Colic is also referred to as abdominal pain in continuously crying infants below the age of 3 months.
Colic pain usually occurs in infants that are very young, about 6 weeks old and is usually associated with long episodes of crying. The baby keeps crying endlessly and parents usually cannot figure out the reason why such a thing is happening to the child. At the peak of the sixth week, the crying becomes largely uncontrollable and parents throw themselves in a helpless state. Parents usually take their children to a doctor to undermine the reason behind the terrible crying bouts and are usually given simple remedies for the time being. Children may start crying even more persistently after evening times, throwing parents into anxiety zones.
As soon as you take your child to a doctor, the first thing they do to alleviate his condition would be to look into his physical details. These include examining his body parts, a quick temperature check, looking out for any possible rashes on the body, listening to vital functionalities of the body parts, sensing his reactions to light, touch and hearing, measuring his height and weight and making note of these factors. Usually after an overall check-up, your doctor must be able to guide with proper medication and as part of the process, you wouldn’t need complex tests and lab x-rays to be conducted.
Doctors would suggest simple help that could be achieved at home for the baby by just comforting it, giving it a warm bath, gently massaging its abdominal area, taking it for a light walk by seating it in a stroller, comforting it by rubbing your arms gently around its abdominal area etc. These gentle messages and movements around its abdominal area help create a soothing effect and provide relief to a large extent. Once it’s relieved of the colic pain, it will stop crying and will sleep in peace for a long period of time. Colic drops are effectively administered at regular intervals to relieve the pain.
The onset of colic usually takes place in the sixth week. So normally mothers would be breast feeding their young ones at this stage. The onset of colic to a large extent also depends on the food intake of its mother. Generally vegetables such as cabbage and onions are pretty hard on the baby’s digestive system and may cause irritability. So, avoiding such vegetables along with frequent consumption of coffee/tea can avoid this situation to a certain extent. Some mothers feed their babies with formula milk, which could also be a reason for the cause of colic in babies. So, doctors would recommend intake of hydrolysate formula in place of the earlier formula milk. The hydrolysate formula is known to contain good amounts of protein is small chunks, easily digestible by infants and therefore can provide relief in such situations.
Children usually get relieved of colic pain as they grow older and usually by 3 or 4 months they do not experience colic pain of any form. While handling babies with colic pain, parents need to keep calm and understand that it’s just a temporary scenario and would reduce with time. Handling the baby with ease and maintaining one’s calm will help alleviate the baby’s pain to a large extent.
Children in the infancy stage, around 3 or 4 weeks old, who have been crying continuously and are unable to sleep due to colic pain should seek remedial treatment from doctors. If pain persists after simple massaging or rubbing in the abdominal area, it is good to change the diet course for the mother as well as the child, in case of breastfed babies. In any case, it is best to consult a doctor before proceeding with dietary changes for your infant.
Infants who aren’t crying continuously, but are doing so occasionally when they require care and seek their mother’s attention shouldn’t be mistaken for a colic condition. Children tend to cry more when they are at the infancy stage and its best to observe their movements before deciding on their ailments.
Generally colic drops are used to quickly bring down colic pain in infants. Though they are not known to have any serious side effects on infants, parents should look out for symptoms of an allergic reaction on the infant’s body. Reactions such as rashes or skin infections could be some of the side effects. If the allergy is found in the neck or the face region, it may show up as a swelling at times. The child may even develop difficulty in breathing in rare cases. Therefore, it’s good to discuss these side effects with your doctor before administering it to your baby.
There are no specific after treatment care that should be followed once the colic pain is relieved. Generally small infants tend to develop their pain in their infancy and as they grow older, the problem fails to recur. Majority of the infants depend on their mother’s feed at that stage and hence avoiding irritating foods such as onions and cabbages will prevent the pain from recurring. Intake of low dairy products during the colic phase will also avoid pain and consumption of eggs and wheat can provide help to a certain extent. Following proper food guidelines by the mother is a must.
The first and foremost thing to know about colic is that it’s only a temporary phase and as the infant grows into five or six months, the phase of colic just diminishes day by day. Babies experience colic at the height of their sixth week but that’s exactly when appropriate care needs to be taken. Once the child is over 3 or 4 months of age, this condition almost vanishes, leaving a sigh of relief for the parents.
Colic drops, the easiest way to cure colic pain is available at all pharmaceutical shops at prices as low as 80 to 100 for a 30 ml bottle. They are available in different variants and the prescribed drops by the doctor should be used.
There is no guarantee that a child which has developed colic at the moment is not going to develop the same pain a few days later. The mother’s diet is a big deciding factor. As time passes and the child grows older, the pain itself vanishes from the baby’s abdomen. Colic drops do provide relief to a large extent and help the baby to have a peaceful sleep for a long period.
Rs 80 - 100
Flatulence, known as farting, is a medical term for releasing gas from the digestive system through the anus. It occurs when gas collects inside the digestive system; however, one should not worry because it is a normal process.
Flatulence is due to swallowed air, the breakdown of undigested foods, lactose intolerance, and malabsorption of certain foods. Some foods that increase gas include beans, cabbage, broccoli, raisins, lentil, prunes, apples, and foods that are high in fructose or sorbitol, such as fruit juices. These foods can take a long time to digest, leading to the unpleasant smell associated with flatulence.If this condition is in excess, it can be because of various pathological conditions, such as constipation, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn’s disease, diabetes, ulcerative colitis, GERD, peptic ulcers, etc.
About 99% of the volume of flatus is composed of non-smelly gases. These include oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and methane. Volume range of normal flatus is around 476–1,491 mL per 24 hours. The normal range of flatus episodes is given as 8–20 per day.
Medical help should be considered if you experience symptoms, such as severe cramps, fever, diarrhea, bloody stools, nausea, and vomiting and/or right-sided abdominal pain along with gas or flatulence.
Flatulence can be diagnosed in the following ways:
Diagnosis is made with the help of the patient's history and physical examination.
Most of the times tests are not required, but if required analysis of patients' breath and flatus (gas passed out of the rectum) tests are done. Other tests, such as colonoscopy, X-rays and/or CT scans are rarely performed; it depends on the case.
Flatulence can be managed in the following ways:
Urinary incontinence is a health condition in men, which is caused by loss of bladder control. Urinary incontinence usually occurs in cases of medical conditions such as an enlarged prostate, Parkinson’s disease and diabetes, and may also occur after a prostate surgery. Urinary incontinence is an irritating and embarrassing condition, but with proper treatment, it can be cured. There are several ways to treat this condition which include home remedies as well as medications and surgery.
Here are several methods used to treat urinary incontinence:
There are several medicines, which help in the treatment of urinary incontinence in men. Some of these work to relax muscles for preventing unwanted bladder contractions, while others help in blocking the nerve signals to the bladder. Drugs used for the shrinking and treatment of an enlarged prostate are also used as blocked by prostate lead to bladder irritation. Now-a-days, more than 80% cases of incontinence in males respond well to medications.
Surgery may be the ultimate option for the treatment of urinary incontinence. Options depend on the cause of incontinence. If it is because of obstructing prostate, prostate surgery by TURP / HOLEP is curative. If it is because of bladder overactivity, BOTOX injection in bladder is useful. If it is TRUE incontinence after radical prostate surgery then treatment include a male sling or artificial urinary sphincter implantation. In sling operations, a type of material is wrapped around the urethra for compressing it. In Artificial sphincter implantation, a cuff is used in order to close the urethra. Urine is released by squeezing the pump to open the cuff. A Interstim device similar to a pacemaker is used to stimulate nerves, which help in relaxing the bladder and pelvic floor. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an urologist.
A chronic condition, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of the large intestine that exhibits symptoms such as bloating, abdominal cramps, gas and diarrhea. The symptoms of IBS can be controlled by making lifestyle changes such as incorporating certain modifications to your diet and reducing or managing stress levels. For severe symptoms, you may require medications.
The symptoms of IBS can vary; some of them are:
The exact cause of IBS is not known, but there are certain factors that may act as triggers. There are muscles lining the walls of the intestine that relax and contract in a proper rhythm, thus allowing the passage of food through the intestine. In case of IBS, these contractions tend to be irregular, resulting in gas, bloating and diarrhea.
Some of the factors that can trigger this condition are:
The initial step to manage the symptoms of this condition is to make prompt changes in your diet, such as eliminating spicy foods and dairy products, at least till the symptoms subside. It is advised to resort to medications only if the dietary changes fail to yield results.
The various treatments are:
If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gastroenterologist.
Adverse respiratory events (AREs) are leading causes of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Anesthesia is the use of medicine to prevent or reduce the feeling of pain or sensation during surgery or other painful procedures (such as getting stitches). Giving as an injection or through inhaled gases or vapours, different types of anesthesia affect the nervous system in various ways by blocking nerve impulses and, therefore, pain.
Anesthesia can help control your breathing, blood pressure, blood flow, and heart rate. It may be used to:
Adverse Respiratory Events (ARE)
Adverse outcomes of such events are fatal and lead to Death & Brain Damage. Three mechanisms of injury are reported to account for highest adverse respiratory events:
Inadequate Ventilation: Insufficient Gas Exchange can produce the adverse outcome. Esophageal Intubation: Incubation between the two sides of the esophagus inadvertently.
Difficult tracheal intubation: Tracheal Intubation is the placement of a flexible plastic tube into the trachea (windpipe) to maintain an open airway. It is performed facilitate ventilation of lungs in severely ill, anesthetized patients.
Other’s are as listed below:
Residual neuromuscular blockade is an important postoperative complication associated to the use of neuromuscular blocking drugs and is commonly observed in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) after non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are administered intra-operatively. Incomplete neuromuscular recovery can be minimized with acceleromyography monitoring. The risk of adverse respiratory events during early recovery from anesthesia can be reduced by intra-operative acceleromyography use.
Reintubation is a serious adverse respiratory event and the consequences include increased cardiac and respiratory complications, prolonged length of stay at the PACU, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital, prolonged mechanical ventilator support, higher costs, and increased mortality. Overweight and obesity have also been identified as risk factors for postoperative respiratory complications. Most adverse respiratory events are considered preventable with improved monitoring such as:
Closed observation of the clinical factors and appropriate monitoring by well trained people are factors necessary to prevent adverse outcome. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a general surgeon.
Cancer today is not as rare as it once was. Today, cancer affects the young and old alike. One of the reasons for this is the pollution in particular air and water pollution that we are exposed to on daily basis.
The air we breathe in today is a mixture of smoke, particulate matter and noxious gases that causes great harm to our bodies. Amongst these, particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 millionths of a metre is the worst.
These particle matters are emitted into the air from car exhausts, industrial exhausts, coal fires, wood stoves etc. While the body’s natural defences help keep larger particle matter out of the system by sneezing or coughing it out, smaller particle matter enters the body easily. These then get trapped in the lungs and enter the bloodstream. Particle matter has in particular been linked to increasing number of lung cancer cases. Apart from lung cancer, coal tar particle matter has been linked to bladder cancer, soot to oesophageal cancer and benzene and other pesticides to leukaemia.
Radon is another source of air pollution that is emitted from the ground. In some cases, radon can also be emitted through the water. As this gas decays, it releases tiny particles that when inhaled bombard the lung cells with radiation that can cause radiation. Smoking can worsen this effect and increase a person’s risk of suffering from lung cancer. Both first-hand and second-hand smoking have also been linked to breast cancer. Apart from trying to reduce emissions to lower air pollution, it is also important to clean filets of air conditions, etc. regularly to lower indoor air pollution. Preventing the smoking of tobacco in public spaces can also help improve air quality.
All pollutants emitted by us eventually find their way into the water we drink. Even if you are not drinking contaminated water, merely, showering or swimming in contaminated water can make your body more vulnerable to the carcinogens in it. Common water pollutants include arsenic, hazardous waste, animal waste, radon, chemicals and asbestos. Drinking water with concentrated amounts of arsenic has been linked to cancer of the lungs, liver, kidney and bladder while the chlorine used to treat drinking water increases the risk of bladder and rectal cancer.
To reduce the risks of cancer caused by polluted water, it is essential to reduce disinfectant by products by keeping water treatment facilities updated and promote green chemistry and alternative assessments to reduce pollution as a whole. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult an oncologist.