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Overview

Gerd - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Gastritis?

GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease can be a serious condition. It takes place in children and is quite common. The disease can often be unrecognised as the symptoms may be misunderstood. This is sad, as GERD generally is treatable. Serious complications might arise if it hasn’t been properly treated. Heartburn is not the sole symptom, but is the typical symptom for GERD. The disease may not show any other visible symptoms. Heartburn may be resulting from disorders taking place outside and inside the oesophagus. GERD gets mistreated or self-treated way too often. It is chronic in nature and treatment is long term even after the symptoms have been managed. Daily life style modifications need to be followed for complying with the medicines. Education and follow ups can help in managing it. Painful symptoms which might undermine a person’s life quality often characterize GERD. Various techniques may be used effectively for treating GERD. They include changing lifestyle patterns, medicine use and surgery. Chronic GERD sufferers need accurate diagnosis and need help from their doctors for receiving the best possible treatment.

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There is a lower oesophageal lining abnormality in Barrett’s oesophagus. It is supposed to be due to chronic GERD. Most people suffering from GERD don’t have any such abnormality. Those having Barrett’s oesophagus have a greater chance of having oesophageal cancer. An endoscope can be used to detect Barrett’s oesophagus, but a biopsy is essential for diagnosis. GERD diagnosis may be suspected from the patient’s complaints to their doctor, more so when they are typical. If the patient has uncommon symptoms or the doctor feels the need for confirmatory tests, here are a few diagnostic essentials:

Esophagram- In this oesophageal radiographic study, the patient is made to swallow barium and the radiologist can see the stomach and oesophagus under fluoroscopy. This can help determine any problem of oesophageal narrowing or the presence of any hiatal hernia. It can even estimate of the extent of muscular contractions in the oesophagus. The small intestine and the oesophageal lining can also be directly viewed with the endoscope passing into the small intestine via the mouth, oesophagus, small intestine and stomach. Potential damage can be viewed with a direct view of the oesophageal lining.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks
Symptoms
Pain in the upper abdomen. Pain in the chest. Bitter taste or sour taste in the mouth. Recurrent vomiting, belching, heartburn, nausea and regurgitation.

Popular Health Tips

Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

Coping with Parkinson’s disease is not an easy task. Whether you or your loved one is suffering from it, the effect of the disease takes a toll. Other than the fact that it is a degenerative disease and the neurological condition deteriorates over time, the mental trauma that Parkinson’s brings; not only to the patient but to the caregiver as well, is a whole chapter on its own. When you are taking care of someone who is suffering from

Parkinson’s disease, it is natural that the emotional upheaval that you may go through will take a huge toll on your health and your mind. It is imperative that you prepare yourself thoroughly, whether you are the patient or the caregiver, about the disease and its treatments.

There is hardly any cure and treatment for the disease. It is still in its research stage and hence, often there is a strong sense of despair that sets in the mind of the patient and their loved ones. It is for this reason you have to prepare yourself to face and fight this disease.

Here are some tips that may help you to cope with the treatments of Parkinson’s disease:

  1. Educate Yourself: Educate yourself about every detail of the disease, specific to the type of Parkinson’s that has affected you or your loved one. Ask questions, whether to your doctor or the nurses. Search through the internet, you will get plenty of genuine information. This is necessary as it will prepare you to face the future head-on. You will understand what you are dealing with and how much worse it can get.
  2. Stay Active: If you are the one who is suffering from Parkinson’s, then write it down as the golden rule – I will have to stay physically active. Staying active will keep your muscles active and there will be a steady functioning of the nervous system. Staying active gives you the benefit of keeping the muscles at work, ultimately fighting the main symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Being physically active is also essential to have a good mental health, both for the patient and the caregiver.
  3. Connect With People: Talk to people, your friends, family members, children, grandchildren and anyone you feel like. If you have any estranged relative, it could be a good time to reconnect. Have wholesome conversations that will influence happy thoughts and encourage you to think and ponder on happy memories. This is crucial as Parkinson’s invites depression and you will have to tackle it vehemently.
  4. Talk to a Mental Health Professional: If you feel that you are losing a complete hold of your life and your depression seems uncontrollable, it is time to visit a professional psychiatrist and seek his/her advice in dealing with your troubled mental condition.


