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Gerd - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is Gastritis?

GERD or gastroesophageal reflux disease can be a serious condition. It takes place in children and is quite common. The disease can often be unrecognised as the symptoms may be misunderstood. This is sad, as GERD generally is treatable. Serious complications might arise if it hasn’t been properly treated. Heartburn is not the sole symptom, but is the typical symptom for GERD. The disease may not show any other visible symptoms. Heartburn may be resulting from disorders taking place outside and inside the oesophagus. GERD gets mistreated or self-treated way too often. It is chronic in nature and treatment is long term even after the symptoms have been managed. Daily life style modifications need to be followed for complying with the medicines. Education and follow ups can help in managing it. Painful symptoms which might undermine a person’s life quality often characterize GERD. Various techniques may be used effectively for treating GERD. They include changing lifestyle patterns, medicine use and surgery. Chronic GERD sufferers need accurate diagnosis and need help from their doctors for receiving the best possible treatment.

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There is a lower oesophageal lining abnormality in Barrett’s oesophagus. It is supposed to be due to chronic GERD. Most people suffering from GERD don’t have any such abnormality. Those having Barrett’s oesophagus have a greater chance of having oesophageal cancer. An endoscope can be used to detect Barrett’s oesophagus, but a biopsy is essential for diagnosis. GERD diagnosis may be suspected from the patient’s complaints to their doctor, more so when they are typical. If the patient has uncommon symptoms or the doctor feels the need for confirmatory tests, here are a few diagnostic essentials:

Esophagram- In this oesophageal radiographic study, the patient is made to swallow barium and the radiologist can see the stomach and oesophagus under fluoroscopy. This can help determine any problem of oesophageal narrowing or the presence of any hiatal hernia. It can even estimate of the extent of muscular contractions in the oesophagus. The small intestine and the oesophageal lining can also be directly viewed with the endoscope passing into the small intestine via the mouth, oesophagus, small intestine and stomach. Potential damage can be viewed with a direct view of the oesophageal lining.

Treatable by medical professional Require medical diagnosis Lab test sometimes required Short-term: resolves within days to weeks
Symptoms
Pain in the upper abdomen. Pain in the chest. Bitter taste or sour taste in the mouth. Recurrent vomiting, belching, heartburn, nausea and regurgitation.

Popular Health Tips

Being Paranoid - 10 Things You Need To Know About It!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry, Master of Public Health (MPH) Sweden
Psychiatrist, Delhi
Being Paranoid - 10 Things You Need To Know About It!

Paranoia is a psychological condition that worries you, makes you nervous and afraid of your surroundings and your friends and relatives. Paranoia extends a vast field and here are 10 things you need to know to tackle and overcome paranoia.

  1. Be optimistic: Paranoia branches out of pessimism. When you tend to assume the worst of every situation, you will naturally become nervous and afraid of everything that befalls you. Be optimistic and face the situation head-on, reminding yourself that it is not as bad as it may seem and you have the power to overcome it.
  2. Do not obsess over every minute thing: Paranoia does not only mean that someone out there is after you, it also means the constant worry or feeling that someone will get you. The more you think about the negative things the more you will drown yourself in paranoia. But it is not impossible to overcome them. So keep a journal where you write down all the paranoid thoughts and check them later to see how baseless they were.
  3. Confide your thoughts to a confidante or a close friend: Keep a close friend whom you can trust and confide in him/her every detail of your thoughts. Listen to what feedback they have to offer and try to believe them.
  4. Keep yourself busy: Focus all your energy on some hobby or tasks that will keep your paranoid thoughts at bay. It can be anything, from playing an instrument to a healthy time at the gym.
  5. Ask yourself: Ask yourself whether anyone else cares about what you are caring right now. Everyone is busy with their life like you are and everyone has their own troubles to attend to.
  6. Find the root cause: It is essential for you to find out whether your paranoia is rooted in anxiety or not. Anxiety triggers paranoid thoughts; however, the two conditions are different and should be treated separately. Anxiety is your belief that you will die suddenly of a fatal disease, whereas paranoia will make you believe that your doctor is purposefully killing you.
  7. Paranoia comes in waves: The attack comes suddenly and with great vigor. You may just be enjoying a party and suddenly you are affected by a bout of paranoia.
  8. Plan ahead of the attack: If you are living alone, keep emergency contacts near you and the moment you feel any different, call your emergency contact.
  9. Medicate your paranoia: Antipsychotic medications such as Haldol and Loxapine work well to minimize the delusions and the hallucinations. However, never consume any medicine without the advice of the doctor.
  10. Seek professional help: A psychologist will be able to diagnose you better and give the necessary advice to contain your paranoia.

