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The most common form of leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis is generally identified as a parasitic disease caused by the bite of infected sand flies and is responsible for causing skin sores. These skin sores vary in size and appearance and are susceptible to changes over time. They have often been described as miniature volcanoes, having slightly elevated edges with a central crater, and at times covered by a scab. Occasionally, swollen glands can appear in and around the sores, and may or may not be painful.
Causes of cutaneous leishmaniasis include:
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be easily spread by the mere bite of certain types of phlebotomine sand flies. Initially, sand flies get infected when they bite an infected animal; say a rodent or a dog, or even another person already suffering from it. They then act as a vector agent and carry the virus around with them. If they happen to bite you, you will discover the growth of these volcanic skin sores gradually, if not immediately.
- Cutaneous leishmaniasis can also be spread via blood transfusions or through the use of contaminated needles.
- Occasionally, though very rarely, cutaneous leishmaniasis can also be spread from a pregnant mother to her newborn baby.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis can be treated in various ways. Some effective methods of treatment may include:
- Local heat therapy (most suitably at around 40 degrees celsius)
- Several topical paromomycin preparations
- Certain types of sodium preparations
- Antibiotic therapy
Thinning of hair and bald spots can be caused by a number of factors. Just as you can ‘erase’ wrinkles with cosmetic surgery, today, you can ‘fill’ bald spots with hair transplants. Hair transplants are a type of surgery which transplate hair follicles from one area to another. There are two types of hair transplant surgery; Follicular Unit Strip Surgery (FUSS) and Follicular Unit Extraction (FUE).
Follicular Unit Strip Surgery involves the removal of a 6-10” piece of skin from the back of your head. This is because the back of your head is genetically resistant to balding. This is then divided into thousands of tiny grafts each with a few strands of hair on them. For a Follicular Unit Extraction, the doctor will pluck individual hair follicles from the back of your head while you are under anesthesia. This can be done in a single session or multiple sessions depending on the amount of hair follicles needed and the surgeons’ experience. These are then prepared into grafts. The surgeon will then make holes or slits in the bald spot that is to be filled and carefully place one graft in each slit. Finally the scalp is bandaged. This process can take anywhere between 4-8 hours.
- Don’t worry, if you begin to see the transplanted hair fall out after 2-3 weeks. This is normal and will be followed by new growth in a few months. You may require a hair growing drug to improve hair growth rate after a hair transplant surgery. You should be able to see dense hair growth within 10-11 months.
- A hair transplant is not as painless as other forms of cosmetic surgery. Most patients require pain medication for several days after the surgery. Your scalp will feel very tender for the next few days and you may also require anti inflammatory drugs. However, you should be able to get back to work within a week.
- There are minimal risks associated with this procedure. In some cases, the patient may experience hair fall from the area where the transplant was taken. This is usually temporary and is known as ‘shock loss’. There may also be slight inflammation when the new hair follicles emerge. This can be effectively treated with antibiotics.
- A hair transplant surgery does not guarantee that your hair will stop falling. Hence, in some cases, you may need to undergo the procedure again to hide bald spots.
Sensitive skin can make life miserable. Factors, such as environmental and climatic changes, certain beauty products and medications can affect individuals with sensitive skin. There may be skin inflammation, irritation, rashes, redness, dryness and flakiness. The extent of the sensitive reaction can vary from one individual to another. In many cases, it has been observed that sensitive skin appears to be thinner than the normal skin. Thus, people with such delicate skin type need to be extra careful. Do not try self medication. It will make things worse. Always seek an expert advice. A dermatologist knows what is best for your skin.
People with sensitive skin need to follow some basic skin care regimes:
- It is very important to keep a sensitive skin hydrated and moisturised all the time. A dehydrated skin not only appears tighter, but also results in extreme skin dryness and irritation. Drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water daily. It is very important to flush out the toxins and maintain the alkaline skin pH. Avoid taking very hot water or ice baths. The extreme temperatures will do your skin more harm than good. A warm water bath is an excellent option. Apply generous amounts of moisturiser, whenever your skin feels dry and itchy.