 

3 people found this helpful

Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

M.Phil - Clinical Psychology, M.Sc - Neuropsychology
Psychologist, Zirakpur
Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

Eating disorders can harm your physical and mental health. Anorexia, bulimia and binge eating are some of the most common eating disorders. They are typically caused by dissatisfaction with physical appearances. Feeling bad about how you look can often lead to depression. In many cases, this can also lead to suicidal thoughts. Here are a few reasons for this.

  1. Feeling of hopelessness: Eating disorders typically start out as ways to lose weight and look better. Most patients think that this will make them more popular amongst friends and colleagues. However, when they do not see themselves winning more friends because of their new figure, it can lead to feelings of despair and hopelessness. This can make them feel unworthy of living and give rise to suicidal thoughts.
  2. Malnourishment: By not eating enough food, the body is deprived of essential nutrients. This can give rise to a number of health issues. Malnourishment also influences how the neurons in the brain function. It can hamper the person’s ability to think clearly and contribute to a distorted sense of reality. As a result, the person may be more easily influenced by negativity.
  3. Feeling of being a burden: The combination of helplessness, negativity and nutrient deficiency can make the person feel as though they were a burden on everyone else. The attention given to them by friends and family can further intensify such thoughts. In many cases, the person may end up having suicidal thoughts that if he were to give up his life, his friends and family would be better off without him.
  4. Unrealistic ideals: People with eating disorders typically have unrealistic ideals of the lifestyle and figure they would like to have. When they do not see these goals being achieved in the manner that they dreamt of, it can cause frustration. This can make the person feel worse about himself or herself.

Like any other disease or disorder, it is essential for people with eating disorders to get professional help overcoming their habits. Parents, friends and other members of the family should be supportive and be on the lookout for signs of suicidal thoughts. This includes talking about death, researching means of suicide, not being able to sleep or sleeping too much, isolating oneself from people around, losing interest in activities and hobbies etc. If the person does seem to be having suicidal thoughts, they should not be ignored but brought to the notice of a counsellor immediately.

4 people found this helpful

Lack of Growth Due To Insufficient Hormones!

MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Diabetology (PGDD)
Endocrinologist, Thane
Lack of Growth Due To Insufficient Hormones!

The pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing growth hormones. When the growth hormones are not produced sufficiently by this gland, then the rate of growth is slower. In children, the hormone needs to be adequate to ensure the right amount of growth. To maintain the right amount of fats in the body, adults need this hormone. The hormone is also required to maintain muscles and bones in the body. Lack of the growth hormones can cause an emotional disturbance, tiredness, and motivation issues in adults. When the pituitary tumors are treated, cholesterol levels, too, are affected because of insufficient hormonal production. This deficiency can occur at any age in children and adults.

Symptoms in children and adults: When one is affected by slow growth hormone production, a number of symptoms may manifest. The most important symptom is the short stature. Growth velocity for the corresponding age is also lower, and puberty is also delayed. One can also see the mid-area accumulating more fat in the body. In children, this deficiency can make them look much younger for their age. The tooth development is much delayed and they do not stick to their developmental milestones. Adults find it difficult to do exercises or they have low endurance when the growth hormones are insufficient. The skin becomes thick and dry, and they are also prone to anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders.

Diagnosis: A hypoglycemia test is conducted to confirm the diagnosis. The individual is administered insulin through an intravenous line. The growth of hormone level is measured after 30 minutes. If the result is less than 10 mcg per mL in children, then it is considered that there is growth hormone deficiency. An adult is considered deficient in growth hormones when the level is less than 3 mcg per mL.

Treatment methods: As low growth hormones can lead to stress and fatigue, it is important for the people who are affected by this condition to get enough sleep. They should also concentrate on taking healthy foods. The cholesterol and triglyceride levels are already increased in people who have low growth hormone levels. So, avoiding fatty and oily foods is necessary. Doing physical exercises every day is also recommended.

