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Overview

Oesophagus: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

The Oesophagus is also known as the food pipe.

How is the treatment done?

The oesophagus refers to the food pipe of the human body. Food items and liquid are passed through it to be used by the body for nutrition. Sometimes, if the food is not chewed properly, it can irritate the lining of the food pipe causing an inflammation. If left untreated, this condition can become very uncomfortable, causing problems with swallowing, ulcers, and scarring of the esophagus. In some instances, a condition known as Barrett's esophagus may develop, which is a risk factor for esophageal cancer. Our food pipe which is also known as the oesophagus has four layers. The first layer is known as the mucosa – this is the innermost layer that helps your food to travel from your mouth to the stomach. The second layer is known as the submucosa – this layer comprises of certain glands that help your body to produce mucus/ phlegm which helps the oesphagus from getting dry. The third layer is called the muscularis – this layer is known as the muscular layer of your food pipe that helps to stimulate and push the food right into your stomach. The fourth layer is called the adventitia- this is the layer that attaches the food pipe to the adjoining body parts.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

The infection of the oesophagus can be caused by the bacteria called candida. It can be treated by antifungal drugs.

Herpes can also be caused which can also be treated by antiviral drugs.

Surgery has to be undergone if the infection is excessive and cannot be healed by antibiotics.

Upper GI series or barium swallows can also be undergone. During this procedure, X-rays are taken of the esophagus after drinking a barium solution. Barium coats the lining of the esophagus and shows up white on an X-ray. This characteristic enables doctors to view certain abnormalities of the esophagus. The most common form of esophageal disease is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) where the acids in your stomach are released into the esophagus and results in a burning sensation in your food pipe when you try to swallow anything. Certain medications are applied to reduce the burning sensation and mostly antacids help in reducing the problems. Individuals who are diagnosed with Barrett’s Esophagus have a good chance to be diagnosed with esophageal cancer which can be treated to a therapeutic level by radiation therapies, chemotherapies and ablation procedures. Problems associated with the food pipe can be treated with a surgical procedure known as myotomy where the stiff muscles in your food pipe are removed to reduce the swelling and inflammations.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Any individual suffering from the infection or disease of the oesophagus is eligible for its treatment. It is most commonly found in adults above the age of 30 and elderly individuals.

Are there any side effects?

This treatment is risky for children and hence needs to be carried out only on the doctor's recommendation if and when a child is infected with an infection or disease of the same.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

Side effects like nausea, hernia, intoxication, vomiting and so on can be followed by the treatment.

How long does it take to recover?

The patient has to take some measures to limit or decrease the infection of the oesophagus. Spicy foods such as chili powder, pepper, curry and nutmeg.

Hard foods such as nuts, vegetables, crackers and others should be avoided.

Acidic foods and beverages such as tomatoes, oranges, grapefruits and juices should be avoided. Imitation fruit drinks containing vitamin C can however be consumed.

Soft foods such as applesauce, cooked cereals, mashed potatoes and so on should be consumed as it would be easier to swallow through the food pipe.

Small bites should be taken and food should be thoroughly chewed.

Liquids should be consumed with a straw to help smoothen the food track.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

It takes about a month or so to recover from the oesophagus infection or disease. If the precautions are thoroughly followed, the treatment can be done effectively and in a shorter span of time.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The cost for treatment for the oesophagus starts from Rs. 2 lakhs and goes upto Rs. 20 lakhs depending upon the severity of the condition.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

The results of the treatment are largely permanent. But the oesophagus can be infected again if the wrong kind of food items are consumed, or swallowed in a wrong way that infects or scratches the oesophagus.

Safety: Body Part Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: High Side Effects: Medium Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs. 2,00,000 to Rs. 20,00,000.

Popular Health Tips

All About Esophagectomy

MS - General Surgery, MBBS
General Surgeon, Delhi
All About Esophagectomy

The surgical procedure to remove the oesophagus (the tube between your stomach and mouth), partially or completely, and reconstruct it by using a section of the large intestine or stomach is called esophagectomy.