ADHD - Different Types & Its Symptoms!

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Psychiatry, Master of Public Health (MPH) Sweden
Psychiatrist, Delhi
ADHD - Different Types & Its Symptoms!

ADHD is often diagnosed as a complex neurological disorder which is medically described as a developmental impairment of the self-management functions that are linked to brain operations. It impacts the important functions that are required to assess, plan and carry on with a normal life.

Causes of ADHD
ADHD is generally caused by bad parenting, too much sugar consumption and even playing too many video games. ADHD is a brain-based disorder and brain images have shown that people suffering from ADHD to possess psychological differences in their brains.

There are studies which revealed that a child is four times likely to be diagnosed with ADHD if his/her relative suffers from the same brain disorder, thus, clearly pointing to the genetic factor of carrying ADHD. Exposure to dangerous chemicals such as toxins in food, carpeting and flooring, cleaning products, lawn products and several personal care products can also induce ADHD in a child. When these toxins disrupt the development of the brain, a disorder such as ADHD occurs.

Symptoms of ADHD
There are a number of symptoms of ADHD. There are mainly two categories of symptoms of ADHD. They are:
ADHD - Primarily Inattentive Type of Symptoms

  1. The person affected often fails to pay close attention to details and are prone to silly mistakes in schoolwork and other tasks.
  2. They often lack the attention or are unable to retain attention on the task at hand.
  3. It seems that the affected person is not listening when spoken to directly.
  4. They do not follow the instructions given to them and fail to complete their tasks and activities.
  5. They face difficulty in organizing things.
  6. They avoid engaging in tasks that require constant mental effort.
  7. They are prone to losing things essential for tasks and activities.
  8. They are easily distracted by unnecessary and trivial stimuli in their surroundings.
  9. They are forgetful of their daily activities.

ADHD: Primarily Hyperactive-Impulsive Type of Symptoms

  1. The affected individual is fidgety and constantly taps their hands, feet or squirms when seated.
  2. Leaves their seat and stands up on occasions where they are required to be seated.
  3. They run or climb in certain situations where it is inappropriate and unnecessary.
  4. They are unable to engage in or play in leisure and quietly.
  5. They are hyperactive as if they are driven by some kind of motor.
  6. They talk excessively and unnecessarily on all occasions.
  7. They will blurt out answers even before the question is finished.
  8. They are unable to be patient and wait for their own turn to arrive.
  9. They have a tendency to interrupt and intrude others and take over their privacy.

It is advised to consult a doctor if one or many of these symptoms are noticed in an individual.


 

3839 people found this helpful

Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

DM - Neurology, MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Medicine
Neurologist, Ghaziabad
Impact Of Parkinson's Treatment - How Can It Be Managed?

Coping with Parkinson’s disease is not an easy task. Whether you or your loved one is suffering from it, the effect of the disease takes a toll. Other than the fact that it is a degenerative disease and the neurological condition deteriorates over time, the mental trauma that Parkinson’s brings; not only to the patient but to the caregiver as well, is a whole chapter on its own. When you are taking care of someone who is suffering from

Parkinson’s disease, it is natural that the emotional upheaval that you may go through will take a huge toll on your health and your mind. It is imperative that you prepare yourself thoroughly, whether you are the patient or the caregiver, about the disease and its treatments.

There is hardly any cure and treatment for the disease. It is still in its research stage and hence, often there is a strong sense of despair that sets in the mind of the patient and their loved ones. It is for this reason you have to prepare yourself to face and fight this disease.

Here are some tips that may help you to cope with the treatments of Parkinson’s disease:

  1. Educate Yourself: Educate yourself about every detail of the disease, specific to the type of Parkinson’s that has affected you or your loved one. Ask questions, whether to your doctor or the nurses. Search through the internet, you will get plenty of genuine information. This is necessary as it will prepare you to face the future head-on. You will understand what you are dealing with and how much worse it can get.
  2. Stay Active: If you are the one who is suffering from Parkinson’s, then write it down as the golden rule – I will have to stay physically active. Staying active will keep your muscles active and there will be a steady functioning of the nervous system. Staying active gives you the benefit of keeping the muscles at work, ultimately fighting the main symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Being physically active is also essential to have a good mental health, both for the patient and the caregiver.
  3. Connect With People: Talk to people, your friends, family members, children, grandchildren and anyone you feel like. If you have any estranged relative, it could be a good time to reconnect. Have wholesome conversations that will influence happy thoughts and encourage you to think and ponder on happy memories. This is crucial as Parkinson’s invites depression and you will have to tackle it vehemently.
  4. Talk to a Mental Health Professional: If you feel that you are losing a complete hold of your life and your depression seems uncontrollable, it is time to visit a professional psychiatrist and seek his/her advice in dealing with your troubled mental condition.


 

2604 people found this helpful

Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

M.Phil - Clinical Psychology, M.Sc - Neuropsychology
Psychologist, Zirakpur
Eating Disorders And Suicidal Thoughts - Are They Related?

Eating disorders can harm your physical and mental health. Anorexia, bulimia and binge eating are some of the most common eating disorders. They are typically caused by dissatisfaction with physical appearances. Feeling bad about how you look can often lead to depression. In many cases, this can also lead to suicidal thoughts. Here are a few reasons for this.

  1. Feeling of hopelessness: Eating disorders typically start out as ways to lose weight and look better. Most patients think that this will make them more popular amongst friends and colleagues. However, when they do not see themselves winning more friends because of their new figure, it can lead to feelings of despair and hopelessness. This can make them feel unworthy of living and give rise to suicidal thoughts.
  2. Malnourishment: By not eating enough food, the body is deprived of essential nutrients. This can give rise to a number of health issues. Malnourishment also influences how the neurons in the brain function. It can hamper the person’s ability to think clearly and contribute to a distorted sense of reality. As a result, the person may be more easily influenced by negativity.
  3. Feeling of being a burden: The combination of helplessness, negativity and nutrient deficiency can make the person feel as though they were a burden on everyone else. The attention given to them by friends and family can further intensify such thoughts. In many cases, the person may end up having suicidal thoughts that if he were to give up his life, his friends and family would be better off without him.
  4. Unrealistic ideals: People with eating disorders typically have unrealistic ideals of the lifestyle and figure they would like to have. When they do not see these goals being achieved in the manner that they dreamt of, it can cause frustration. This can make the person feel worse about himself or herself.

Like any other disease or disorder, it is essential for people with eating disorders to get professional help overcoming their habits. Parents, friends and other members of the family should be supportive and be on the lookout for signs of suicidal thoughts. This includes talking about death, researching means of suicide, not being able to sleep or sleeping too much, isolating oneself from people around, losing interest in activities and hobbies etc. If the person does seem to be having suicidal thoughts, they should not be ignored but brought to the notice of a counsellor immediately.

2719 people found this helpful

Lack of Growth Due To Insufficient Hormones!

MBBS, Post Graduate Diploma In Diabetology (PGDD)
Endocrinologist, Thane
Lack of Growth Due To Insufficient Hormones!

The pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain, is responsible for producing growth hormones. When the growth hormones are not produced sufficiently by this gland, then the rate of growth is slower. In children, the hormone needs to be adequate to ensure the right amount of growth. To maintain the right amount of fats in the body, adults need this hormone. The hormone is also required to maintain muscles and bones in the body. Lack of the growth hormones can cause an emotional disturbance, tiredness, and motivation issues in adults. When the pituitary tumors are treated, cholesterol levels, too, are affected because of insufficient hormonal production. This deficiency can occur at any age in children and adults.

Symptoms in children and adults: When one is affected by slow growth hormone production, a number of symptoms may manifest. The most important symptom is the short stature. Growth velocity for the corresponding age is also lower, and puberty is also delayed. One can also see the mid-area accumulating more fat in the body. In children, this deficiency can make them look much younger for their age. The tooth development is much delayed and they do not stick to their developmental milestones. Adults find it difficult to do exercises or they have low endurance when the growth hormones are insufficient. The skin becomes thick and dry, and they are also prone to anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders.

Diagnosis: A hypoglycemia test is conducted to confirm the diagnosis. The individual is administered insulin through an intravenous line. The growth of hormone level is measured after 30 minutes. If the result is less than 10 mcg per mL in children, then it is considered that there is growth hormone deficiency. An adult is considered deficient in growth hormones when the level is less than 3 mcg per mL.

