My name is Dr Vandana Singh, I am a gynaecologist practising at the women clinic at sector- 30, Noida and my field of choice are high-risk pregnancy and infertility.Today, I want to talk about cervical cancer which is the most common cancer in India in women.
Cervical cancer is the cancer of the lowermost part of the uterus called cervix. This virus is caused by a virus called the human papillomavirus. This virus comes around in 90-100 days but in that 4 types of human papillomavirus can cause infection and then cause cervical cancer in the future. Some women get infected with this virus in their early reproductive stage and in 5-10 % cases this HPV virus infection catch cord can cause cervical cancer in future. There is a vaccine which is available nowadays for last 10 to 15 years and the awareness for this vaccine is very less in our country. I want to create awareness for this cervical cancer vaccination. This cervical cancer vaccination is for females around 9-14 years, but we can give up to 45 years.
Cervarix is all against human papilloma virus and we give this vaccine in three doses, 0, then one month, then 6 months.
The Gardasil is also available against the human papilloma virus and the doses of this vaccine are at 0 doses, then 2 months, then 6 months. Gardasil can be given to male also to prevent the ward infection in males. This vaccine can be given at the age of 9 years, but according to the WHO recommendation we should give it to people at 10 to 14 years and the doses are different according to the age group.
If you want further information about the vaccination and the benefit of the vaccination and who can get this vaccination, you can call me at my number and can definitely book an appointment from the lybrate.com.
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Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
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Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
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Nutrition For Pregnant Women
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A urinary tract infection or UTI can be quite painful and uncomfortable. This infection can be described as an infection that affects the ureter, urethra, bladder or kidneys. Women have a shorter urethra than men which makes this more vulnerable to this kind of infection.
It is said that most women suffer from at least one bout of this infection in a lifetime. Urinary tract infections are caused by bacteria and may often recur after treatment. However, in most cases, this can easily be prevented. Here are a few tips to help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections.
- Drink plenty of fluids: Ideally, we should drink 8-10 glasses of water a day at regular intervals. This keeps the body hydrated and flushes toxins and bacteria from the body. Water also prevents the formation of kidney stones that could increase your risk of suffering from a urinary tract infection.
- Urinate frequently: If you drink the required amount of water, you will typically need to urinate frequently. Do not try to control your bladder. Holding your urine in your bladder allows bacteria to multiply inside the bladder. This is an easy way for a UTI to begin.
- Follow healthy bathroom habits: Cleanliness is the first step to preventing any infection. When using public restrooms, flush the toilet before and after urinating. In the case of women, it becomes important to ensure that the seat of the toilet is clean as well. After urinating wipe the residual urine with toilet paper in a motion that goes from front to back. Since the urethra is situated very close to the rectum, this step is very important. For uncircumcised men, it is important to wash the foreskin after urination.
- Wear loose clothes: Tight fitting clothes trap moisture and aid in the multiplication of bacteria. Hence, always wear loose fitting clothes that keep the area around the urethra dry. Also, avoid synthetic underwear and only wear cotton underwear.
- Urinate after intercourse: The relative closeness of the vagina to the urethra makes it easy for bacteria to enter the urethra during intercourse. Hence, make it a habit of washing your pubic region after intercourse and urinating. This helps flush out any possible bacteria that may have entered your body.
- Choose the correct method of birth control: Certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents can promote a urinary tract infection. Hence, it is best to avoid these types of birth control and pick alternatives.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
Excessive bleeding during menstruation is the bane of countless women’s lives worldwide. Your doctor will classify your periods as heavy if you bleed enough to soak a pad every hour for several consecutive hours.
Passing large clots during menstruation and a period that lasts over seven days also are counted as excessive menstrual bleeding. Apart from messing up with daily activities, heavy bleeding or menorrhagia can also lead to anaemia which in turn causes shortness of breath and fatigue.
Hormonal imbalance is a big cause. If you are a teenager, you can easily have an imbalance in oestrogen and progesterone leading to heavy periods. This imbalance also easily presents in menopausal women.
- Hormonal imbalance can also be seen if there is a problem in ovarian function.
- Fibroids are another cause of heavy bleeding. Non-cancerous tumours of the uterus are another cause. Fibroids mostly occur during childbearing years.
- Miscarriages or ectopic pregnancies that occur in fallopian tubes are another cause of heavy bleeding.
- Use of medicines that thin blood in people with heart problems
- Intrauterine devices or IUDs used for birth control can also cause heavy bleeding.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease, PID, which is an infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and other organs of the reproductive system, can cause heavy bleeding.
- Cervical, uterine and ovarian cancers can also cause this symptom.
- Low platelet counts that can prevent normal blood clotting due to liver, kidney, or thyroid disease.
The doctor will examine you and determine the cause of the heavy bleeding. And depending on the cause, treatment will be carried out. There are a few medicines that are prescribed for menorrhagia like:
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like Ibuprofen to cut down on blood loss and minimise the pain
- Hormone therapy can be done for stabilising hormones as well as the lining of the uterus and regulate the menstrual cycle
- Inserted IUD can also be removed in case the bleeding is too excessive
Surgery can also be considered depending on your case history. One of the following surgical procedures is usually recommended
- Dilation and curettage - D&C involves dilating the cervix or the entrance of the uterus and cleaning the lining of the uterus.
- Hysteroscopy - A long, thin scope is inserted into the uterus through the vagina and the doctor is able to see and simultaneously remove uterine masses that may be causing heavy bleeding.
- Hysterectomy - If all else fails, the uterus is removed. This puts a stop to a woman’s chances of having a baby ever.
Heavy bleeding should not be ignored as it puts you at risk of iron-deficiency anaemia which can affect your whole body.
Are you aware of cervical cancer, which develops in the cervix of a woman? The cervix is the entrance to the womb from the vagina, and unusual vaginal bleeding accounts for being the primary symptom of this condition. Although abnormal vaginal bleeding may indicate several other conditions, you should get diagnosed for cervical cancer.
The various symptoms of cervical cancer are as follows:
- Abnormal and unusual bleeding from the vagina between periods, after having sex, and after menopause in women
- Pain in the pelvis or lower abdomen
- Pain while having sex
- Abnormal vaginal discharge
- Over several years, cells lining the cervix go through various changes. In some rare cases, these cells, which are precancerous, may turn out to be cancerous. These cell changes in the cervix can be detected early, and proper treatment is capable of reducing the development of cervical cancer.
- A screening for cervical cancer should be carried out for diagnosing this condition. Cervical screening, or smear test involves the study of sample cells taken from the cervix. The sample cells are observed under a microscope for detecting cervical cancer or other abnormalities. An abnormal cervical screening does not always indicate cervical cancer, as abnormal results can occur because of an infection or because of the presence of precancerous cells that are treatable.
- Screening should be undertaken by women of all ages. It is recommended for women between the ages of 25 to 49 to undergo this cervical cancer screening once in every three years. For women between the age of 50 to 64, screening should be carried out once in five years. For women above the age of 65, screening is recommended for the ones who did not have a screening since the age of 50 and for the ones who had abnormal test results in the past.
- Cervical cancer can be successfully treated by a surgical procedure, if it is diagnosed at an initial stage. In some cases, the womb can be left in place, while it may be removed in some other cases. The surgical procedure used for removing the womb is known as hysterectomy.
- Radiotherapy is an alternative surgical procedure that is undertaken by women with cervical cancer, at an early stage. In more serious cases, a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is used for the treatment of cervical cancer. Although quite effective, some treatment procedures for cervical cancer are associated with side effects such as infertility and early menopause.
In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!
I am 25 year old my wife is pregnant From 6 month she has scratches mark on their stomach please suggestion me to avoid scratches.
Good night sir/mam I am 26 years newly married from 5 months only. But since last 40 days feeds are coming out of my breasts. Whether I am not pregnant. What can be the reason. And how can be it resolve. Is it a serious problem or something else.
Pregnancy is one of the most wonderful, but exhausting times of a woman's life. There are quite a few precautions you need to take and quite a few factors you need to consider before doing anything. Take for example, working during pregnancy. Working while you're pregnant can be challenging, but if you keep these do's and don'ts in mind, it can become an easy task.
Do: Get Adequate Rest
The first few weeks of pregnancy can take a toll on your body. If your sleep schedule is off, you need to fix it and sleep for the usual 8-9 hours a day. If you undertake a lot of physically strenuous work or even if have a desk job, you need to take a break as it can get very taxing for you. To avoid work-related exhaustion and stress, take frequent breaks to give your body the rest it requires. Speak to a doctor or trainer for simple stretches that will help you alleviate stress on your joints and keep you muscles relaxed.
Do: Be Smart About Your Work
Jobs that require heavy lifting must be avoided at all costs as they can give rise to severe complications during pregnancy. When you're pregnant, you should also avoid work that regularly exposes you to radiation, harmful chemicals, lead and X-rays. Ask your supervisor to shift the sort of work you are doing as often it's illegal to continue working in conditions that actively harm your pregnancy.
Do: Take Multivitamins and Necessary Supplements
Work often doesn't leave you with enough time to take good care of yourself. You may end up skipping meals due to a hectic work schedule, which can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies. To keep the worst effects of this kind of a lifestyle at bay, make sure to take your multivitamins and supplements religiously and regularly.
Do: Be Super Hygienic
It is extremely important to maintain high standards of personal hygiene and sanitation during your pregnancy. This becomes even more important if you work in an environment that exposes you to infectious diseases, raw meats and children. Keep a hand sanitizer with you at all times, and make sure you don't ingest anything that has come into contact with contagions.
Don't: Go for Long Stretches Without Eating
Keeping your stomach empty during pregnancy can have a lot of unwanted effects ranging from bloating, acidity and gas to nausea and vomiting. Have a light breakfast and keep snacking on small portions of nutritious food throughout the day. Also, ensure that you maintain optimum fluid intake. The regular 8-10 glasses of water a day is a must.
Don't: Be Stressed
Stress during pregnancy can have damaging effects on you and your baby's health, severely affecting the physical and mental development of your unborn child. Avoid taking on extra work for the duration of your pregnancy. Lighten your workload as much as you can and make sure to take meditation and baby-safe yoga classes to keep your stress in check.
As long as you take these simple precautions, you can continue to work throughout your pregnancy. So, remember to follow these guidelines to ensure a safe and healthy experience for both you and your baby.
Menstrual disorders are caused by a variety of factors and affect every woman in a different manner. In most cases, it manifests itself in the form of fluctuations in menstrual flow and irregularity in the monthly cycle. Certain disorders are not too severe and can be easily alleviated. Others are more complicated and require the immediate attention of a gynecologist.
As mentioned, there are different specific causes of different kinds of disorders resulting from a range of factors such as hormone levels, functioning of the central nervous system, health of the uterus, etc.
Some of the most common causes of menstrual disorders are as follows:
- Hormonal imbalance: Fluctuating hormone levels in the body have a direct impact on the menstrual cycle. These fluctuations can be caused by dysfunction in the pituitary gland, thyroid gland or adrenal gland. It can also be a result of malfunction in either or both ovaries and the secretion of hormones originating there.
- Anatomic problems: One fourth menstrual disorders are caused by problems of the anatomy. These include various gynecological issues like the presence of uterine fibroids and polyps, reduced uterine contractile strength, adenomyosis (intrusion of uterine tissue into the muscular wall of the uterus), a uterus with an excessively large surface area, and endometrial cancer.
- Clotting irregularities: Abnormality in clotting is a cause of heavy menstrual bleeding in women. It leads to exceeding blood loss from minor cuts and gashes and makes one easily prone to bruising. This may also include medical conditions such as thrombocytopenia (platelet dysfunction) and Von Willebrand disease.
- Medications and supplements: There is a wide range of medications and nutritional or hormonal supplements which often cause menstrual disorders in women and lead to fluctuations in the menstrual cycle. These include medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen, estrogen pills, Vitamin E supplements etc.
- Miscellaneous factors: These are comparatively rare and require a greater degree of medical attention. It includes conditions such as cervical cancer, ovarian tumors, liver and kidney diseases, uterine infections, extreme psychological stress, obesity, etc. Incidents such as miscarriages and unsuspected pregnancies are also known to cause abnormal menstrual bleeding.
Related Tip: " All You Need To Know About Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder"