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Hysterectomy - Treatment, Procedure And Side Effects

What is the treatment? How is the treatment done? Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?) Who is not eligible for the treatment? Are there any side effects? What are the post-treatment guidelines? How long does it take to recover? What is the price of the treatment in India? Are the results of the treatment permanent? What are the alternatives to the treatment?

What is the treatment?

The word 'Hysterectomy' is derived from its Greek root 'Hysteria' which means the womb and 'Ektomia' implying to cut out of. A Hysterectomy surgery concerns the surgical removal of a woman's uterus. It can also mean the surgical removal of the uterus, ovaries and the cervix. So technically, a Hysterectomy surgery means that the woman can never be a biological mother again.

This type of a surgery, which is one of the most common gynaecological procedures performed, does become important in certain scenarios. It can either be a total (removal of the uterus along with the cervix) or a partial (removal of the uterus but not the cervix).

A Hysterectomy surgery can be carried out for the following reasons: uterine fibroids (the common non-cancerous growths on the uterus muscles), uterine prolapse (a benign condition wherein the uterus drops into the vagina from its usual spot), endometriosis (a condition characterized by the growth of the uterus lining tissues outside the uterus), cancer and hyperplasia ( thickening of the uterus lining resulting in bleeding).

Other reasons include pelvic pain that is chronic, chronic PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) and heavy, persistent bleeding.

How is the treatment done?

A Hysterectomy Surgery usually takes about two hours at the maximum. General anesthesia is administered after which, an IV catheter will be inserted to supply medications and other fluids.

The process of hysterectomy depends on the type of the surgery. In the case of abdominal hysterectomy, first, an incision (either transverse or vertical) of about 7 inches is made in the lower abdomen. The supportive tissues and the blood vessels around the uterus are excised and then the uterus is taken out through the incision. Finally, the incision is closed. A major advantage of this type is that hysterectomy can be performed even if there is scarring or presence of large fibroids. In the case of vaginal hysterectomy, an incision is made around the top of the woman's vagina. After the ligaments, fallopian tubes and the blood vessels are cut off, the uterus is taken out through the vagina. The advantage here is that scarring is minimal with almost no operative pain. The patient can resume normal activities within a month. However, the chances of complications are more in the case of a vaginal hysterectomy. In the case of Laparoscopically assisted vaginal Hysterectomy, the same procedure is followed with a laparoscope assisting the doctor.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The Hysterectomy surgery is opted for only if other methods haven't been able to provide results. The most common eligibility criteria include:

  • Heavy periods: Often caused by the presence of fibroids, heavy periods can pose other problems such as menstrual cramps, irritability and nausea.
  • Uterine prolapse: This is characterized by the uterus dropping into the vagina as a result of the weakening of the supportive ligaments and tissues.
  • Pelvic pain: This can be because of endometriosis, adenomyosis, incomplete treatment of PIDs and/or fibroids.
  • Cervical or ovarian cancer

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

There are no non-eligibility criteria as such, however:

  • The woman should talk it out with the doctor regarding her sex life post hysterectomy as a woman's libido could take a beating and also suffer from sexual dysfunction.
  • Also, if the woman is running a temperature, the surgery should not be carried out.

Are there any side effects?

The possible side effects include:

  • Damage to the surrounding organs
  • Problems related to anesthesia, such as heart or breathing problems
  • Formation of blood clots in the lungs or legs
  • Heavy bleeding
  • Infections
  • Premature menopause in case the ovaries have been removed as well
  • Pain during engaging in sexual intercourse

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

The basic post-operative guidelines are:

  • The woman should avoid lifting any heavy weight post surgery.
  • The woman must also avoid bathing in tubs for a period of about 5-6 weeks post surgery.

How long does it take to recover?

For an abdominal hysterectomy, complete recovery can take about a month to 8 weeks. However, for vaginal/laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomies, the downtime is much shorter; about 1-2 weeks.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The price of hysterectomy in India will range between Rs.1,82,000 to Rs.2,40,000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Yes, a Hysterectomy surgery offers a permanent solution to the treatment of fibroids.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

Some of the alternatives to Hysterectomy include embolization, endometrial ablation, and myomectomy.

Popular Questions & Answers

Respected Madam I am 70. Although you are very busy. Will you kindly help me with your suggestions My Sister, Patient Age -46, Suffering from Endometriosis along with Suspected Adenomyosis (?) ,ALTHOUGH AS PER USG REPORT NO ABNORMALITY IN UTERUS 1) Patient now Asymptomatic, Presently /Practically not much of a Problem 2) Tablet Endosis was taken for 6 months. 3) Two doctors have advised Hysterectomy, One doctor not agreeing. 4) .As there is not much of a problem now, if left in this condition whether the disease can worsen and lead to bigger problem 5) Hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy is the last line of treatment for endometriosis. The treatment usually depends upon the severity of the symptoms. If patient is asymptomatic then whether OPERATION is required 6) Once she attains menopause gradually whether the disease will become dormant because of lack of hormones 7) Whether Moderate Endometriosis can be treated with medication at this age 8) What is this Adenomyosis, Is it a tumour (?). As per my knowledge in Adenomyosis tissues/growth are inside the uterus and in endometriosis it is outside of the uterus 8) Whether Hysterectomy is a permanent cure for Endometriosis. 10) But Cyst size has Increased as seen from last USG report compared with last but one report? Comparison of Last Two USG Reports LAST REPORT LAST BUT ONE REPORT endometrial Thickness 8.3 mm 7.1 mm Right Ovary Normal 22X16 Normal Left Ovary Greater than 35X25 (45 X) Greater than 35X25 Left Ovary Contains Chocolate Cysts Cyst Size 28X24 23X23 As Hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy will have forced Menopause it may have side effects like hot flushes etc Any medication that can be taken now to remove slight uneasiness in abdomen With thanks and regards.

At46 with increasing cyst size and symptoms hysterectomy is a final solution howvever conservative mgt with dinoegest maybe tried for relief and that pt is perimenopausal.

I had hysterectomy in 2011 now often I feel very hot flushes in my face neck and back. I took estrogens medicine for one month. But after few days it starts again. How can I get relief with or without medicine.

You are having menopausal symptoms ,which are due to decreased level of oestrogen in menopause. Before starting oestrogen replacement therapy you have to undergo a few tests like lipid profile, coagulation profile, mammography and ECG. If these te...
1 person found this helpful

Hi I'm from South Africa. I need to have a hysterectomy done .What are cost of hospital fees, Dr. and anesthetic ,theatre fees etc awaiting your response kind regards Mariam Patel.

Hi Mariam, cost of hysterectomy depends upon the method of surgery. I suggest you to consult me privately to share relevant information.
1 person found this helpful

I have been advised hysterectomy and a correction of prolapsed bladder. Please tell me what is the procedure likely to be (will a mesh be used, stitches etc) and how many days I will have to spend in the hospital.

Its the cystocele repair with or without mesh with hardly 2 to 3 stiches under anasthesia. Hospital stay will be maximum 72 hours if everything goes uneventfull.
2 people found this helpful

I had total abdominal hysterectomy without ovaries 10 months ago till then I have brown discharge after every 28 days my pelvic scan is normal doctor found no point from where I bleed I am very dèepresed.

Hello, There could be vaginal abrasions which can cause bleeding or possibly during ovulation as your ovaries are intact or you may have vaginal vault healing which can often show darkish brown clotted blood discharge for 2-3 months.
2 people found this helpful

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Content Details
Written By
MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery,Diploma In Gynaecology & Obstetrics,DGO,DNB - Obstetrics & Gynecology
Gynaecology
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