Growth hormone therapy is one of the ways to improve the growth hormone levels in the affected individuals. The treatment not only aims at improving this hormone levels but it also ensures that the metabolism is maintained in a healthy way. The drugs for this condition are injected under the layers of fat in the skin. The drug is given via injection once in a week throughout the treatment duration. If the disorder is because of tumors in the pituitary gland, then it can be treated only with a surgery. For the same condition, radiation therapy is also given, if the tumor is not removed successfully with the surgery. People with low levels of growth hormones are advised to lose fat and avoid eating a heavy meal before bedtime. Intermittent fasting is also recommended.

9 people found this helpful

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) - Common Signs That You Are Suffering From It!

MBBS, MD - Psychiatry
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) - Common Signs That You Are Suffering From It!

Body dysmorphic disorder or body dysmorphia is categorized as a mental disorder which affects your mind, making you constantly think and worry about one or more conjured defects or flaws in your appearance. These flaws, to others, may seem minor and unnoticeable, even unobservable, but it affects you and makes you ashamed, less confident and forces you to stay away from any social interaction.

Body dysmorphia makes you obsess over your appearances intensely and the image of your body that you want to portray. You tend to repeatedly check the mirror and groom yourself constantly as a way to seek reassurance from your peers and yourself, often a number of times a day. This kind of obsession causes you distress and impacts the normalcy of everyday life.

Many affected individuals seek the help of cosmetic surgeries to try to make themselves perfect. However, this may give a temporary sense of satisfaction, but they are soon back to square one and are prepared to go under the knife again to fix something minute that may arise.

Signs and Symptoms of BDD

  1. An individual’s extreme preoccupation with any conjured flaws in their appearance that is completely minute and unobservable to others.
  2. Possession of a strong belief that the individual has a defect in his/her appearance and it makes him/her ugly or deformed.
  3. An irrational belief that other people take too much notice of your appearance and they mock you for it.
  4. Constantly engaged in actions to hide the so-called perceived flaw that oftentimes become involuntary and in front of other people as well. Like looking for a mirror everywhere and applying makeup or grooming items even though it is not required at that moment.
  5. Using makeup, clothes and styling accessories to hide perceived flaws.
  6. A tendency to compare one’s own appearance with others, often in a negative way.
  7. Asking others and seeking reassurance from them about one’s appearance.
  8. Possessing a tendency to try to look perfect or to look the way others perceive as perfect.
  9. Availing the help of cosmetic surgeries to look “good”. But getting little satisfaction from it.
  10. Avoiding any kind of social contact and situations.
  11. Disruption of social life and everyday life caused due to extreme preoccupation with appearance.

Affected individuals have a tendency to obsess over a change in the body. Body changes are natural, but a body dysmorphic individual will make a huge deal of it. These body parts will include:

  1. Face, nose, complexion, wrinkles, acne and other blemishes
  2. Hair appearances such as color, thinning and baldness
  3. Skin composure, tone, and the appearances of veins
  4. Size of the breasts
  5. Muscle structure and body tone
  6. Belly and abdomen region
  7. Genitalia


 

2 people found this helpful

Diabetes And Infertility In Females - Understanding The Relation!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, DGO
IVF Specialist, Gurgaon
Diabetes And Infertility In Females - Understanding The Relation!

Diabetes is often associated with heart diseases. In fact, many people do not know that their kidneys and eyes, too, can be affected due to the increased blood sugar levels. Fertility is often forgotten in this list. Yes, diabetes can lower the fertility rates. In men, it can cause erectile dysfunction and decrease libido. In women, the issues are different. But you should not lose hope if you are a diabetic and want to get pregnant. Controlled sugar levels and healthy body weight can help you become a mother. It should also be understood that diabetes alone cannot be the reason for you not getting pregnant. Several underlying factors such as obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and irregular periods can be responsible as well.

Diabetes and hormonal disturbances: PCOS results in higher amounts of testosterone, which is the male hormones. This leads to abnormal periods, or at times, the periods are absent in women affected with this disorder. PCOS is often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. In women affected by diabetes, the fertility period is lowered. For instance, if a woman without diabetes can conceive up to 40 years, the diabetic woman can conceive up to 34 to 36 years only. This also means that menopause occurs early in such women. Oligomenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea are often connected to type 2 diabetes. It is also seen when these women have a control over their sugar levels, their fertility rate improves.

Type 1 diabetes and fertility: When a woman is affected by type 1 diabetes, mensuration ceases in most cases. Studies indicate that only 2 percent of the women who are affected by type 1 diabetes are able to conceive. While treatment can bring back mensuration in these women, irregular periods cannot be treated successfully. With controlled sugar levels, one can find chances of improved fertility rates. For this, even during the planning period, the woman has to control sugar levels. You can still become pregnant even when you are dependent on insulin. Your requirement dosage can differ. So, check with your primary care provider and gynecologist on the same. Your sugar levels should also be under control throughout your pregnancy.

Type 2 diabetes and fertility: In case of type 2 diabetes, which has begun to develop even in young women, there is a negative impact on the fertility rates. In the past, type 2 diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, was common only in the age group of 45 and above. But, lifestyle modifications and food habits have made it common even in the younger age group recently. This has resulted in the lowering of the fertile years and an early advancement of menopause. In women who have hormonal imbalance and diabetes, the combo paves the way to PCOS. Obesity is one of the reasons that trigger both diabetes and PCOS. With additional healthcare, you can become pregnant with diabetes mellitus. A healthy diet plan and exercise routine are recommended by the doctors.

If you are diabetic and planning for pregnancy, ensure that you take proper care to manage blood sugar levels. Enhanced glucose levels can only increase the risk for diabetes in the child. A healthy pregnancy is assured with controlled diabetes.

3 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

My dad finds everything he eats bitter, because of which he is eating a lot less lately. He is 62 years old with high BP and high sugar level (intake of insulin along with tablets). But enjoys eating sweet items. This is the case for past 2-3 years, consulted many doctors as well but no effective results yet. Please suggest me something to reduce this.

MBBS, MD
Endocrinologist, Delhi
His taste sensation has altered or his taste buds are not working properly. Try to make him understand that eating sweat items will increase his insulin requirement and that may increase his weight which is not good for diabetes and high BP and for his overall health.
1 person found this helpful

Hello doctor, I am having upper stomach pain I am not sure it is pain or burning, also sometimes heartburn. Doctor prescribed me sucralfate suspension and fluid. Am I need to avoid mild spicy food also lifelong. Am just reached 30 age. How to resolve this permanently. Does stretta procedure for GERD helps. From last 8 months I faced this problem more than ten times. Is anything serious, am feeling burning pain and stomach bloating after eating.

MBBS, DNB - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Intermittent pain and burning can happen to many people. Please take a course of antacids like pantoprazole for 3-4 weeks. After that you should be able to get back to normal life. But if problem continues then you must see a doctor. Yes stretta procedure can be done if needed.
1 person found this helpful

I have problem of esophagitis Gr. B +small hernia+Chronic gastritis with duodenal ulcer. I was put on esomeprazole 40 mg + Itopride 150 mg (Sompraz - IT). I have been using them since 3 years. If I stop, I am getting my GERD symptoms back. Is it safe to continue the medicine?

MCh(Minimally Invasive & Robotic Surgery), MS - Surgical, MBBS
General Surgeon, Guwahati
Mr. lybrate-user, as it is already 3rd year of conservative treatment, I think you should now visit a Gatro Surgeon who is doing Nissan's fundoplication, the gold standard surgery for Hiatas hernia with GERD. Safe surgery with experienced hands.

I am GERD and Hiatus Hernia. My stomach has been paining a lot for last six months in spite of regular medication. Presently I am on Escoz D 40 and Escoz D. Please advise.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user, hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* The cause of stomach pain needs evaluation with further work up in form of lab tests, ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy according to the clinician concern.* Primary relief with - plenty of liquids.- consume soft, light diet.- avoid oily, spicy non veg, junk foods.- anti spasmodic tablets as dicyclomine or drotaverine would help.- avoid smoking, alcohol if using. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
1 person found this helpful

My age was 25 years male. My endoscopy report was Patulous ge junction is it serious problem or can I resolve it with simple diet changes .can it lead to hernia? My doctor prescribed me sucrafil syrup. I really worried about it.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Suryateja , hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly . * The condition is not serious , can be well controlled with proper dietary , life style changes . * It may or may not lead to hernia . * Primary guidelines for better outcome Prefer soft , light , bland , vegan diet till possible . Consume more of whole grains , cereals , pulses , legumes , organic fresh fruits . Avoid all oily , spicy , non veg , hot beverages , junk foods , carbonated drinks . Avoid over eating , prolong fasting . Avoid resting upto 2 hours after meals . Fix your timing of breakfast , lunch , dinner till possible . Avoid late night parties , dinners . Keep the head end of the bed elevated for 30 degrees when resting . Have regular walking in fresh air , exercises , YOGA . Avoid smoking , alcohol if consuming . Avoid stress , anxiety . Manage to have regular sound sleep of 8 hours . Add intake of Proton pump inhibitors as omeprazole or pantoprazole on empty stomach 1 hour prior to lunch according to the advise of your doctor helps . Keep your BP , blood sugar , cholesterol , body weight under control . Hope this clears your query . Wishing you fine recovery . Welcome for any further assistance . Regards take care .
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Gastritis?

More about :

Play video
Heartburn Or Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach. Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. But som
Play video
Digestive Disorders & Gastrointestinal Diseases
Namaskar!

I am Dr. RP Singh. I am director and head of Liver and Kidney transplant and Gastro Sciences at Saroj Super Speciality Hospital in North West Delhi. I am also Director and Co Founder of Centre for healthy liver at our chain of clinics by the name of the Healthy Human Clinics. I ve done my MBBS and MS from prestigious Maulana Azad Medical College and after that I have done my M.Ch or super specialisation in gastro surgery from the prestigious GB Pant Hospital. At my time I was one of the youngest Indians in history, to do a M.Ch in GI surgery and the only one in Indian history among few who topped in all 4 Universities who conduct GI surgery exams. After doing my M.Ch in GI surgery from GB Pant Hospital, I was offered to be an assistant professor in GB Pant hospital. During that I ve done extensive work on various aspects of GI cancer, specially Gall-bladder cancer. After that I was in Ganga Ram hospital as a Liver transplant and a Gastro surgeon, following which I was in Apollo Hospital as a senior consultant of Liver Transplant and Gastro surgery where I was involved in more than 850 liver transplants and in all aspects of GI cancers. Following which I moved as a director and head to start Liver and Kidney transplant and Gastro surgery at Saroj Super Speciality centre.

In addition, I am running a very successful clinic by the name of Healthy Human clinic with a vertical name as Centre for healthy Liver. We are are dealing with all aspects of problems of liver and gastro. We are having an experience of more than 1000 transplant with a very high success rate. We have extensive experience in kidney transplant also. We are taking care of all the gallbladder problems including gallbladder stone, which is no more a problem for the general public now with our extensive experience. We have one of the largest experience in the world of gallbladder cancers, I have done most of my research in gallbladder cancer where I get patients from far and flung areas of India for their gallbladder cancer. In fact, I have published a series of the largest number of gallbladder cancer patient operated in the world and also proposed a new classification for gallbladder cancer and their staging and treatment which was accepted way back in 2010 and many people used to follow it. In addition to gallbladder cancer, we are doing extensive work on binar cancer, we are also doing a extensive work on gallbladder cancer and binar stone. Most of our patient comes for liver problem, gallbladder, liver and pancreas problem. We are having an extensive program for your fatty liver problem, for your obesity and weight loss problem, for your paediatric surgery problem.

We are having extensive work on pancreatic cancer and pancreatic stone. We deal with all aspects of the problem of degree track including cancer of the oesophagus, the problem in your food pipe and your swallowing and all problem in your stomach like cancer, ulcers and bleeding, the problem in your intestine like cancer abstraction and infection. The problem in your large intestine including cancer. We are also dealing with problems of inner canal including Hemorrhoids. we are also dealing with highly complicated surgeries including cancer of the Pelvis, involving Pelvic exenteration where multiple organs are involved and as well as ulcerative colitis and crohn's disease.

We put a lot of focus on prevention of problem to occur. We started with this concept where we not only wants to treat the patient once they have a problem but we also want the patient to come to us so that we can make a change in their life so that they do not have that problem. That's how the concept of health and health care and that's how the Healthy human clinic was born. We are running extensive program in prevention of all aspects of gastro problems and liver problem. We are running good programs of fatty liver, liver cancer, cancer of food pipe, stomach, small intestine and large intestine. We are taking care of all your gastro problems by both medical as well as surgical method. We are extensively trained in both open surgery as well as laparoscopic surgery with the success rate matches to the best hospital of the world.

With respect to that dear friends today I am going to talk a little bit about the GI cancer. GI cancer or gastro cancer is basically divided into three broad field, upper GI cancers, lower GI cancers and HPB cancers HPB in common language is called as liver, pancreas and bile duct, which are highly complicated cancers and my field of interest and my specialisation. In addition to upper and lower GI cancer which are known to the general public by the name of khane ke raste ka cancer, pait ke raste ka cancer aur aanton ka cancer. They are now coming ramping, the reasons are many and this is how and where we are trying to help, not only to operate and make you free of cancer but also to start a program where we can prevent your cancer. Dear friends, healthy lifestyle quitting of alcohol, quitting of smoking, quitting of paan, gutka and tobacco or any of its form.

Living a healthy lifestyle doing regular exercises, walking for 45 minutes everyday, cutting down on your sugar and salt, avoiding too much of fried and fatty food, avoiding fast food will go a long way in making you healthy and keeping you fit. In addition, I am running many articles in the newspaper for the health and awareness of many people and population. All these services are easily accessible and available at our healthy human clinic. I am always available on phone call at any hour of the day. We will try our level best to make you happy, to make you fitter, to make you satisfy and to give you the best possible standard of care in the world at our clinic.

Thank You!
Play video
Corneal Transplantation Procedure
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from the department of visual sciences DOVS from Fortis hospital Vashi, Mumbai and Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi, New Mumbai. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon practicing here in New Mumbai. You can get back to me on lybrate.com and know more about me.

Today I m going to talk to you about very interesting topic about recent advances in corneal surgeries. Now first of all let me start by telling you what is cornea. The Cornea is the front surface of the eye, the black thing you see at the center of the eye. It is actually very transparent and the black color comes from behind i.e. from the iris. This transparent structure is responsible for most of our vision. The other organ or other part which is responsible for most of our vision is the lens that lies behind the iris. So the cornea helps us to focus light on the retina which then transmits it to the brain. If this cornea is opaque then the light will not be transmitted and you will not see clearly. As a result of which we need to do something about it and the most important thing is to do is to replace the cornea with another cornea which comes from a donor and, therefore, donation of eyes after death is a very important act because you helped the next person who is blind to see again. But you should remember that while doing a corneal surgery we only replacing the front part of the eye and not the entire eye. So, now talking about the recent advances corneal surgery we thought that only one cornea could be used per person but today we are doing microsurgery in the cornea as well we are dissenting the cornea into multiple parts and therefore one single eye can help three other eyes. How is that? So, we have three parts of the cornea: the front, the middle and the back. The front part is called Epithelium the middle is Trauma and the inner is Endothelium. Periphery to these are stem cells which are called as limbal stem cells. Now if you have one donation we can dissect the cornea into the front and the back part. The back part can be use for replacing the back part of a damaged cornea and this called as DSEK Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty which is a surgery where the inner part is replaced. In other cases where you have the front part involved where there is opacity because of say infection then we removed only the front part of the cornea and it is called as DALK Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty where we use only the front part of the donated cornea and then use the back part to some other person. Now the third part of the cornea is the Limbal stem cells, these limbal stem cells are responsible for growing a new layer on the cornea. however if they are damaged e.g. in acid injuries or alkali injuries or any other chemical injury then they don t grow and this front part of the cornea gets completely opaque now we need to replace these stem cells from where do we get them. We get them from the other eye if it is normal or we can take it from a donor may be a relative or a dead person. Once you get these stem cells they can then be implanted into the eye which called as stem cell transplant and then they grow back on the surface leading to clear and very crystal clear front surface of the eye. These stem cells are very much important for overall health of the cornea. So as I have discussed the various advances i have now helped us to donate cornea and makes you full use of it for three different persons; the front part, the back part and the stem cells. So what are you waiting for? Go to the eye bank and get yourself registered for eye donation and remember eye donation can only be made after death so you don t have to worry. After that you make other person see and you will also see the world through them.

Thank you very much.
Play video
Warning Signs Of Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety actually refers to a normal reaction to danger, the body s automatic fight-or-flight response that gets triggered when you feel threatened or pressurised or are facing a stressful situation. There are steps which can be taken to reduce your symptoms and regain control of your life.
Play video
Cataract And Refractive Surgery: What Is The Difference?
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from Fortis hospital Vashi, department of visual sciences. And Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon. You can contact me and know more about me through lybrate.com.

Today I m going to talk to you about one very important topic which is of interest to one and all i.e. cataract and refractive surgeries, the recent advances in these surgeries. Let me first start by telling you what is cataract surgery? In cataract surgery the procedure is to remove the opaque lens of the eye which is called a cataract and replaced it by a nice clean artificial lens so that a patient can see again. While refractive surgery is something where we do refractive correction i.e. correction of power of the glasses either by the laser or by a surgical procedure. Both the things can be combined to ultimately give clear vision to the patient. So let s start by starting with the recent advances in the cataract surgery. Well today cataract surgery has been sophisticated by doing procedures using ultrasound phaco probe which is about 2.2mm in size and it can be lesser of up to 1.8mm as well. We can do microincision cataract surgery through these probes. As a result of which we don t require any anesthesia, any stitch and any blood coming out during surgery. During surgery we enter the eye with a very small opening and with the help of this ultrasound probe the emulsify or break the cataract into small pieces and then it is absorbed into the system of the machine, this is then replaced by a very small foldable lens. The lenses are of various types. They are usually monofocal, multifocal, or cylindrical. When we use monofocal lens we try to give you correction for distance so that most of the vision is good without glasses. When we use multifocal lens which is necessary to be put in both the eyes we can give you distance as well as near vision and when we use a toric lens we try to correct your cylindrical power as well. So ultimately by doing cataract surgery we not only remove the cataract but we also correct the glasses power of the patient so the patient can see very well without being too much dependent on the glasses. Apart from the various types of lenses we have now different types of machines which do the surgery. As I said micro-incision surgery is possible by using phaco probe but nowadays we are using laser as well to do the surgeries. Laser was a common term used in public to know or to talk about phacosurgery but today actual laser can also be used to do the surgeries. Although it is very expensive as well as time consuming. So ultimately if we have a good surgeon or experience surgeon micro incision phaco surgery is the surgery of choice even today and with the various type of lenses that available we can get rid of glasses as well apart from removing cataract. Now coming to the refractive surgery. Refractive surgery means removal of power of glasses doing a procedure on the eyes, this is usually done on the surface of the eye using a laser. What we do over here is laser surface ablation of the cornea which can lead to removal of glasses without doing any type of incision any cut or any kind of trauma to the patient or lots of tissue. So this a bladeless procedure and the patient is absolutely comfortable during the procedure and he may have some discomfort in first three or four days but overall at the end of the week he is absolutely normal as he was before without his glasses. This is one of the recent advances of bladeless procedures in laser surgeries. The other advances that we are doing nowadays is in very high refractive power say a power of more than seventeen and eighteen we introduces a special lens which is called as ICL which is put inside the eye without removing the cataract. This lens is like a contact lenses that sits on the lens i.e. given to us by nature. As a result of which the power which is there say e.g. patient with minus eighteen end up with the power which is close to zero and he would be again not dependent on his thick glasses. So this is another advanced that is occurred so that we can correct even the higher refractive errors. So overall if you look at the cataract and the refractive surgeries today we are doing very good sort of very advanced sort of treatments to all our patients which start with the removal of cataract, putting a lens of different types, we can do laser procedure over it to get rid of glasses. We can also put intraocular contact lenses, called ICL, which helps in removal of numbers with high powers and so at the end of the day our patients seems very happy and satisfy with all these results that are coming with modern advancements in cataract and refractive surgeries.

I hope you have understood the topic and if you have any more queries you can get back to me on lybrate.com.
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