Esophagectomy is commonly used to treat oesophageal cancer.

Uses:

Early-stage oesophageal cancer is frequently treated with an esophagectomy. Other than that, esophagectomy is also performed to treat oesophageal dysplasia (a condition in which cells in the oesophageal lining are precancerous or likely to develop cancer if not promptly treated).

Esophagectomy is commonly performed when cancer has spread to the stomach, lymph nodes or associated organs.

Some other conditions which require esophagectomy include:

  1. Oesophageal trauma.

  2. Swallowing of cell-damaging, or caustic agents such as lye.

  3. Problematic stomach disorders that make the passage of food to the stomach difficult.

  4. A previously performed esophagectomy was unsuccessful.

Procedures:

There are three ways a surgeon may perform an esophagectomy, which include:

  • Transthoracic Esophagectomy (TTE)

In this type of procedure, the incision is made on the chest. A TTE is mostly used to treat the following conditions:

    • Cancer present only in two-thirds of the oesophagus

    • Barrett’s oesophagus (Abnormal cell transformation in the lower oesophagus)

    • Damage to the oesophagus by swallowing a caustic agent

    • Reflux esophagitis (stomach acids return to the oesophagus) complications

  • Transhiatal Esophagectomy (THE)

In THE, the incision is made from the end of the breastbone to the bellybutton. THE is performed for the following conditions:

    • To remove the cancerous oesophagus

    • To tighten or narrow the oesophagus in order to make swallowing easier

    • To fix issues in the nervous system

    • To repair frequent gastroesophageal reflux

    • Correct a hole in the oesophagus caused by any caustic agent

  • En Bloc Esophagectomy

In this procedure, the oesophagus, part of the stomach and all the lymph nodes in the abdomen and chest are removed. The incisions are made in the abdomen, chest and neck; the stomach will be reshaped and brought up to the chest to put back the oesophagus.

Potentially curable tumours are treated by en bloc esophagectomy.

Outlook:

Recovery time of esophagectomy is three weeks approximately. You are allowed to go back to your regular diet after a month. You might find that you are eating smaller portions as you stomach size is reduced. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

3045 people found this helpful

Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Cause Behind it

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Hyderabad
Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Cause Behind it

The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.

Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:
1. Hereditary predispositions
2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus
There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).

Other symptoms of achalasia include:

The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.
1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
2. Weight loss
3. Heartburn
4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating

Some of the treatments include:

Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.
1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.

Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:
1. Acid reflux
2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe

If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.

3212 people found this helpful

Difficulty In Swallowing Your Food - Can You Be Suffering From Achalasia?

MBBS, M.S. (Gold Medalist), MCh - Surgical Gastroenterology/G.I. Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Agra
Difficulty In Swallowing Your Food - Can You Be Suffering From Achalasia?

The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.

Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:
1. Hereditary predispositions
2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus
There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).

Other symptoms of achalasia include:

The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.
1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
2. Weight loss
3. Heartburn
4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating

Some of the treatments include:

Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.
1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.

Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:
1. Acid reflux
2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3389 people found this helpful

Can Autoimmune Disorders Be The Cause Behind Achalasia?

DNB- Gastroenterology, DM - Gastroenterology, DNB, MD, MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Chennai
Can Autoimmune Disorders Be The Cause Behind Achalasia?

The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.

Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:

  1. Hereditary predispositions
  2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
  3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus

There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).

Other symptoms of achalasia include:

The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.

  1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
  2. Weight loss
  3. Heartburn
  4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating

Some of the treatments include:

Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.

  1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
  2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
  3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.

Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:

  1. Acid reflux
  2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2685 people found this helpful

Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Reason Behind it?

DM - Gastroenterology, MD - General Medicine, DNB (Medical), MBBS
Gastroenterologist, Delhi
Achalasia - Can Autoimmune Disorders be the Reason Behind it?

The tube that carries food to your stomach from your throat is called the oesophagus. When the muscular valve (lower oesophagus sphincter) in the oesophagus fails to relax and carry the food to the stomach, the condition is termed as achalasia.

Achalasia has a variety of causes, and can be difficult for your doctor to diagnose the exact cause. Some common causes of achalasia include:
1. Hereditary predispositions
2. Autoimmune disorders (The immune system erroneously destroys healthy cells in the body)
3. Nerve degeneration in the oesophagus
There other medical conditions that often lead to symptoms identical to achalasia, such as oesophageal cancer and Chagas’ disease (an infectious disease caused by a parasite).

Other symptoms of achalasia include:

The most prominent symptom of achalasia is dysphagia, which is characterised by swallowing difficulties or sensations of food stuck in the oesophagus. Dysphagia often triggers coughing and shortness of breath or choking on food.
1. Discomfort or pain in the chest
2. Weight loss
3. Heartburn
4. Intense discomfort or pain after eating

Some of the treatments include:

Most of the methods to treat achalasia focus on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). The treatments used can either permanently alter the sphincter’s function, or reduce symptoms.
1. Oral medications such as calcium channel blockers or nitrates are prescribed, which can relax the LES to let food pass through with more ease. Your doctor may also treat the LES with Botox.
2. For a more permanent treatment, the sphincter can be dilated or altered. In dilation, a balloon is inserted into the oesophagus and it is inflated. This will stretch out your oesophagus to improve function.
3. To alter the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy is performed. It is a kind of surgery where minimal incisions are made to gain access to the LES, and then it is carefully altered to improve flow of food to the stomach.

Unlike dilation, which can cause complications such as tears in the oesophagus, oesophagomyotomy has a greater success rate. However, certain complications may still arise, such as:
1. Acid reflux
2. Respiratory conditions that are caused by food entering your windpipe

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2509 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

While having hard drinks I am feeling a bad smell coming out from inside of my oesophagus kindly describe

MDS - Orthodontics
Dentist,
This is sign of gastric re flux due to alcoholic consumption. Which increases. And aggravate the condition.
1 person found this helpful

Hello. I want to know that .Is epithelial hyperplasia of oesophagus with mild dysplasia very harmful. It's treatment is possible or not. And what are the success rate of it. please help me.

General Surgeon, Pune
lybrate-user The report you share here is important. You must show it to a general surgeon at the earliest. It you are having regurgitation of food, which may cause the above mentioned changes of the oesophagus, then you need treatment for that. Your surgeon may also advise you another endoscopic procedure to remove the patch of abnormal cells. If none of the above then at least a regular follow up every 2-3 months is advisable. Regards.

I am suffered from acid reflux, my digestive system is also irregular by this acid back in oesophagus.

DNB, M.D. MEDICINE, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
Gastroenterologist, Surat
This is GERD. You need to regularize your foods and avoid spicy food. Also you need lifestyle modifications like avoiding milk, tobacco and alcohol. Keep the head end elevated while you lie down.
1 person found this helpful

Sir my name yash I am feeling pain in my oesophagus from last 4 months I have consult so many doctors and have ECG and xRay also please tell some please save my life.

MD, MBBS
Pulmonologist, Delhi
pain in this region can be due to multiple causes would have to see the reports may be some more tests and definitely your symptoms can b improved

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Tips on Acidity, Gas Formation, Flatulence, Heart Burn and Constipation
Hi, friends. I am Dr Ashok Gupta. I am a general surgeon come gastro endoscopist. I am practising since last 35 years and my speciality comprises with the gall bladder, gall bladder stones, kidney stones, appendix, hernia, piles, fissures and fistula and gastro endoscopy to diagnose the various acid peptic diseases.

Now I am talking about the most of the prevalent disease in the common masses is acidity, gas formation, flatulence and constipation. These are the common conditions which are found mainly in the masses and most of the people they are suffering from this type of diseases. Acidity comprises of the acid formation in the stomach and if there is a more of acid formation it is called heartburn. Burning in epigastrium, indigestion, flatulence, gas formation, distension of the abdomen and constipation at times. This condition is caused mainly by the modern food habits which is being practised nowadays in children, teenagers, adults and even elderly people. This condition can be easily diagnosed by gastro endoscopy.

