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Overview

Heart Attack - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

Heart attack is also known as myocardial infarction (MI) as per medical terminology. It causes permanent harm to the heart muscle. The muscles of the heart need a supply of blood which is rich in oxygen. The coronary artery aids the heart in this process with blood supply. During a heart attack, the blood ceases to flow because the arteries tend to narrow down. The outer shell cracks and blood starts to clot, this in turn blocks the artery and the muscle starts ‘starving’ for oxygen. The heart muscle suddenly dies and causes irreversible damage resulting to a heart attack.

Heart attack can occur without a coronary artery disease or even at rest. The heart muscles start healing 8 weeks after the heart attack. However, the blood pumping ability of the heart is reduced to a great extent after a heart attack. It is important to get proper treatment as soon as you get a heart attack or it might damage you heart tissues greatly and the chances of survival can be reduced.

How can heart attack be diagnosed?

  • ECG- This is also known as electrocardiogram or EKG. This test usually tells the amount and the exact area of damage which has occurred to your heart tissues and muscles. Your heart rhythm and rate can be monitored closely.
  • Blood tests- These tests are usually carried out to measure the levels of enzymes present in the heart. These enzymes are extremely important for the functioning of the heart. By measuring the amount of enzymes, the specialist can accurately examine the size and intensity of the heart attack. Troponin levels (proteins found inside the cells of the heart) are also measured by carrying out blood tests.
  • Echocardiography- It is a test which is used after and during heart attacks to see in what areas the heart is pumping and how the heart is pumping blood. Echocardiography can also tell the shape and structure of the septum and valves of the heart.
  • Cardiac catheterization- It is used during the first few hours of a heart attack, it is used to visualize the arteries and aids the doctor is deciding which surgery is effective to treat the blockage.

It is vital to get immediate medical help if you develop a heart attack. Certain drugs are used to prevent and break up blood clots inside the heart. These medications should be given as soon as possible to reduce the amount of damage to the heart.

Usually self diagnosable Lab test always required Non communicable
Symptoms
Prolonged pain on the chest Discomfort on the upper body Stomach pain which leads to a heartburn Anxiety and lightheadedness Immense sweating nausea and vomitting

Popular Health Tips

Cervical Cancer Screening - What Should You Know?

Dr. Manisha Tomar 91% (14 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, DNB
Gynaecologist, Noida
Cervical Cancer Screening - What Should You Know?
Cervical cancer is a malignancy that grows in the lining of the cervix. Cervical cancer screening includes 2 types of screening tests such as HPV testing and the Cytology based screening. The Cytology based screening is also referred to as Pap smear. The abnormal cells that can develop into cancer, if they are left untreated, can be detected with the Pap test. It is the best method for preventing cervical cancer and even to check for the HPV Virus. Pap tests are done in different ways but the most common method is to brush the cells off to get a sample from the cervical region. These cells are then sent to the lab for testing which is done by placing them on a glass slide and observing them under a microscope. When cervical cancer screening should be done- It is necessary for women to get the cervical screening done at the age of 21 years. Pap test should be done every 3 years by women who are between the ages of 21-29 years and unless it is really needed the HPV test need not be done. Whereas women who are in between the ages of 30-65 should get the Pap test as well as the HPV test once in 5 years. The precancerous changes in the cervix can be detected through the Pap smear screening. The number of deaths that have occurred due to this cancer have been reduced by using this effective screening tool which was introduced 50 years ago. The possible causes of cervical cancer are a weak immune system, smoking, consuming oral contraceptives and having several sexual partners. Important Guidelines to Follow Women who are over 65 years and who have done regular Pap smear screening over the past 10 years must not do the screening tests unless they have any serious pre-cancers found. Women of any age must not opt for any of the screening methods every year. Even women who have removed their cervix and uterus must not do the screening tests. Many women feel that they do not have to do the screening tests after they have delivered or birth of a child but it is not true. The main benefit of screening is that most cervical cancers can be prevented and it is the best way to find abnormal changes in the cervical cells. Why cervical cancer screening is important? The cervical cancer screening is an important test in the health checkup for women. There are certain risks involved in cervical screening and it is better to consult the doctor for advice on the right age to do the screening and how often it must be done. These days there are vaccines available that are used to prevent infections by targeting the several strains of HPV.
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Cancer Of Cervix (Cervical Cancer)

Dr. Jayanti Kamat 88% (525 ratings)
MBBS, MD - Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Advanced Infertility
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
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Causes, symptoms and treatment of Cervical cancer

Common Gynaecological Cancers - What Are They & How They Can Be Prevented?

Dr. Chandrakanth Mv 90% (103 ratings)
MBBS, MD(General Medicine), Fellowship Hemato - Oncology (Hemat-Oncology), DM(Medical Oncology), DNB(Medical Oncology)
Oncologist, Kolkata
Common Gynaecological Cancers - What Are They & How They Can Be Prevented?
Women related cancer: Prevention and Treatment With the modernization of all economies around the world, one health hazard that has become one of the largest perils within both developed and developing nations is the incidence of cancers of the female reproductive system, especially cervical and breast cancer. Breast cancer Breast cancer is the formation of malignant tumors within the breast tissues of a woman. Usually, breast cancer affects women in the age range of 40 to 50, but there have been many reports of it occurring earlier. About 48 % percent of the Indian women having breast cancer have been reported to be under 50. This is an almost 17 percent jump compared to figures 25 years earlier. Alarming Signs of Breast Cancer: - The most common symptom of breast cancer is a new lump or mass. A painless, hard mass that has irregular edges is more likely to be cancerous, but breast cancers can be tender, soft, or rounded. - Swelling of all or part of a breast (even if no distinct lump is felt) - Skin irritation or dimpling - Breast or nipple pain - Nipple retraction (turning inward) - Redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin - Nipple discharge (other than breast milk) Screening Guidelines for Breast cancer: - Mammography: US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends mammography once in every 2 year for females between age group 50-75 years. Women with a family history has a benefit of starting at age 40 years. After 75 years there are insufficient evidence of benefit of screening mammography. - Breast Self Examination and annual Clinical examination: breast self examination is easy to learn and and any abnormality should be reported to the oncologist. - For High Risk/ Genetic risk factors: screening should start by age 25 or 10 years earlier of youngest relative affected. Annual mammogram and MRI or Doppler ultrasound alternating at 6 month interval can be considered. Treatment Options: Some of the common treatment options for breast cancers are: Breast conservation surgery - This is where the tumors are removed without cutting out too much of the surrounding breast tissue. Mastectomy - If the cancer has spread too far then large amounts of breast tissue has to be removed along with the tumor to stop its spread any further. Sentinel lymph node Biopsy - it's part of both surgical procedures, it decreases morbidities of lymph node dissection first draining lymph nodes only are removed in patients with clinically negative axilla. If negative on frozen section further axillary dissection is avoided. It avoids the morbidity of complete axillary clearance. Cervical cancer ( Carcinoma Cervix) Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix, which is the opening of the uterus and connects the uterus to the vagina. Indian women in particular are susceptible to cervical cancer as more than 1/3rd of the cervical cancer related deaths in the entire world happens here in India, which is about 74000 deaths annually. The leading cause for cervical cancer is HPV or Human Papillomavirus infection, which if left untreated and unchecked will result in cancer. Alarming Signs of Cervical Carcinoma: - Early lesions and precancerous lesions have no symptoms - Abnormal vaginal bleeding such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse, bleeding after menopause, bleeding and spotting between periods or longer/heavier periods - Abnormal vaginal discharge - Pelvic pain - Late stage disease may cause lower extremity swelling, problem with urine and/or stool passage Screening Guidelines: - Cervical cancer screening is most effective screening programme of any cancer disease resulting in significant decrease in mortality from carcinoma cervix - United state preventive services task force (USPSTF) recommend cervical cancer screening starting at age 21 yrs. - Between age 21-30 years cytology recommended at 3 year interval and HPV testing is not recommended. - Between 30-65 years cytology every 3 year or cytology +HPV testing every 5 year. - If previously adequately screened screening can be discontinued after 65 years. - Women with prior total hysterectomy and no CIN can discontinue screening. Apart from breast and cervical cancers, certain other cancers have also reported an alarming increase such as:- Ovarian cancer (Carcinoma Ovary) Starting in the ovaries, diagnosis of this type of cancer is usually delayed due to lack of visible symptoms in the initial stages. About 85% to 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Epithelial ovarian cancers tend to spread to the lining and organs of the pelvis and abdomen (belly) first. This may lead to the buildup of fluid in the abdominal cavity (called ascites). As it advances, it may spread to the lung and liver, or, rarely, to the brain, bones, or skin. The main treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery and chemotherapy. Cancer of the endometrium (Carcinoma Endometrium) Endometrium is the lining of the uterine wall and has along with ovarian, uterine and cervical cancer is also increasing in occurrences throughout India and the world. The grade of an endometrial cancer is based on how much the cancer forms glands that look similar to those found in normal, healthy endometrium. - Grade 1 tumors have 95% or more of the cancerous tissue forming glands. - Grade 2 tumors have between 50% and 94% of the cancerous tissue forming glands. - Grade 3 tumors have less than half of the cancerous tissue forming glands. Grade 3 cancers tend to be aggressive and have a poorer outlook than lower-grade cancers. Treatment Options: Cervical cancer along with Ovarian, uterine and endometrial cancer can be treated using the following methods: 1. Surgery: Radical Hysterectomy primarily preferred option for early stage disease. Both open and minimal invasive approaches are suitable. - For precancer high grade lesion conisation is also option for compliant patient. - In young suitable patient willing for childbearing trachelectomy is also possible in very early lesion. - Depending on risk factors after surgery adjuvant treatment may be advised. 2. Radiation therapy or Combined Radiation therapy+Chemotherapy: Alternative to surgery in early stage and choice in late stage. Prevention: Certain prevention techniques that would be advisable to detect cancer in its early stages would be, - Regular Pap smear tests for cervical cancer - Taking vaccines for cervical cancer - Regular mammograms and checkups for breast cancer - Changing lifestyles to reduce stress - Changes in diet to reduce risks - Leading a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise
5 people found this helpful

Role Of Laparoscopy In Gynaecological Cancers!

Dr. Dinesh Singh 89% (60 ratings)
MBBS, MD-Radio Therapy
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Role Of Laparoscopy In Gynaecological Cancers!
Minimally invasive surgery or laparoscopic surgery is increasingly becoming popular in all fields of surgery including gynecological oncology. Given its many advantages, it is easy to see why people prefer this form of surgery. The use of laparoscopy in the field of gynecological oncology began in the late 1980s. The first laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy was performed in 1989. Laparoscopy and Endometrial Cancer The endometrium refers to the lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is rare are usually affect women over the age of 55 years. A hysterectomy is one of the forms of treatment for this condition. If detected in its early stages, this hysterectomy may be performed laparoscopically. As compared to traditional surgery, this reduces the hospital stay required and is associated with fewer postoperative complications. Laparoscopy may also be used to restage patients who have already undergone a hysterectomy. Laparoscopy and Cervical Cancer The lowermost part of the uterus is known as the cervix. A pap smear can help in the early detection of cervical cancer. This can be treated surgically in the form of a lymphadenectomy or a radical hysterectomy. One of the factors crucial to the management of this type of cancer is an evaluation of the lymph nodes. This is where laparoscopy is very useful. As in the case of endometrial cancer, laparoscopy may also be used for a hysterectomy procedure. A laparoscopic lymphadenectomy may also be performed to investigate the extent to which the cancer has spread. Advanced stages of cervical cancer can be treated with chemotherapy and radiation. In such cases, the role of laparoscopy may be limited to staging the patient before treatment. Laparoscopy and Adnexal Masses Adnexal masses refer to ovarian abnormalities and development of masses in the fallopian tubes, uterus and other organs in the pelvic cavity. Laparoscopy is routinely used to treat benign Adnexal masses. It can also be used in the management of malignant adnexal masses. However, its role is less clearly defined in such cases. When using laparoscopic procedures to address adnexal masses, it is important to identify benign masses beforehand. Laparoscopy and Uterine Cancer Laparoscopy can be used in a number of ways when it comes to the management and treatment of uterine cancer. These include staging apparent early stage cancer, determining the extent of the disease and resectability potential and to reassess a patient in cases of recurrent cancer. A hand assisted laparoscopy may also be used to resect the disease in some cases.

