take a vaccine; as if you have not been vaccinated, it is hard to cure.


Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease, however, only 25% of women and about 50% of men show any symptoms of it whatsoever. However, the most common symptoms when they do appear is a discharge from the vagina or penis which is not regular and it may even cause a painful or burning sensation. Since this is a bacterial disease, it can pretty easily be treated with antibiotics.


Gonorrhea is yet another common sexually transmitted disease. It usually occurs along with chlamydia. The symptoms and treatment for gonorrhea are also extremely similar to chlamydia.


Syphilis is another common sexually transmitted disease. However, it is a little hard to treat because the symptoms appear in stages. In the first stage, there is only one main bump on the body. This bump may look like a cut, a sore or even an ingrown hair. In the second stage, this bump becomes a rash which goes all over your body and it may develop sores in your mouth, vagina or anus. Symptoms usually completely disappear in the third stage. However, if there is a fourth stage then brain or organ damage may occur. Antibiotics are used to treat syphilis as well.
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Importance Of Regular Pap Smear Test!

MBBS, Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Importance Of Regular Pap Smear Test!
Regular pap tests i.e., tests that look for any signs of cervical cancer should be conducted regularly so that it can be detected at its initial stage and can be treated accordingly.
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Colposcopy - Know More About It!

MBBS, MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, Certification in IVF & Infertility, Fellowship in Advanced Laparoscopy
Gynaecologist, Mohali
Colposcopy - Know More About It!
The physical constitution of a woman s body is complex and must be subject to regular medical check-ups. The reproductive system in women is especially sensitive to many factors. Colposcopy is a surgical procedure that entails an examination of the vulva, vagina, and cervix by using a tool known as the colposcope. This process is performed if unusual results are detected in Pap smear test.

The Pap smear is a medical screening test that helps identify abnormal cervical cells. The doctor uses the bright light that emanates from the colposcope to see the cervix more clearly under optical magnification. In case irregular areas are spotted during the Pap smear test, a tissue sample is retrieved from the cervix and then sent for biopsy.

What is the purpose of colposcopy?
Colposcopy is performed if a woman starts bleeding profusely right after engaging in sexual intercourse. The medical procedure enables doctors to identify abnormal growth in the reproductive system of a woman; such growth may be visible in the vulva, vagina, or in the woman s cervix.

Cervical cancer can be identified with the help of a surgical procedure like colposcopy. The procedure can be used to locate ailments in the uterine cervix. These abnormalities may include genital warts or excessive inflammation of the cervix. The latter is known as cervicitis.

How is Colposcopy Performed?
The first step of the colposcopy procedure requires the patient to lie down with the feet placed in stirrups, similar to how a patient would have to lie down when undergoing any Pap smear test or a pelvic exam. A speculum is placed on the patient s vagina, and the colposcope shall be positioned some inches away from the vulva. The insertion of the speculum can generate some discomfort, but the pain does not last long.

The vagina and the cervix are swabbed with vinegar and cotton to clear any mucus and to highlight any abnormal cells. The colposcope does not physically touch the person. The doctor may proceed to take photographs of areas that might appear suspicious to him. He may also extract a tissue sample from the cervix and send this to a laboratory for biopsy.

The doctor applies a solution to the patient after the biopsy has been executed. This action helps to control the bleeding that may occur after the colposcopy. The solution is known as Monsel s Solution, and it generates a dark discharge following the procedure. The discharge may occur for a few days.

Colposcopy is an effective procedure that identifies abnormal growth in cervical cells. While there are no risks associated with this procedure as such, it is common for patients to experience bleeding and even fever for a few days after the surgery.
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Detailed Knowledge About Cervical Cancer & Its Treatment!

MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Fellowship in Gynae Oncology
Gynaecologist, Jaipur
Detailed Knowledge About Cervical Cancer & Its Treatment!
Cervical cancer is a form of cancer which occurs in the cervix or the lower part of the uterus in women, which opens up into the vagina. It's different from the other cancers that occur in other parts of the uterus and has a high rate of being cured if detected early.