Treatment methods: As low growth hormones can lead to stress and fatigue, it is important for the people who are affected by this condition to get enough sleep. They should also concentrate on taking healthy foods. The cholesterol and triglyceride levels are already increased in people who have low growth hormone levels. So, avoiding fatty and oily foods is necessary. Doing physical exercises every day is also recommended.

Growth hormone therapy is one of the ways to improve the growth hormone levels in the affected individuals. The treatment not only aims at improving this hormone levels but it also ensures that the metabolism is maintained in a healthy way. The drugs for this condition are injected under the layers of fat in the skin. The drug is given via injection once in a week throughout the treatment duration. If the disorder is because of tumors in the pituitary gland, then it can be treated only with a surgery. For the same condition, radiation therapy is also given, if the tumor is not removed successfully with the surgery. People with low levels of growth hormones are advised to lose fat and avoid eating a heavy meal before bedtime. Intermittent fasting is also recommended.

10 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Dr, I'm 18 Years old boy, I have severe heart burn and stomach ache years ago. When I take antacids the symptoms gets vanished but I didn't get a complete cure. Thus I consult a gastroenterologist thus he advice me to do Occult blood test and it found to be positive hence he said to me to go for an Endoscopy and colonoscopy. After all I get the result that I have congenital Sliding Hiatal Hernia with grade A esophagitis. Dr. I want to know Congenital Sliding Hiatal Hernia is dangerous or not?

DNB GENERAL SURGERY, MBBS, National Board Of Examination
General Surgeon, Mumbai
Hello there please go through this It's my article on sliding hiatal hernia for patient education What is a hiatal hernia? — A hiatal hernia is what doctors call it when a part of the stomach moves up into the chest area. Normally, the stomach sits below the diaphragm, the layer of muscle that separates the organs in the chest from the organs in the belly. The esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach, passes through a hole in the diaphragm. In people with a hiatal hernia, the stomach pushes up through that hole, too. There are 2 types of hiatal hernia:●Sliding hernia – A sliding hernia happens when the top of the stomach and the lower part of the esophagus squeeze up into the space above the diaphragm. This is the most common type of hiatal hernia. ●Paraesophageal hernia – A paraesophageal hernia happens when the top of the stomach squeezes up into the space above the diaphragm. This is not very common, but it can be serious if the stomach folds up on itself. It can also cause bleeding from the stomach or trouble breathing. What are the symptoms of a hiatal hernia? — Hiatal hernias do not usually cause symptoms. In some cases, though, hiatal hernias cause stomach acid to leak into the esophagus. This is called acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux, and it can cause symptoms, including: ●Burning in the chest, known as heartburn ●Burning in the throat or an acid taste in the throat ●Stomach or chest pain ●Trouble swallowing ●A raspy voice or a sore throat ●Unexplained cough Is there a test for hiatal hernia? — Yes, but doctors do not usually test for hiatal hernia. Instead, most people learn they have a hiatal hernia when they are having tests to find the cause of symptoms, or for other reasons. For instance, some people find out they have a hiatal hernia when they have an X-ray. Others find out when their doctor puts a tube with a tiny camera down their throat (called an endoscopy) How are hiatal hernias treated? — People who have symptoms caused by a hiatal hernia can get treated for their symptoms. Treatment for symptoms involves taking the medicines that are used for acid reflux (). People with a paraesophageal hernia, and some people with a sliding hernia, need surgery. For this surgery, the surgeon pulls the stomach back down and repairs the hole in the diaphragm so the stomach does not slide up again. FOR FURTHER QUERIES PLEASE BOOK AUDIO CONSULT THANK YOU TAKE CARE.

My dad finds everything he eats bitter, because of which he is eating a lot less lately. He is 62 years old with high BP and high sugar level (intake of insulin along with tablets). But enjoys eating sweet items. This is the case for past 2-3 years, consulted many doctors as well but no effective results yet. Please suggest me something to reduce this.

MBBS, MD
Endocrinologist, Delhi
His taste sensation has altered or his taste buds are not working properly. Try to make him understand that eating sweat items will increase his insulin requirement and that may increase his weight which is not good for diabetes and high BP and for his overall health.
1 person found this helpful

Hello doctor, I am having upper stomach pain I am not sure it is pain or burning, also sometimes heartburn. Doctor prescribed me sucralfate suspension and fluid. Am I need to avoid mild spicy food also lifelong. Am just reached 30 age. How to resolve this permanently. Does stretta procedure for GERD helps. From last 8 months I faced this problem more than ten times. Is anything serious, am feeling burning pain and stomach bloating after eating.

MBBS, DNB - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Intermittent pain and burning can happen to many people. Please take a course of antacids like pantoprazole for 3-4 weeks. After that you should be able to get back to normal life. But if problem continues then you must see a doctor. Yes stretta procedure can be done if needed.
1 person found this helpful

I have problem of esophagitis Gr. B +small hernia+Chronic gastritis with duodenal ulcer. I was put on esomeprazole 40 mg + Itopride 150 mg (Sompraz - IT). I have been using them since 3 years. If I stop, I am getting my GERD symptoms back. Is it safe to continue the medicine?

MCh(Minimally Invasive & Robotic Surgery), MS - Surgical, MBBS
General Surgeon, Guwahati
Mr. lybrate-user, as it is already 3rd year of conservative treatment, I think you should now visit a Gatro Surgeon who is doing Nissan's fundoplication, the gold standard surgery for Hiatas hernia with GERD. Safe surgery with experienced hands.
3 people found this helpful

I am GERD and Hiatus Hernia. My stomach has been paining a lot for last six months in spite of regular medication. Presently I am on Escoz D 40 and Escoz D. Please advise.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear lybrate-user, hi Warm welcome to Lybrate.com I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* The cause of stomach pain needs evaluation with further work up in form of lab tests, ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy according to the clinician concern.* Primary relief with - plenty of liquids.- consume soft, light diet.- avoid oily, spicy non veg, junk foods.- anti spasmodic tablets as dicyclomine or drotaverine would help.- avoid smoking, alcohol if using. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance. Regards take care.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is Gastritis?

More about :

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Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Feeling acidic after eating a heavy meal can often make you regret those last few morsels. This acidic sensation is known as acid reflux or Gastroesophageal reflux disease, better known as GERD. GERD occurs when the functioning of the lower oesophagus muscles is restricted.
Play video
Heartburn Or Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the ring of muscle between the esophagus and stomach. Most people can manage the discomfort of GERD with lifestyle changes and over-the-counter medications. But som
Play video
Corneal Transplantation Procedure
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from the department of visual sciences DOVS from Fortis hospital Vashi, Mumbai and Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi, New Mumbai. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon practicing here in New Mumbai. You can get back to me on lybrate.com and know more about me.

Today I m going to talk to you about very interesting topic about recent advances in corneal surgeries. Now first of all let me start by telling you what is cornea. The Cornea is the front surface of the eye, the black thing you see at the center of the eye. It is actually very transparent and the black color comes from behind i.e. from the iris. This transparent structure is responsible for most of our vision. The other organ or other part which is responsible for most of our vision is the lens that lies behind the iris. So the cornea helps us to focus light on the retina which then transmits it to the brain. If this cornea is opaque then the light will not be transmitted and you will not see clearly. As a result of which we need to do something about it and the most important thing is to do is to replace the cornea with another cornea which comes from a donor and, therefore, donation of eyes after death is a very important act because you helped the next person who is blind to see again. But you should remember that while doing a corneal surgery we only replacing the front part of the eye and not the entire eye. So, now talking about the recent advances corneal surgery we thought that only one cornea could be used per person but today we are doing microsurgery in the cornea as well we are dissenting the cornea into multiple parts and therefore one single eye can help three other eyes. How is that? So, we have three parts of the cornea: the front, the middle and the back. The front part is called Epithelium the middle is Trauma and the inner is Endothelium. Periphery to these are stem cells which are called as limbal stem cells. Now if you have one donation we can dissect the cornea into the front and the back part. The back part can be use for replacing the back part of a damaged cornea and this called as DSEK Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty which is a surgery where the inner part is replaced. In other cases where you have the front part involved where there is opacity because of say infection then we removed only the front part of the cornea and it is called as DALK Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty where we use only the front part of the donated cornea and then use the back part to some other person. Now the third part of the cornea is the Limbal stem cells, these limbal stem cells are responsible for growing a new layer on the cornea. however if they are damaged e.g. in acid injuries or alkali injuries or any other chemical injury then they don t grow and this front part of the cornea gets completely opaque now we need to replace these stem cells from where do we get them. We get them from the other eye if it is normal or we can take it from a donor may be a relative or a dead person. Once you get these stem cells they can then be implanted into the eye which called as stem cell transplant and then they grow back on the surface leading to clear and very crystal clear front surface of the eye. These stem cells are very much important for overall health of the cornea. So as I have discussed the various advances i have now helped us to donate cornea and makes you full use of it for three different persons; the front part, the back part and the stem cells. So what are you waiting for? Go to the eye bank and get yourself registered for eye donation and remember eye donation can only be made after death so you don t have to worry. After that you make other person see and you will also see the world through them.

Thank you very much.
Play video
Warning Signs Of Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety actually refers to a normal reaction to danger, the body s automatic fight-or-flight response that gets triggered when you feel threatened or pressurised or are facing a stressful situation. There are steps which can be taken to reduce your symptoms and regain control of your life.
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Cataract And Refractive Surgery: What Is The Difference?
Good morning friends.

I m Dr. Harshavardhan Ghorpade from Fortis hospital Vashi, department of visual sciences. And Saroj Speciality Eye Clinic Vashi. I have done my MS. FRCS and I m a cataract, cornea and a refractive eye surgeon. You can contact me and know more about me through lybrate.com.

Today I m going to talk to you about one very important topic which is of interest to one and all i.e. cataract and refractive surgeries, the recent advances in these surgeries. Let me first start by telling you what is cataract surgery? In cataract surgery the procedure is to remove the opaque lens of the eye which is called a cataract and replaced it by a nice clean artificial lens so that a patient can see again. While refractive surgery is something where we do refractive correction i.e. correction of power of the glasses either by the laser or by a surgical procedure. Both the things can be combined to ultimately give clear vision to the patient. So let s start by starting with the recent advances in the cataract surgery. Well today cataract surgery has been sophisticated by doing procedures using ultrasound phaco probe which is about 2.2mm in size and it can be lesser of up to 1.8mm as well. We can do microincision cataract surgery through these probes. As a result of which we don t require any anesthesia, any stitch and any blood coming out during surgery. During surgery we enter the eye with a very small opening and with the help of this ultrasound probe the emulsify or break the cataract into small pieces and then it is absorbed into the system of the machine, this is then replaced by a very small foldable lens. The lenses are of various types. They are usually monofocal, multifocal, or cylindrical. When we use monofocal lens we try to give you correction for distance so that most of the vision is good without glasses. When we use multifocal lens which is necessary to be put in both the eyes we can give you distance as well as near vision and when we use a toric lens we try to correct your cylindrical power as well. So ultimately by doing cataract surgery we not only remove the cataract but we also correct the glasses power of the patient so the patient can see very well without being too much dependent on the glasses. Apart from the various types of lenses we have now different types of machines which do the surgery. As I said micro-incision surgery is possible by using phaco probe but nowadays we are using laser as well to do the surgeries. Laser was a common term used in public to know or to talk about phacosurgery but today actual laser can also be used to do the surgeries. Although it is very expensive as well as time consuming. So ultimately if we have a good surgeon or experience surgeon micro incision phaco surgery is the surgery of choice even today and with the various type of lenses that available we can get rid of glasses as well apart from removing cataract. Now coming to the refractive surgery. Refractive surgery means removal of power of glasses doing a procedure on the eyes, this is usually done on the surface of the eye using a laser. What we do over here is laser surface ablation of the cornea which can lead to removal of glasses without doing any type of incision any cut or any kind of trauma to the patient or lots of tissue. So this a bladeless procedure and the patient is absolutely comfortable during the procedure and he may have some discomfort in first three or four days but overall at the end of the week he is absolutely normal as he was before without his glasses. This is one of the recent advances of bladeless procedures in laser surgeries. The other advances that we are doing nowadays is in very high refractive power say a power of more than seventeen and eighteen we introduces a special lens which is called as ICL which is put inside the eye without removing the cataract. This lens is like a contact lenses that sits on the lens i.e. given to us by nature. As a result of which the power which is there say e.g. patient with minus eighteen end up with the power which is close to zero and he would be again not dependent on his thick glasses. So this is another advanced that is occurred so that we can correct even the higher refractive errors. So overall if you look at the cataract and the refractive surgeries today we are doing very good sort of very advanced sort of treatments to all our patients which start with the removal of cataract, putting a lens of different types, we can do laser procedure over it to get rid of glasses. We can also put intraocular contact lenses, called ICL, which helps in removal of numbers with high powers and so at the end of the day our patients seems very happy and satisfy with all these results that are coming with modern advancements in cataract and refractive surgeries.

I hope you have understood the topic and if you have any more queries you can get back to me on lybrate.com.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice