Periodontitis is a serious gum infection that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone that supports the teeth. Periodontitis can cause teeth to loosen or lead to tooth loss.
Periodontitis is common but largely preventable. It's usually the result of poor oral hygiene. Brushing at least twice a day, flossing daily and getting regular dental checkups can greatly improve your chances of successful treatment for periodontitis and can also reduce your chance of developing it.
There are several different types of periodontitis. The more common types include those below.
Chronic periodontitis is the most common type, affecting mostly adults, though children can be affected, too. This type is caused by plaque buildup and involves slow deterioration that may improve and get worse over time but causes destruction in the gums and bone and loss of teeth if not treated.
Aggressive periodontitis usually begins in childhood or early adulthood and affects only a small number of people. It tends to affect families and causes rapid progression of bone and tooth loss if untreated.
Necrotizing periodontal disease is characterized by the death of gum tissue, tooth ligaments and supporting bone caused by lack of blood supply (necrosis), resulting in severe infection. This type generally occurs in people with a suppressed immune system — such as from hiv infection, cancer treatment or other causes — and malnutrition.
In most cases, periodontitis begins with plaque — a sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. If left untreated, here's how plaque can eventually advance to periodontitis:
- plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Brushing your teeth twice a day and flossing once a day removes plaque, but plaque re-forms quickly.
- plaque can harden under your gumline into tartar (calculus) if it stays on your teeth. Tartar is more difficult to remove and it's filled with bacteria. The longer plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more damage they can do. You can't get rid of tartar by brushing and flossing — you need a professional dental cleaning to remove it.
- plaque can cause gingivitis, the mildest form of periodontal disease. Gingivitis is irritation and inflammation of the part of your gum around the base of your teeth (gingiva). Gingivitis can be reversed with professional treatment and good home oral care.
- ongoing gum inflammation can cause periodontitis, eventually causing pockets to develop between your gums and teeth that fill with plaque, tartar and bacteria. In time, these pockets become deeper, filling with more bacteria. If not treated, these deep infections cause a loss of tissue and bone, and ultimately you may lose one or more teeth. Also, ongoing chronic inflammation can put a strain on your immune system.
Healthy gums are firm and pale pink and fit snuggly around teeth. Signs and symptoms of periodontitis can include:
- swollen or puffy gums
- bright red, dusky red or purplish gums
- gums that feel tender when touched
- gums that bleed easily
- gums that pull away from your teeth (recede), making your teeth look longer than normal
- new spaces developing between your teeth
- pus between your teeth and gums
- bad breath
- loose teeth
- painful chewing
- a change in the way your teeth fit together when you bite
Risk factors -
Factors that can increase your risk of periodontitis include:
Periodontitis can cause tooth loss. And some research suggests that the bacteria responsible for periodontitis can enter your bloodstream through gum tissue, possibly affecting your heart, lungs and other parts of your body. For example, periodontitis may be linked with respiratory disease, rheumatoid arthritis, coronary artery disease or stroke. But more studies are needed to confirm a link.
The best way to prevent periodontitis is to follow a program of good oral hygiene, one that you begin early and practice consistently throughout life.
- good oral hygiene. That means brushing your teeth for two minutes at least twice daily — in the morning and before going to bed — and flossing at least once a day. Flossing before you brush allows you to clean away the loosened food particles and bacteria.
- regular dental visits. See your dentist or dental hygienist regularly for cleanings, usually every six to 12 months. If you have risk factors that increase your chance of developing periodontitis — such as having dry mouth, taking certain medications or smoking — you may need professional cleaning more often.
Homoeopathic remedies -
Homoeopathy today is a rapidly growing system and is being practiced all over the world. Its strength lies in its evident effectiveness as it takes a holistic approach towards the sick individual through promotion of inner balance at mental, emotional, spiritual and physical levels. When peridonditis is concerned there are many effective medicines are available in homoeopathy, but the selection depends upon the individuality of the patient, considering the mental and physical symptoms.
- Mercurius sol 30 - Merc sol is one of the top remedy for inflammation of gums. Merc sol is prescribed where the gums inflamed, painful which is purple, swollen and spongy. Sometimes toothache associated with inflammation of gums. The gums recede, bleed and the tooth loose. Another marked feature is increased salivation accompanied with this complaint. Mouth full of saliva, which is soapy or stringy. Due to saliva the mouth is wet even then there is thirst for large quantities of cold water. The tongue is heavy, thick, moist, coated yellow, flabby, shows the imprint of teeth with ulcers, feels as if burnt. Profuse perspiration is another leading symptom. Bad odor from the mouth. All discharges from the body are offensive. The breath is putrid, offensive urine, stool, sweat etc.
- Kreosotum 30 - Kreosotum is another effective remedy for peridonditis with rapid decay of teeth. The gums inflamed, turned bluish, spongy and bleeding. Putrid odour and bitter taste in mouth. Teeth appears dark, crumbly and black spots on teeth.
- Carbo vegetabilis 30 - Carbo veg is effective for inflammation of gums with scorbutic gums. Blood oozes from the gums when cleaning teeth. Gums retracted and bleed easily, painful while chewing. Gums turned black. Bad smell and sour, bitter taste in mouth.
- Alumen 30 - Alumen is best for peridonditis with loose teeth. Gums swollen, inflamed and spongy. Teeth and gums scorbutic.
- Hepar sulphur 30 — Hepar sulph is indicated, where the gums and mouth painful to touch and bleed easily. Foul odor from breath.
- Kali carbonicum 30 — Kali carb is another indicated remedy, where the gums separate from teeth. Itching in gums, pus oozes out. Much salivation. Mouth and tongue covered with burning, soreness or painful vesicles. Offensive odor from mouth.
- Lachesis 30 - Lachesis is best for inflammation of gums with bluish appearance. The gum swollen, spongy and easily bleeding. There is bad odour and sour peppery taste in mouth. If with toothache the pain extends to ears.
- Phosphorus 30 - Phosphorus is another top medicine for inflammation of gums with bleeding. The gums bleeding easily, sore behind incisors. Pain get worse from cold heat and while eating. Salty or sweetish saliva.
- Silicea 30 - Silicea is best for inflammation of gums where the gum is sensitive to cold air and cold water. Teeth feel long and loose. Water tastes badly and vomits after drinking. There is an offensive odour from mouth and the mouth feels dry.
- Staphysagria 30 - Staphysagria is best for inflammation of gums with teeth decay. The gums pale, swollen and bleed easily. There is much salivation. Teeth black and crumbling. Musty taste in mouth.
- Thuja occidentalis 200 - Thuja is indicated for inflammation of gums with tooth decay. Teeth decay at the edge of gums, crumble, turn yellow. Gums very sensitive and retract.
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