Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SID) refers to the unexplained and sudden death of a seemingly hale and hearty baby. This condition tends to occur when the baby is asleep and that's why it's also known as crib death. Although the reason for the condition is still not known, many experts have attributed the cause of the condition to abnormal development in the parts of the baby's brain that oversees breathing and awakening from sleep. Nonetheless, there are ways that can prevent the problem from occurring and which are:
- Always place your baby on the back to sleep - Sleeping on the back is the safest position that your baby should be in, whenever he or she sleeps. You shouldn't let your child sleep on the sides as he or she can roll onto the stomach, and may hamper the breathing process. You can place your baby on the stomach when he or she is awake.
- Place your baby on a firm surface to sleep sans of any objects - It's best to place your baby on a firm mattress to sleep while avoiding thick and feather padding like a thick comforter. At the same time, objects like toys, stuffed animals or pillows should be removed from the crib as they may get in the way of your child's breathing by pressing on his or her face.
- Make sure your baby doesn't become very hot - For keeping your baby warm during sleep, it's best to opt for sleep clothing or blanket made of light material so that it doesn't make him or her feel very hot. If using a blanket, it should be placed loosely over the baby and one should also remember to not cover the baby's head during sleep.
- Use a pacifier - Research suggests that the use of the pacifier can reduce a baby's chance of dying from SIDS. This is because the pacifier helps in preventing the baby from rolling over onto his or her stomach during sleep. At the same time, it's also believed that the instrument helps in keeping the baby's tongue positioned in a manner that keeps his or her airways open.
- Breastfeed your baby - Breastfeeding your baby for a minimum of 6 months can help in preventing the occurrence of SIDS. Several studies have revealed this beneficial aspect of breastfeeding.
As we all know that IVF stands for In vitro fertilisation. It is a method of stimulating the ovaries in a female body, to release an ovum (egg), which is taken out of the body and fertilised artificially in the laboratory with the help of a sperm. After this, the embryo is transferred back to the uterus where it grows and develops naturally.
Understanding the Procedure
- The doctor attempts to have complete control over your menstrual and ovulation cycles, so as to know the correct time of the month when you ovulate. This includes, charting basal body temperatures, hormonal therapy drugs etc.
- Frequent blood tests, ultrasound will be required to map the progress of ovulation.
- Injections, drugs will be prescribed in required dosage to stimulate the ovaries.
- During this time, the doctors will monitor the growth of oocytes (eggs).
- After a suitable growth of the oocytes follicles, the eggs are retrieved for artificial insemination. (Fertilisation with the use of sperm cells in the laboratory).
- After the successful fertilisation, the embryo is transferred back to the uterus.
Can IVF have side effects?
- As a side effect it has a major chance of multiple pregnancies. People intending to have just one child, may not be mentally or economically prepared to take the responsibility of more than one child.
- The drugs and medicines used throughout the IVF procedure may create hormonal complications in the long run. It bears a risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, if the mother has to go through the cycle multiple times.
But it offers a number of benefits too...
- IVF increases the chance of pregnancy by a large percentage. It is one of the most successful methods of boosting fertility and pregnancy.
- Couples, who have repeatedly failed to bear children naturally, can opt for this treatment to produce their own offspring.
- In case the couples are completely infertile, donor eggs or sperms may be used in the process. However, in that case, the offspring will not bear the DNA of both parents.
- IVF can greatly reduce the chance of surgery on the fallopian tubes.
- IVF also provides an opportunity to choose the healthiest embryos before implanting it back in the uterus. A procedure, known as the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, determines the presence of any abnormal genes or other chromosomal absurdity.
- The procedure of IVF has a very high success rate and with technological advancements in the field of medicine, it has also become much safer.
- IVF allows women, who go into premature menopause, to be able to bear a child. This treatment is mostly for women who decide to experience motherhood at a slightly older age.
- IVF allows same sex partners and single women to bear an offspring.
- It is extremely helpful for women who have their fallopian tubes damaged, blocked or surgically removed. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a Gynaecologist.
Premenstrual syndrome is a common condition that affects women who are menstruating. A multitude of psychological and physical symptoms might show up before the onset of a menstrual period. What causes PMS is unknown, but fluctuating hormonal levels (progesterone and oestrogen) seem to be linked to it.
PMS has many symptoms. These vary in severity and frequency and aren’t the same in every woman. These are the common symptoms of PMS:
1. Tenderness of breasts
3. Increase in weight
5. Impaired concentration
6. Backaches or headaches
10. Depression or mood swings
11. Overeating or food cravings
A doctor might recommend a few tests to understand and rule out related symptoms:
- Diary: Keeping track of the PMS symptoms in a diary for a few months to check the duration will help you understand the condition better. You might be able to see recurring patterns in your behaviour and moods after keeping track of them for few consecutive months.
- Thyroid test: Thyroid disease is fairly common in women and a lot of its symptoms match those of PMS. To rule out any thyroid problem, a test can be done to check the efficiency of the thyroid.
Relief can be found by treating the symptoms as there is no prevention of the condition. A nutritious diet, sufficient rest and exercise can help deal with the symptoms better.
- Nutrition: Proper nourishment leads to overall mental and physical well-being. Dietary changes like consuming less caffeine, sugar and salt might reduce the PMS symptoms. Supplements prescribed by your doctor such as vitamin E, calcium, magnesium and vitamin B6 help as well.
- Medications: Painkillers such as naproxen, ibuprofen and aspirin may provide relief from cramps, backache, breast tenderness and headache. If the PMS causes severe depression, your doctor may prescribe certain antidepressants.
- Being Informed: Tracking your periods by maintaining a monthly diary can help you understand and in turn prevent the severity of the PMS symptoms. Learning about coping mechanisms can help you as well. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Ovarian cancer occurs when there is a formation of tumor in the ovarian cells. This kind of cancer basically happens in the cells of the ovaries, which are responsible for the production of estrogen and progesterone the two female hormones. The ovaries themselves are the reproductive glands that produce and release eggs. When abnormal cells in these glands begin to grow and multiply, then a tumor begins to manifest, which leads to cancer. Let us find out more about ovarian cancer, including its early diagnosis.
Detecting Early Signs: The problem with this kind of cancer is that it produces vague symptoms in the beginning, which may be easy to dismiss. Yet, as per many medical reports, about 20% of the cases may be detected in the early stages, depending on the kind of cancer.
Symptoms and Early Signs: The earliest signs of this kind of cancer include bloating in the abdomen, as well as a feeling of excessive fullness after each and every meal. Many people tend to ignore such signs, but they must be reported to a doctor in case these signs are persistent and do not go away after a few days. Gradually, the patient will also show signs like lack of appetite and a failure to eat and retain food properly. An increase in the urge to urinate is also an early sign that must not be ignored.
Other Signs and Symptoms: As the cancer progresses, other signs and symptoms of the condition include indigestion, unexplained fatigue, irregular menstrual cycles, pain during sexual intercourse and back pain as well as constipation. While these symptoms may occur due to a number of reasons, it is best to have the same checked by a doctor so that proper diagnosis may take place and cancer may be ruled out.
Diagnosis: For the earliest signs of the disease, the doctor will prescribe an ultrasound and an X-ray. These tests will help in creating an image of the internal organs that may have been affected. Also, CT and MRI scans will usually follow in such cases. Routine lab tests will also be conducted with the help of blood and urine samples.
Pap Smear: One of the best ways of early diagnosis is with the help of a regular Pap Smear test. This test is usually taken by extracting a sample from the vaginal area so that the doctor may study any growth or anomalies in the cervical and ovarian cells. One must have this test done on a regular basis after going through child birth and even after reaching one’s thirties, so that any change may be detected at the earliest. It is said that every woman must go through this test annually as a matter of priority.
Vaginal issues are usually connected with anomalies when it comes to discharge and even hormonal imbalances. A lot of ladies experience irregular vaginal bleeding or spotting between periods at some point in their lives. However, the periods might at times be irregular. Sometimes the bleeding is irregular and can occur at any age. Abnormal vaginal bleeding outside your menstrual cycle is called metrorrhagia and should be reported to a doctor immediately. In case it is accompanied by light-headedness, extreme pain or fever, urgent medical intervention might be needed. The bleeding is said to be abnormal when you are suffering from:
- Unexpected periods
- When your menstrual flow is lighter or heavier than usual
- When it is not expected like before age 9, when you are pregnant, or after menopause
Causes: Some of the most common causes for this abnormal bleeding could be:
- A growth in the uterus or cervix
- Medication change
- Premature delivery
- Vaginal dryness
- Hormone imbalance
- Polycystic ovary disorder (PCOS) , a hormonal imbalance.
- Contraceptive pills
- Possible pregnancy
Medical Help: Since abnormal bleeding could be a cause for concern, one must consult a doctor. Neglecting to see a specialist can worsen the problem. There is no home treatment for unusual vaginal bleeding. The treatment might depend on a number of factors. It includes the cause of bleeding, your age and whether you have children. Most of the women can be easily treated with medication while some of them might need surgical attention. With a few types of vaginal bleeding, it might be all right to hold up to check whether the draining stops or not. Check your symptoms to choose if you need to see a specialist.
Medication: Medicines for treatment of abnormal vaginal bleeding depend upon the cause. Some of the treatments are as follows:
- In case the reason for the bleeding is absence of ovulation (anovulation), specialists may prescribe progesterone.
- In the event that the reason for the bleeding is a precancerous or change in the coating of the uterus, progesterone medicines are prescribed.
- In case the reason is polyps or other kinds of growth, they are then removed surgically.
- In these cases, oral contraceptives can enhance cycle control and diminish dying.
- If the bleeding is excessive and cannot be controlled by any medicines, a surgical called dilation and curettage (D&C) might be vital.
- A hysterectomy is required when hormonal drugs can't control excessive bleeding.
A patient needs to make sure that only a professional should prescribe the medicines. One should not take over-the-counter medicines.
Miscarriage is a spontaneous abortion that occurs around the first to second trimester of pregnancy; wherein the foetus is automatically expelled from the uterus due to its inability to survive because of environmental influences or chromosomal abnormalities.
Unless the miscarriage occurs due to a severe health issue, the fertility of the woman may not necessarily be compromised. Studies show that one miscarriage doesn’t predict the possibility of a future one. Once the bleeding and pain subside, it is the emotional trauma that must be addressed to begin with which poses a greater threat than the physical one.
The fertility of the woman remains unaltered and the body can be ready after the menstrual cycle returns to normal. However, it still requires some time for the woman to be physically and emotionally prepared to go through another pregnancy. The medical history and reasons behind miscarriage must be evaluated before the couple decides to try again.
Complications after miscarriage only occur if the woman is above 35 years of age or has a rather unhealthy lifestyle. The concept of fertility varies from person to person and it isn’t possible to pass a common judgement about fertility in this scenario.
The gynaecologist mostly suggests couple therapy after the trauma of the miscarriage. The psychological loss is given more importance before considering another attempt by most doctors. The fertility loss only occurs with age and unhealthy lifestyle and it is widely accepted and proven that a miscarriage has little or nothing to do with it.
Ways to Increase Fertility
If a couple is certain they are ready to conceive again, there are a few things a woman can do to help her chances of becoming pregnant-
- The first thing to do is to stop any unhealthy habits. These include smoking, drug use, or alcohol abuse. It’s reported that high consumption levels of caffeine are detrimental to conception so that should also be limited.
- Eliminating stress can also help. Eliminating stress is one of the most important factors in having a successful pregnancy. So, it makes sense that getting over-stressed can reduce fertility levels.
- Eat healthy. If depression was experienced due to the miscarriage, it’s possible that the woman’s diet has not been the healthiest. It’s common for women who have experienced a miscarriage to have a loss of appetite and not eat enough or to eat out of sorrow, eating too much. More attention should be paid to the diet and more healthy foods added to meals.
Talk to a Doctor
If a couple is having issues with fertility after early miscarriage, they should talk to a doctor. There are many options available. More than likely, the first thing the doctor will do is to test fertility levels of both the man and the woman. If you don't want to visit a doctor for this, there is a new at-home kit available called Fertell. This test, retailing for approximately $100, measures fertility levels for both a man and a woman.
If it is found that there is a loss of fertility after early miscarriage, fertility drugs or therapies may be prescribed for a period of time.
The doctor may report that there are no issues with fertility. At this point, it would be a good idea to use an ovulation predictor in order to time effective intercourse. This isn't the most romantic idea, but it may well be one of the most logical ways for a couple to conceive.
Fertility is not normally decreased after miscarriage. A woman's fertility levels return to normal as soon as her menstrual cycle returns. Fertility may be decreased due to emotional issues as a result of the miscarriage. However, if a couple is ready, both physically and emotionally, there should be no physiological hindrances to conception.
The decision to try again is not an easy one. However, fertility won't typically be an issue.
Mirena is a contraception that can be inserted into the uterus for long term use. This insertion is done with a proper clinical procedure. The Mirena is a device that may be classified as a hormonal Intrauterine device (IUD). This device releases a kind of progestin, which prevents the sperm from travelling to the egg to fertilise it. This hormone basically makes the cervical mucus thick and makes the uterine lining thin, so that ovulation gets suppressed.
Let us get to know more about the procedure and the results of Mirena Insertion.
Reasons: There are a variety of reasons why women use this kind of long term contraception. After insertion, one does not need to have any interruptions in the act of sex in order to look for and use contraception. It also reduces the risk of developing pelvic inflammatory disease. This kind of disease is usually caused by STDs or sexually transmitted diseases. This kind of device can also help in bringing down the pain experienced during menstrual cycles. It also reduces the risk of falling prey to endometrial cancer as well as cervical cancer.
Eligibility: You are not an eligible candidate for this kind of procedure if you have suffered from breast cancer, cervical cancer or liver disease. Also, if you suffer from diabetes or other cardiovascular diseases, then it is not safe to go through this procedure.
Procedure: The procedure will be carried out at the doctor’s clinic. The gynaecologist will insert a speculum into your vagina. Then, the doctor will continue to clean the area including the cervix with the help of an antiseptic solution. Thereafter, a special instrument will be used in order to align the uterine cavity with the cervical canal. During this process, the doctor will also measure the depth of the patient’s uterine cavity. The device will then be folded and placed within an applicator tube, which will be inserted into the cervical canal. Then, the applicator tube will be removed. After this, the device will remain in place.
Result: Once the device has been inserted, it will be effective for a period of at least five years. Every month, you will need to get the strings of the device checked so that they are not protruding from the cervix. You may experience side effects like pain during sex as well as others like headaches and persistent migraines. These must be reported to the doctor so that the doctor may deal with any complications.
Removal: If there are any kinds of complications and risks that may develop after the procedure, the doctor can remove this device. This can be done with the help of forceps. The device can also be removed and replaced after five years.
Uterine fibroids are abnormal growth that manifests in the uterus of the woman. Hormones and a family history of the same are the usual causes listed for such a growth. As per many medical reports, about 70 to 80% women over the age of 50 years, experience such growths. The most common symptoms of the condition include heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle or even at other times of the month, as well as severe pain in the abdomen.
Read on to know eight facts about these fibroids.
- These fibroids may be caused by a family history of the same and is usually passed down by the mother. The other causes include excessive hormonal imbalance and changes as well as pregnancy and obesity.
- Heavy urination is one of the most common symptoms of this condition, as the fibroids may press against the uterus and cause pressure in the area. Also, for those who have not reached menopause yet, this condition may also cause heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding.
- A Pelvic MRI scan is one of the most common ways of diagnosing the condition with the creation of images that will show any anomalies and growth in the uterus, ovaries and cervix.
- Medication may be used in order to control and regulate the levels of hormone production and release. This can affect the fibroids by making them shrink eventually.
- All fibroids do not point at the progression of cancer. If you have uterine fibroids, it does not mean that you have to have cancer. The symptoms may be similar and the condition is usually called uterine sarcoma. Usually, the diagnosis can only be done with the help of a sugary which will remove the growth and then study the same in the lab to find whether or not it is malignant. This process is known as a biopsy.
- They are the most common reason behind undergoing a hysterectomy. Many women, the world over, have to go through a hysterectomy, which removes the uterus and even the ovaries in some cases. This usually happens when the uterine fibroids become too huge to handle and may give rise to a variety of risks and complications.
- Pregnancy may become a difficulty if you happen to have uterine fibroids. While it is still possible to become pregnant and conceive naturally, many women face problems in doing so easily because these fibroids cause changes in the uterus when it comes to the shape and size of the same.
- Many women do not experience any symptoms of the condition at all. In such cases, no treatment will be required. Yet, even in these cases, the doctor will recommend regular clinical check ups and observation in order to ensure that there are no complications. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
HPV or human papillomavirus is a strain of viral infection that is usually passed through skin to skin contact. There are many varieties of HPV although the main focus is one the ones, which are usually transmitted through sexual contact. Most sexually active people are infected by this disease although very few develop the full fledged symptoms.
Symptoms of HPV: Primary symptoms of HPV are the growth of warts on your body in various stages or in various areas. Some of them are:
- Typical common warts: The easiest way to spot an HPV infection is the development of common warts on any parts of the body. They could appear on elbows, hands, feet and fingers. These look like bumps on the skin and although they aren't usually are painful and itchy, but are unsightly.
- Flat warts: Flat warts tend to be small smooth bumps, which are slightly raised skin lesions on the body which can be a little darker in colour. Men usually get this in the beard and face area while women tend to get this on their legs.
- Plantar warts: These warts usually grow on the heels or the balls of the feet and are hard grainy growths. These can be painful and even cause discomfort while walking.
- Genital warts: This is one of the most obvious and most common symptoms of HPV, especially in the variety, which is transmitted through sexual contact. These usually look like small bumps or protrusions on the skin and can be of different shapes. Women can have this on the vulva, vagina or even cervix and men can have this on the penis, scrotum, and adjacent areas. Both men and women can have this on their anus as well.
Causes of HPV: The primary cause of HPV infection is the intrusion of the virus in your skin through small cuts or abrasions on your skin. Skin to skin contact with an infected person will transfer this. However, genital warts are usually transferred from skin to during sexual contact. Even oral sex can transmit HPV and cause lesions in the upper respiratory tract and cause breathing problems as well. Most warts can also be transferred with the contact or touching the wart directly and thus should be avoided.
While pregnancy is not a pathological condition, it is a happy time that can be marred by various conditions. Debilitating morning or all day sickness, which is usually characterised by nausea, reflux in the Gastroesophageal band, heartburn and acidity. This can also turn into vomiting and lead to complications if it does not stop. Persistent, almost daily vomiting can be termed as excessive vomiting in pregnancy, and this is known as Hyperemesis Gravidarum in medical terms. Let us find out more about this condition.
- Routine: Hyperemesis Gravidarum usually strikes as a matter of routine at a set time everyday where the patient will either be in unappetising company of acute and painful acidity and nausea, or will also be vomiting.
- Severity: The severity of the condition usually decreases as the patient's pregnancy progresses. Usually, this condition strikes around the fourth or fifth week of pregnancy, before becoming better towards the middle of the second trimester. There are cases, though, where it continues to be just as severe till the very end of the pregnancy.
- When to take action: The patient may have to be hospitalised in case too much vomiting takes place, so as to prevent excess loss of water and salt from the body, and resultant weakness which may affect the growth of the foetus. Also, it is best to call the doctor when you have experienced fainting and dizzy spells.
- Causes: Hyperemesis Gravidarum or excessive vomiting during pregnancy cannot be attributed to any specific or single cause. Usually, it is known to be a genetic condition passed down by mothers to their daughters. But in most cases, doctors believe that the condition is due to hormonal changes, where an increase in the HCG hormone, or Human Chorionic Gonadotropin hormone level during pregnancy may lead to a variety of symptoms such as morning sickness or excessive vomiting. This hormone is known to be at its peak during pregnancy.
- Risk Factors: It has mostly been seen that women who are carrying twins are at risk of suffering from this condition. Also, women who have suffered from chronic motion sickness in the past report excessive vomiting during pregnancy.
- Treatment: The best way to treat this issue is to prevent too much of nausea and vomiting with the help of a bland diet that does not have heavy to digest ingredients. Also, it is best to take small and frequent meals.
Working your way around excessive vomiting during pregnancy is a matter of ensuring that you take rest, fluids and other precautions.
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