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Corns and calluses are defined as thickened and hardened areas of the skin, which are formed due to excess pressure, friction or rubbing in a particular area. They generally form at the bottom of the feet and can cause discomfort and pain while walking. Corns usually form on the sides and tops of toes. There are several variants of corn such as hard corn, soft corn and seed corns. Calluses typically form in areas which undergo high friction. It can appear on hands and feet. Read on to find more about corns and calluses.
1. In some cases, corns or calluses may form due to improper walking motion but in most cases corns and calluses form due to wearing shoes which fit in an improper manner.
2. High heels in particular are a major reason for the formation of corns and calluses. Other reasons include foot deformities or wearing shoes and sandals without socks.
3. Corns and calluses have a risk of being infected by bacteria which causes the infected region to secrete pus or fluid.
There are different types of corns and calluses and each of them have different symptoms during their formation.
1. A callus is a small patch of dead skin which can form anywhere in the body but usually in places which undergo friction.
2. A hard corn is a patch of hard skin which is located outside the little toe or on top of a toe.
3. A soft corn is a sensitive red patch of skin which is typically found between toes.
4. A seed corn is a painful patch of dead skin which typically forms on the ball of the foot or on the heel.
If you have developed a corn or a callus it is advisable to consult a doctor as they can correctly differentiate between warts and calluses. Use of moleskin around the corn or callus usually reduces the pressure from the affected region. Oral antibiotic medication can also be prescribed by your physician. Certain moisturising creams also help treating corns and calluses. Opt for stronger moisturising creams after consulting your doctor if regular ones are not helping. In certain instances corns and calluses may need to be surgically removed.
A common skin condition, which causes the discoloration of your skin in patches across the face, melasma is more of a social embarrassment and cause for distress rather than being a serious condition. Although it affects men as well, studies have shown that over 90 percent of patients are women. It is also known as the mask of pregnancy as many pregnant women develop this skin condition.
Causes of Melasma
Primary causes of melasma have been attributed to various hormonal changes within the body. Let's look at some of the factors that may cause this disorder:
1. Pregnancy: This is often attributed as the leading cause of melasma, the primary cause has often been attributed to hormonal changes that a woman may experience due to pregnancy.
2. Treatments that may change hormonal balance: Women on contraceptive pills or who have implants such as intrauterine devices may also develop this disorder. This is due to the balance of estrogen and progesterone being changed within the body.
3. Sun exposure: Continued sun exposure may also lead to melasma. This is due to the activation of melanocytes within the body which start producing more melanin.
4. Stress: Long periods of stress on the body can also trigger hormonal changes and cause melasma.
5. Thyroid problems: If someone suffers from Hypothyroidism or low levels of the thyroid hormone, it can trigger other hormonal changes and also cause this skin disorder.
It has also been noticed that people with generally a darker skin tone tend to get melasma and it is less common in people with fairer skin.
Certain characteristics of Melasma
Melasma develops in certain patterns which can be easily diagnosed either as spots on the skin similar to freckles or brown patches of skin that grow bigger. Some of these patterns are:
a. Malar pattern: This grows on the nose and cheeks
b. Mandibular pattern: Starts growing around the jaw line
c. Brachial melasma: This grows on the upper arms and shoulders
d. Lateral cheek pattern: Grows on the cheek on both sides of the face
e. Centrofacial pattern: Nose, upper lips, forehead and cheeks
Treatment of Melasma
Most women who develop melasma during pregnancy report that it goes away after childbirth. However certain forms of melasma may appear in non-pregnant women due to hormonal changes. Treating the underlying hormonal changes usually resolves the problem. However certain other methods may be required to resolve the issues such as skin creams, chemical peels, dermabrasion and microdermabrasion.
Pityriasis rosea is a medical condition concerning the skin, which when contracted causes a rash. This condition can affect people of any age but it is usually seen to occur in people between the ages of 10 and 35. Pityriasis rosea is usually harmless. Read on more to find out all about the different causes, symptoms, prevention and treatments of pityriasis rosea.
Causes: Experts are unsure about the exact reason for the cause of pityriasis rosea. It is very different from other skin diseases as it is not caused due to an allergic reaction or caused due to fungal or bacterial infections. The rash is not contagious.
- Pityriasis rosea forms a rash which begins with a single, oval or round in shape pink patch which is scaly in nature and consists of a raised border. The size of the patch varies and can vary between 2cm to 10 cm in diameter.
- After a few days of the initial infection, salmon colored patches which vary in size from 1 to 2 cm in diameter appear in clusters in the chest, arms, back and abdominal regions.
- The patches which occur in the back often form vertically in an angular fashion such that its appearance is similar to that of a fir tree.
- The affected regions can cause severe itching in almost half the people who are affected by pityriasis rosea. The rash usually is cured in a span of 6 to 8 weeks but in certain cases it can persist for several months.
Treatment: Pityriasis rosea usually does not require any treatment. It usually goes away in the time span of 6 to 8 weeks. Itching can be subdued by using certain skin lotions and lubricants. If the itching is severe, your doctor might prescribe you certain anti-inflammatory medication. Certain antiviral medications also decrease the duration of the rash if they are taken at the beginning of the infection. In some cases exposure to sunlight also cures the rash very fast, but excess exposure to the sun can also cause sunburn and increase the risk of skin cancer. If the rash persists even after 3 months, it is highly advisable to consult a doctor.
Corns are small circular patches of thick, hardened skin that generally develop on the toes or soles of feet. They may occur anywhere else on the body. They might be caused due to friction and pressure which may occur, if you wear poorly fitted shoes or as a symptom of some other conditions such as bunions (big toe bent towards other toes) or hammer toe (toe bent at the middle joint).
Corns, especially on feet will not get cured unless its root cause is treated. If left untreated, the skin becomes thicker and more painful. Cures for corns will depend on the cause or nature of the corn. Here are some effective ways to treat most types of corns.
1. Removal of hard skin: A dermatologist can help remove the thickened skin with a scalpel, which will relieve the pressure on the affected tissue.
2. Products that treat corns: Some foot care products are specially designed to allow your skin heal and to redistribute the excess pressure that is causing the corn. These may be prescribed by your dermatologist for quick healing of your corns. Some of these products include:
a. Rehydration creams that soften thickened skin
b. Soft padding or foam insoles that can be inserted into shoes
c. Corn plasters that provide protection
d. Small foam wedges which can be placed between toes to cure soft corns
e. Special silicone wedges that change the position of your toes and help in redistribution of pressure.
3. Salicylic acid: Salicyclic acid, contained in several over-the-counter products is helpful in softening the first layer of dead skin, thereby facilitating its removal. Products containing salicylic acid should not be used if you suffer from conditions that cause circulation problems, such as diabetes, peripheral neuropathy or arterial disease. If you have cracked or broken skin in the area of the corn or sensitive skin, salicyclic acid is not suitable for you either.
You can prevent corns by practising proper foot care, as your feet carry the weight of the entire body and are very susceptible to problems. Using a pumice stone regularly to rub away hard, dead skin is a good way to prevent corns and bacteria. Wearing properly fitted shoes is a must to prevent corns. If you wear heels very often, they may put excessive pressure on your feet. If you suffer from diabetes or other diseases causing circulation problems, do consult a doctor as corns and infections in the feet can lead to more severe infections.
Here are cause,Symptoms and treatment of Skin Disorders (Acne)