Uterine Cancer - 4 Methods Of Diagnosis

Dr. G.K. Bedi 82% (26 ratings)
DGO, MBBS
Gynaecologist, Chandigarh
Uterine Cancer - 4 Methods Of Diagnosis
Uterine cancer is also known as endometrial cancer. It is a cancer which begins in the lining of the uterus. The uterus is the part of a woman's body where the fetus develops. Uterine cancer is one of those rare cancers in India, which can be diagnosed in its early stages. This is because excessive vaginal bleeding occurs, thus making it a very serious and an apparent symptom. It is also one of the few forms of cancer which can be cured as removing the uterus is often more than enough to cure the patient of uterine cancer. Here are the causes, diagnosis and treatment of uterine cancer: Causes The exact cause of uterine cancer is not yet known, however, there is a theory on what causes uterine cancer. Hormones in a woman's body have been thought to increase the chances of getting uterine cancer. This is because it has long been thought that having high levels of estrogen is the cause of uterine cancer. Increased estrogen thickens the endometrium and thus, increases the likelihood of uterine cancer. Diagnosis There are several tests used to diagnose whether you have uterine cancer including: 1. Pelvic exam: This is an examination in which the vagina, bladder, rectum and uterus are scanned for lumps. If they are found, it might be due to uterine cancer. 2. Pap test: A pap test is a special test designed to scan for uterine cancer. 3. Transvaginal ultrasound: A transvaginal ultrasound uses high-intensity sound waves so that pictures of the uterus can be taken. 4. Biopsy: During a biopsy, the doctor will remove tissue from the endometrium and it will then be analyzed for cancerous growths. Treatment 1. Surgery: This is the most common treatment as it removes the entire uterus and prevents the spreading of the cancer. 2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves giving drugs which kill cancerous cells. They are given through either an intravenous line or even in pill form. 3. Hormone therapy: This is a therapy in which either progesterone levels are increased or estrogen levels are decreased. 4. Radiation therapy: In this treatment, high energy laser beams are used to destroy cancerous cells.
2475 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Can vaccine of cervical cancer really protect me from this disease. At what age, I can have this Vaccine. please let me know this, I am a mother of 2 year old child and my age is 25. From where I will get this Vaccine.

Dr. Arun Kumar Goel 86% (74 ratings)
MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FICS (Surgical Oncology), Fellowship of Association of Indian Surgeons(FAIS), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
Vaccine that protects from cervical cancer is a vaccine against human papilloma virus. It can be taken by women from 10 to 25 years of age. It provides about 70% protection. It can be available with gynecologists/pediatricians or in hospitals.
1 person found this helpful

I want to ask about the vaccination for cervical cancer can it be given after sexual intercourse and how a person becomes HPV affected. Can it be given if sexual intercourse in done using protection.

Dr. Gitanjali 96% (1337 ratings)
MBBS, MS - Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Gynaecologist, Delhi
HPV vaccination can be given between 9-26 years of age ,ideally should be given before commencement of sexual activity. But can be given after commencement of sexual activity also HPV infection is sexualy transmitted. HPV infection isthe main cause of cervical cancer, vaccination prevents HPV infection thus prevents cervical cancer.

Doctor I got one cervarix injection on 8th of December so my next injection is on 8th of January but I am not able to get this injection here in my native. If I miss ds now what will b the consequences? Is it must to get or if I would not get is there any side effects?

Dr. Jatinder Kaur Dang 92% (452 ratings)
MBBS, DGO, FGO
Gynaecologist, Jalandhar
You can get the second inj. of cervarix upto 2.5 months after the first dose and the 3rd dose within 13 months from first dose if the schedule is interrupted due unavoidable reasons,so need not worry

Hello doctors sir I just want to concern that I have a aunt their age is around 40+ and she has got cervical cancer so could you please tell me how she can recover from this illness and what should be preventions please and I request you all tell please suggest something and plzz tell how to heal this cervical cancer please sir help me out.

Dr. Vandana Krishnaprasad M 86% (878 ratings)
MBBS, Diploma In Ultrasound, Fellowship in Reproductive Medicine
IVF Specialist, Bangalore
The cancer needs to be staged. After that the treatment needs to be decided. Stage 1 -surgery. If more staging 2,3 0r 4 the treatment varies.

Should chemotherapy be given to patient at age of 69 and suffering from cervical cancer 2nd stage.

Dr. Jatin Soni 93% (29906 ratings)
MBBS
General Physician, Mumbai
If the vital parameters are proper than Patient can tolerate chemotherapy medication but needs to be decided after clinical examination.

Health Quizzes

Understanding Cervical Cancer

Dr. Mohan Krishna Raut 90% (81 ratings)
MD - Obstetrtics & Gynaecology, MBBS, DGO
Gynaecologist, Mumbai
Cervical cancer starts developing right from when the cells in the cervix start changing. True or False. Take this quiz to know now!
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