Causes of Cervical Cancer: Cervical cancer is usually caused when abnormal cells present in the cervix, get out of control. Usually, major cases of cervical cancer are caused by a virus known as human papillomavirus or HPV. This virus gets transmitted from one person to another by sexual means or sexual contact. Abnormal changes in the cervix cells lead to cervical cancer. Usually, cell changes occur in the transformation zone in the cervix as the cells tend to change constantly, thereby leading to cancer.


Abnormal vaginal bleeding between menstrual phases, after menopause or after having sex.
Pain is experienced during sex.
Abnormal vaginal discharge is produced.
Abnormal changes in the menstrual cycle.
Anemia due to abnormal bleeding from the vagina.
Recurring pain in the pelvis, back or leg.
Several urinary problems due to the blockage of the uterus.
Urine or stool leakage into the vagina.
Loss of weight.
How it can be diagnosed?
A routine screening test should be undertaken to observe any abnormal cell changes in the cervix and also for the screening for cervical cancer. Taking regular Pap smear test is recommended to detect abnormal cell changes so that cervical cancer can be prevented before hand. Other diagnostic tests include Colposcopy and cervical biopsy to determine the presence of abnormal cells in the cervix, Endocervical biopsy and Cone biopsy.

Treatment options available:
Cervical cancer can be treated when detected at an early stage. The type of treatment depends on the stage and type of cervical cancer. The most common treatment methods are as follows:

Surgery can be undertaken for the removal of cancer. Several types of surgeries exist and the ideal one depends on the location and severity of cervical cancer.
Radiation therapy involves the use of high dosage X-rays and implants within the vaginal cavity. This kills the cancer cells and is used in some specific stages of cervical cancer. This therapy is often used alongside surgery.
Chemo-radiation is a combination of radiation therapy and chemotherapy. This procedure can be used at various stages of cervical cancer.
Chemotherapy involves using medicines for killing cancer cells. It is used in advanced stages of cervical cancer.
Pelvic cancer is caused by abnormal cell changes in the pelvis. It is a common kind of cancer and can cause negative effects on health. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for treating pelvic cancer.
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Pap Smear Test - When Is It Required?

MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Diploma in Advanced Gynaec Laparoscopic Surgery
Gynaecologist, Bangalore
Pap Smear Test - When Is It Required?
Regular preventive check ups are a must for being healthy and if you wait too long between check ups, it may become too late to detect a problem. Cervical cancer screening is especially important for women via a pap smear test, as it's the best way to detect cancer.

A Pap test is done to screen any changes in the cells of the cervix, including cervical cancer or conditions that may develop into cancer. Doctors recommend that Pap smear testing should begin at the age of 21 for women, and should be done every 3-5 years for women between the ages of 21 to 65 years.

For women between ages 30 - 65 years, the test can be done once in five years, if it is combined with testing for HPV. A doctor may recommend frequent Pap smear tests if a person is diagnosed with cervical cancer, HIV infection or a weak immune system caused due to organ transplant or chemotherapy.

When can you discontinue Pap smear Tests?
If you are sexually active, doctors may ask you to continue your Pap smear tests even after the age of 65. Women can discontinue Pap smear tests after getting a total hysterectomy. However, some women may still have to undergo the test if they have had the surgery for cervical or uterine cancers or if you are a high-risk patient with HIV or have a weakened immune system. In these cases, women will have to continue getting Pap smear tests. Even if you stop getting Pap smear tests, it's advisable to keep getting regular pelvic tests.

What symptoms to watch out for between Pap smear tests?

Pain is not an early warning sign of the disease, and not all people experience pain while suffering from cancer of the cervix. The symptoms to watch out for are abnormal bleeding in the cervix, which is one of the most common symptoms of cancer in the cervix. If you get bleeding between your regular menstrual periods and after sexual intercourse that it is another sign that you should get a Pap smear done to check for cancer in the cervix.
Abnormal vaginal discharge is another symptom of cancer of the cervix. You must get these symptoms checked from your doctor via a Pap smear test.
It is advisable to discuss with your doctor and decide how frequently you need to decide what's best for you based on different risk factors.
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Importance Of Regular PAP Smear Test!

MBBS, Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics
Gynaecologist, Ghaziabad
Regular pap tests i.e., Tests which look for any signs of cervical cancer should be conducted regularly so that it can be detected at its initial stage and can be treated accordingly.