- It is best to avoid products that are harsh on your skin. Consult a dermatologist before using products containing alpha hydroxyl acids. These are strong acids and their application can lead to skin irritation and rashes. It is a healthy practice to keep your skin clean. However, not all soaps are suitable for sensitive skin. Soaps (strong alkali) are a big no. It is best to use a medicated soap, specially formulated for sensitive skin. To cleanse your face, use a mild (soap free) face wash or a cleanser.
- For people with sensitive skin, it is best not to experiment with the skin care products. Play it safe, stick to the brands you have been using for long. Certain beauty products are strongly fragranced. These can trigger severe skin and allergic reactions. Lanolin, artificial mineral oil and alcohol containing products are no better. It is best to use natural and herbal skin care products.
- Do not use cosmetics and beauty products beyond a certain period of time. Face powders, silicone based foundations, sunscreen (titanium oxide or zinc oxide based) are best for sensitive skin. These products are known to be less harsh and thus have little or no side effects.
- Before using any products, know the ingredients and chemicals that goes into its manufacture.
The skin produces a natural oil known as sebum from the sebaceous glands. This acts as a protective layer and is passed out through the multiple, minute pores. With the teenage years seeing excessive hormones, excessive sebum is produced which clogs the pores, and the underlying sebum may not be released from the glands. In some cases, there could also be bacteria trapped in these acne. In severe cases, there can be extreme pain and pus formation. The acne can be quite large in size and may leave marks, which often take a long time to disappear.
Though acne affects any age group, it is most common in the teenage years and is attributed to the hormones called androgens. In women, there is also a hormonal correlation where acne is more common with menstrual cycles, pregnancy and polycystic ovaries – all conditions associated with increased hormone levels.
Before heading out for medical help, the following are some tips to manage acne.
Avoid touching it or picking it. Else it will result in a faster spreading of the infection to the surrounding areas.
Use ice cubes on the acne as they help reduce redness and swelling by lowering the blood supply.
Learn to keep calm as stress increases hormonal release and thereby acne.
Do regular exercises. A good workout routine helps by keeping your skin clean and the pores open. There is a more frequent clearing of sebum leading to reduced acne.
Maintain a healthy eating pattern. Avoid oily food items, which only add to the oiliness of the skin. Sugars again are proven to be harmful for acne.
Follow a proper sleep routine as it will relax your muscles and keep you calm.
Use mild detergents for washing pillow covers and towels, which are often used on the skin.
Frequent washing, regular moisturizing, and exfoliating should be a part of your skin care routine. Avoid heavy chemicals and adhere to one regimen with as many natural substances as possible.
Medications would be required in more severe cases, where there is infection along with pain.
Topical products would include creams, gels or lotions with retinoids like tretinoin, tazarotene and adapalene. In some cases, topical antibiotics like clindamycin or erythromycin combined with benzoyl peroxide are used. Light therapy, laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, chemical peels and steroid injections can be used to remove acne scars, which may be very concerning cosmetically.
Very severe cases may require a systemic antibiotic course with doxycycline and minocycline. Birth control pills may be used in some to regulate hormonal levels.
Despite all this, let nature take its own course, and in majority of the cases, acne runs its course and settles down with the passage of teenage years. Try the next level therapy only if absolutely required. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist.
Dermatitis Herpetiformis is a condition in which there are constant and painful eruption of rashes with subsequent itching. They mostly develop on the knees, scalps, buttocks and the back. This rash is indicative of your allergy to gluten. A strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is essential for people suffering from this disease.
The primary cause of dermatitis herpetiformis is celiac disease. Gluten is a protein, which is present in wheat and rye. People who have allergy to gluten are said to be suffering from Celiac disease. Dermatitis Herpetiformis, in turn, occurs in people who suffer from Celiac disease. An antibody called immunoglobulin, made to combat with gluten proteins reacts with gluten causing violent eruptions of rashes and subsequent bouts of itching.
There are various, perceptible symptoms of dermatitis herpetiformis. Some of them are:
1. Sensation of burning: Before visible rashes appear on the body, your skin may suffer from a constant sensation of burning. The area where it does take place is where the rashes erupt later on.
2. Outbreak of rash: One of the most common conditions symptomatic of dermatitis herpetiformis is an outbreak of rashes in the elbows, shoulders and scalp. These rashes are an extreme cause of discomfort as they itch continuously. If you notice rashes on these parts of the body that recover themselves only to erupt again later, chances are high that you are suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis.
3. Bumps: Along with rashes, another important symptom of dermatitis herpetiformis is the eruption of even sized bumps all over the body. They are filled with liquids, which have the ability to heal themselves, but they quickly re-appear, leaving behind a purple color mark on the body.
Though various treatments have developed to treat dermatitis herpetiformis, there are many medical complications that this disease entails. Some of them are:
1. Intestinal cancer: Celiac disease causes damage of the intestines. Therefore if you are suffering from it for a long time, the continuous inflammation of the intestine causes intestinal cancer.
2. Anemia: If you are suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis, the intestines refuse to absorb nutrients. If such a condition persists, chances are you may suffer from anemia and deficiencies of certain vitamins. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a dermatologist and ask a free question.
Warts refer to a type of a deformity in the skin, which refers to the formation of a small, hard, benign growth on the surface of the skin. It is generally caused by a viral infection and results in a feeling of discomfort or pain. Sometimes they might also have tiny black specks on them. Warts usually form on the hands, feet, face and genitals, although they may appear on other parts of the body in some cases.
What causes the formation of warts? Common warts are caused due to infection of the outermost layer of skin that occurs as a result of viral contamination. The virus that is responsible for this condition belongs to the human papillomavirus (HPV) family.This infection is highly contagious and easily spreads from one person to the next. It is most likely to occur on skin that is cut or damaged as that allows easy access for the virus to enter the skin system.
Following are the ways to treat warts:
- Laser treatment - Another form of wart removal is pulsed-dye laser treatment. An ablative co2 laser acts by cutting and burning the wart. In this type of treatment the affected blood vessels are burnt, leading to the death of the infected tissue, following which the wart too disappears. However, this method is not commonly used if other treatment methods tend to work as it is painful and may leave behind scars.
- Vaccine - Sometimes your dermatologist may recommend the use of human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine to successfully eliminate warts.
- Over-the-counter wart removers - Over-the-counter wart treatments containing salicylic acid (a type of fungicide) as an active ingredient are commonly used for effective removal of warts. These medications generally eliminate warts by removing the topmost layer of the skin, following the peel-off process.
- Immune therapy - When warts refuse to vanish after the use of all common treatments, this method is put into use. This type of treatment involves the use of medications or solutions, which strengthens your immune system so that it can repel warts. In this case your warts may be injected with an antigen or a solution or cream may be applied on them.
If you wish to discuss about any specific skin problem, you can consult a specilized dermatologist and ask a free question.
For a youthful glow, opt for foods high in omega 3's and fatty acids like flaxseeds, fish and nuts in daily diet.
The function of a moisturiser is to ensure that the outermost layer of your skin can hold water and prevent the skin from becoming dry and charred.
Read on to find about the correct type of moisturisers required for each skin type:
- Normal skin: Normal skin can be characterised by perfect natural oil balance and an even tone. For keeping your skin soft you need to keep this natural balance intact, which can be done by using a water-based product containing lightweight oils or ingredients derived from silicon. Additionally, ensure that your moisturiser gives your skin a light non-greasy feel.
- Dry skin: Dry skin becomes even drier during the winters and requires a heavier, oil-based moisturiser with hydrating ingredients to remain soft. Additionally, if your skin is too dry or cracked, using products containing mineral jellies like petroleum jelly will be beneficial. This is because these products are known to minimise evaporation of moisture from your skin.
- Sensitive skin: Sensitive skin is generally prone to skin irritations, itching, redness and rashes. If you have sensitive skin, then look for a moisturiser that contains ingredients known for generating a soothing effect like chamomile or aloe. Moreover, ensure that the product is free from potential allergens like fragrances or dyes and acids to prevent side effects such as skin irritation.
- Oily skin: Acne and breakouts mostly occur on the oily skin, so it will be best to choose a light, water-based moisturiser if you have this type of skin. Moreover, try to opt for a product that is non-comedogenic in nature, which will ensure that you do not get clogged pores due to the moisturiser.
- Combination skin: Combination skin is the toughest type of skin to maintain. People with this type of skin have an oily t-zone consisting of the nose, chin and forehead along with the cheeks having dry skin. To keep combination skin hydrated you need to use a heavy moisturiser on the cheeks and an oil-free water-based product on the T-zone.
Sir, I loose almost all hairs in the middle of my head leaving sides where they are very thin. Is there any medicine in any science which can grow my hairs other than hair transplant.
Hello doctor moles or warts on face pls tell any medicine to take care of this. And ye stop ho jaye nikalta.
Acne is a skin condition that leads to breakouts like pimples and other eruptions on the skin, including whiteheads and blackheads. In very severe conditions, an acne breakout may come with pus filled boils too. An acne breakout happens due to various reasons. Inflammation of an infected sebaceous gland leads to this breakout.
Skin repairs and rebuilds at night time while you rest, so it makes sense to follow good skin care routine before going to bed every night.
3 most effective bedtime skin care tips that rejuvenate your skin:
- Don't sleep with your phone: Your phone collects many bacteria and other microbes during daytime. Thus it is better to keep your phone away while sleeping to avoid any counter infections.
- Use clean pillowcase: Many pathogens and oil may reintroduce to your skin if you use unwashed pillowcase. Thus make it a habit to use a clean pillowcase, preferably made of silk fiber, which keeps you away from the risks of pimples and other skin infections.
- Cleanse and moisturize your skin: Your skin is exposed to kinds of pollutants, allergens, makeup during daytime. So cleanse your skin properly. Then apply vitamin E-based moisturizer to keep your skin hydrated.
Hi Doc, I am 27 Year old and my hair density decrease day by day. Please suggest me any solution to increase my hair density/volume.
Dear doctor. I am 23 year old .I have got too many pimples on my face and bcz of tht black spots are also there. And I hate my face. I have oily face. I have used almost all home remedies but no use of it. Kindly prescribe me any ointment or any creams which make my face clean .kindly prescribe.
I have problem of heat because of which pimples come again n again. Due to this acne n pores I do not understand what to do. Please give me a solution!
Here are a few questions which every new mother wants to know when they see a diaper rash:
1. Should the baby's diet be changed during a diaper rash?
Certain food items such as fruit juices can lead to diarrhea in babies. This can lead to a diaper rash. When new food is introduced or antibiotics are given, then that might also affect the digestion of the baby.
2. Are teething and diaper rash related?
As per dermatologists, the two have nothing in common though they might occur at the same time.
3. Which ointment should be used for a diaper rash?
Ointments that contain zinc oxide can provide relief from diaper rash. A thick layer should be applied on the skin to keep away irritants as if all of it is rubbed off then it might cause pain.
4. Can cloth diapers be an alternative?
The fact is that there is no proof that a cloth diaper might be better than the other diaper in case of a rash. In case, disposable diapers are used, then care should be taken to change them frequently as rashes can occur due to a moist environment. If the baby is allergic to a particular brand, then changing the same could prove to be helpful. Diapers induced with fragrances and dyes can cause allergic reactions. Babies who are allergic to disposable diapers, can do better with cloth ones, though they should be changed frequently. The rule is one diaper per hour, so the needful should be done.
5. What type of wipes are best for the baby in case of a sore bottom?
In case of a diaper rash a mild, fragrance free wipe should be used. Wipes which are labeled as hypoallergenic or for sensitive skin should be used. If the baby poops then he or she must be cleaned with a cloth and water and later some mineral oil should be applied to the baby's bottom.
6. What should be done if nappy rash extends to the other parts?
In case there are red spots and patches outside the nappy area, then the baby might be suffering from infection. If this happens then consult your doctor.
7. What should be done to give relief to the baby?
The best thing to do is that the baby's bottom should get some air. Leave the baby without a diaper, as this gives his skin a break from the rubbing, and germs which might be present in wet places like a diaper. Application of the cream with zinc oxide, provides relief to a baby.
8. How long does the rash last?
Maximum 3 days.