This is the device which is we can see inside the body about a metre of length from the incisor from the mouth. This is the fibre optic cable which is about 9-12mm in diameter and having the fibre optic fibres which we turn many numbers of times and it can transmit the images. The computer chip has now made possible to take images, videos of the lesion and it can be therapeutic at times. Many tumours like polyps and biopsy can be taken. The polyp can be excised through this endoscopy technique. A technique which is very modern and easy to do. It can be done under local anaesthesia. Little sprays are given into the throat so that he should not feel that something is going in and it hardly takes 10-15 mins. and the procedure is so much rewarding even it can save the life. We can see the various inflammation, oesophagitis, gastritis, duodenitis by this technique.

Many times many cancers, they can be diagnosed by this. Peptic ulcer diseases they can be diagnosed. Barred oesophagus, it is the pre-cancerous condition at the time can be diagnosed and can be treated accordingly. Many times the children swallow the coin or foreign bodies, they can be taken out by the endoscopic techniques. This is at a very nominal cost. It is possible in your nearby area, in Delhi itself. The acidity is mainly caused by the H. pylori infection which can be diagnosed by this and the secretion can be taken and it can be examined for this bacterial infection, the treatment can accordingly be given then it can be a curable condition and saves the life many times.

You can connect me on Lybrate. com. You can chat with me, you can make consultations through this site. If you have any questions, any queries, you can contact me or you can connect me with lybrate.com.

Thank you.
Play video
Watch What Happens When You Drink Water Along With Your Food. It'll Leave You Thinking!
Sit at the dinner table, and you'd find yourself invariably extending your hand to the glass of water on the side of your plate. While you may think it's absolutely necessary to have a glass of water during your meals, the truth is this habit of yours might be damaging your health. Read on to find out how.

1. It dilutes your gastric juices -
When the digestive acids (acids responsible for the digestion and breakdown of food as well as for killing infectious agents ingested with food) present in your stomach are diluted with water, they bring about a slowdown in the functioning of your entire digestive system. This slowdown results in food remaining lodged in your stomach for a longer period than normal, thereby causing indigestion.

Additionally, the reaction caused by the dilution of water and stomach acids can give rise to cramps in your tummy.

2. It reduces the saliva in your mouth -
The same thing that happens to the acids in your stomach, happens to your saliva as well. Water dilutes the saliva, which stops the breakdown of food in your mouth. Also, your saliva is responsible for stimulating your stomach to release digestive enzymes and prepare itself for the process of digestion. By drinking water with your meals, such signals sent by your saliva to your stomach become much weaker. All these together can make digestion very difficult.

3. It causes acidity -
Studies show that drinking water with your meals not only leads to the dilution of digestive enzymes, but also brings about a reduction in the secretion of digestive enzymes. This causes the undigested food in your stomach to leak into the lower part of your oesophagus (food pipe), causing acidity and heart burn.

4. It increases insulin production -
Sipping on water in the middle of lunch (or any other meal for that matter) causes a spike in your insulin levels just as glycaemic foods (foods with high starch or sugar content such as honey, potatoes, white bread, rice to name a few) would. When your body is unable to digest food properly, it usually tends to convert the glucose filled part of that food into fat and stores it, reason why your blood sugar levels see an upsurge.

5. It adds to your weight -
Since drinking water causes an increase in insulin levels in your body (as the food you eat is converted to fat), it can result in the piling of extra weight on your body. This is because a weak digestive system is one of the major causes behind obesity.

Try having your meals with less salt and drink water 30 minutes before each meal to control your thirst when you're eating. This can help you in controlling the negative effects that drinking water with your meals can have on your health.

Make a wise choice and stay healthy. Feel free to ask me more questions you might have.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice