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Heart Attack - Symptom, Treatment And Causes

What is the treatment?

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix. Cervix is located in the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Cervical cancer is one major cause of cancer and cancer caused deaths in women. Cervical cancer is caused when the cells in the cervix are infected by high-risk types of HPV or human papillomavirus.

Early-stage cervical cancer generally do not produce any signs or symptoms. Signs and symptoms start to develop when the cells start affecting the surrounding cells of the cervix. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include abnormal pain, heavy abnormal discharge, pain during urination etc. Symptoms of more-advanced cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding after intercourse, between periods or after menopause, watery, bloody vaginal discharge that may be heavy and have a foul odor and severe pelvic pain or pain during intercourse.

Treatment for cervical cancer depends on several factors. These factors include the stage of the cancer, other health problems associated etc. Treatment methods include surgery, radiation, chemotherapy or a combination of the three. Surgery removes the cancer cells from the body, depending on the location and extent of cancer spread. Surgery also takes into consideration the choice of bearing babies. Radiation passes high-dose X-rays or implants in the vaginal cavity to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used in the advanced stage of cervical cancer. Chemoradiation is a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

How is the treatment done?

Cervical cancer which is detected early can be cured faster and better and also alleviates the risk of other problems. Patients affected with cervical cancer are first screened and diagnosed properly before moving onto the treatment.

Screening tests include a PAP test and HPV DNA test. During a Pap test, cells from the cervix are taken by the doctor using scrapes and brushes. These cells are then examined in a lab for abnormalities.A Pap test help to detect abnormal cells in the cervix, including cancer cells and cells that show changes that increase the risk of cervical cancer.The HPV DNA test helps to diagnose cells collected from the cervix for infection with any of the types of HPV. These cells are most likely to lead to cervical cancer. This test is prescribed for women of age 30 and older, or for younger women with an abnormal Pap test.

A special magnifying instrument (colposcope) is used to check for abnormal cells in the cervix which show signs and symptoms of being infected with cancer cells. Punch biopsy, Endocervical curettage, Electrical wire loop and cone biopsy are the several ways to detect the stage and extent of cancer in the body. Depending on the stage and extent of spread of cancer cells in the patient, they are staged under four- Stage I, stage II, stage III and stage IV. For this purpose, imaging tests like X-rays, CT scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) are used. These tests along with visual examination of the bladder and rectum help the doctor to determine whether the cancer has spread beyond the cervix region.

Treatment of cancer depends on the type of cancer and stage of advancement, patient’s age, medical history, any coexisting diseases or conditions, and other factors. Surgery is done when the tumor cells can be removed overall. Surgical procedures include conization, hysterectomy, cryosurgery, laser surgery, pelvic exenteration. etc. These procedures include laser beams or freezing and destroying methods to kill the cancer cells developed and prevent further multiplication of the same. Radiotherapy may be given for larger tumours in the cervix and it is usually given if the cancer cells have spread beyond the cervix and is not curable with surgery alone. Radiotherapy may also be used after surgery when there is a high risk that the cancer may come back. It is often given in combination with chemotherapy (chemoradiation). Radiotherapy can be of two types, external and internal. Chemotherapy is a method which uses medications which are usually injected into a vein, to kill cancer cells. These anti-cancer drugs aim to destroy all cancer cells with the least damage to normal cells. Chemotherapy is used in an advanced stage of cancer.

Who is eligible for the treatment?

Women should always consult a doctor as soon as possible if they face symptoms that could indicate cervical cancer. They should visit the doctor if they experience unexpected bleeding between menstrual periods, irregular periods with severe vaginal bleeding, if the blood clots and causes pain, abnormal vaginal discharge containing mucus that may be tinged with blood and unexpected bleeding after douching or sex. If diagnosed with cervical cancer, they should consult the doctor immediately and get started with the treatment.

Are there any side effects?

There are several side effects of the methods used in the treatment of cervical cancer. Surgery can also require removal of the ovaries. This means one will not be able to bear children anymore. Also, surgeries can leave behind parts of the cancer cells, which may later develop into something severe. Radiation therapy for cervical cancer can cause side effects on the patient like fatigue (tiredness), upset stomach, diarrhea or loose stools (if radiation is given to the pelvis or abdomen), nausea and vomiting and skin changes. Brachytherapy radiation only travels a short distance and causes irritation on the cervix and the walls of the vagina. Long term side effects of radiation therapy includes vaginal stenosis and vaginal dryness. They cause the cells and tissues to scar which make the vagina narrower and stretching limited. Radiation to the pelvis can weaken the bones, leading to low bone density and bone fractures. Hip fractures are the most common. Legs can also become swelled because of the fluid drainage problems in the leg. This is called lymphoedema. Women may also face side effects of menopause, which takes on after three months of the beginning of the treatment.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

After cervical cancer surgery, patients are encouraged to start moving about as soon as possible. This is done to encourage faster recovery and it is an essential part of recovery. If movement is not possible, patients must do regular leg movements and deep breathing exercises. Taking further medicines as prescribed and maintaining a proper life style will aid recovery faster. People should also consult their doctors after treatment for check-ups.

How long does it take to recover?

For a laparoscopic or vaginal hysterectomy, people stay at the hospital for two or three days. They need about three to four weeks to recover. For an abdominal hysterectomy, patients stay at the hospital is for three to five days and complete recovery takes about four to six weeks. Recovery from total pelvic exenteration takes a long time. They take around six months to recover completely. Some may even take a year or two. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy usually occur in sessions, thus, recovery takes a greater time.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Treatment of cervical cancer is very expensive. Surgeries and session wise radiation and chemotherapies are highly out of pocket for most of the mass. The cost of the cervical cancer treatment in India is around Rs 3,00,000- Rs 10,00,000. Some people incur even greater costs due to extended treatment and other associated complications.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

Treatment aims to permanently cure the cancer or to bring about a complete remission of the disease. Usually, people with early detection of cervical cancer get treated permanently. But, the consequences of the procedures last life long for majority of the people. Also, treatment may fail to save the patient from the life threatening cancer cells if they are detected at a late stage when recovery is impossible. Later stages of cancer cannot be cured by treatment. Early detection may help the person live normal life expectancy but with some side effects.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are several types of alternative treatments available for cervical cancer. Apart from the standardized surgeries and therapies, people may use other methods like acupuncture, massage therapy, herbal products, spiritual healing, visualization etc for curing cervical cancer. Meditation and a proper diet rich in vitamins can also be used to prevent cancer cells from growing and reproducing. Many patients claim that these alternative treatments help them feel better. It is important to remember that these alternative treatments can only be done alongside the main treatment. These complementary treatments are done to provide relief from the symptoms and side effects of cancer treatments. Some types of alternative treatment may interfere with standard treatment. In some cases, the combination of alternative treatment and standard treatment may even be harmful. Hence, it is always better to consult a doctor at every step.

Usually self diagnosable Lab test always required Non communicable
Prolonged pain on the chest Discomfort on the upper body Stomach pain which leads to a heartburn Anxiety and lightheadedness Immense sweating nausea and vomitting

Popular Health Tips

Kidney Stones - Can Homeopathy Treat Them Effectively?

Homeopath, Secunderabad
Kidney Stones - Can Homeopathy Treat Them Effectively?

Are you suffering from kidney stones and looking for an effective, natural treatment? You should choose homeopathy, as it works well in treating kidney stones. A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline, mineral development in your kidneys or urinary tract. The condition is called nephrolithisis. Kidney stones occur due to a reduction in your urine volume, and because of the presence of excess stone-forming substance in your urine. Homeopathic treatment of kidney stones does not involve any side effects, and various homeopathic medicines are used as a part of the treatment. Some of them are as follows:


  1. This medicine is used when a sharp pain is experienced because of kidney stones.
  2. A patient experiences strains and cramps along the ureter during the passage of calculus.
  3. Fever and irritation are also likely.

Benzoic acid:

  1. Benzoic acid is prescribed in case of nephritic colic.
  2. Offensive urinary symptoms are experienced. The urine is usually deep red with strong and foul odor.
  3. The urine may alternatively be thick, and clear.

Argentum Nit:

  1. This homeopathic medicine is used for treating kidney stones, which develop because of kidney congestion.
  2. Dull backache and ache in the bladder are experienced, along with dark urine, containing deposits of uric acid and blood.
  3. A patient experiences an increased urge for urination, but a very small amount of urine is passed at once.
  4. A burning sensation while passing urine is indicated along with swelling of the urethra.


  1. This homeopathic medicine is used during the paroxysms of renal colic. Extreme pain and excitement are indicated.
  2. The pain may be cutting in nature, and it shoots in various directions, affecting your limbs and different parts of the body.
  3. There is an increased urge to urinate, and an aversion to fluids is developed by a patient in spite of feeling thirsty.


  1. This is another effective homeopathic remedy used for treating kidney stones, when the patient experiences a shooting pain radiating from a certain point and he or she becomes unable to move because of the pain.
  2. Also there is a darting pain experienced in the ureter, extending down to your legs.
  3. There is an indication of the development of little pinheads in the pelvis that starts growing down your bladder.

You must consult a homeopathic practitioner before taking homeopathic medicines for the treatment of kidney stones. A doctor will suggest you the best homeopathic medicines based on the symptoms you experience and the severity of the condition.

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Popular Questions & Answers

I have found 16 m.m. kidney calculus so that how may chance it is melt or will I have to go for the operation?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MS - General Surgery
General Surgeon, Hyderabad
Hi, 16 mm calculus will not get reduced by conservative management. Consult a urologist and get the intervention done.

My mother recently done USG and in USG report showed,”calculus measuring 4.5 mm in upper pole in left kidney” in this condition what should to do or not to do?

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly. The symptoms are more important to guide, because every guidelines are dependent upon that only. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL Regards take care.

I done a medical checkup recently, found calculus in gall bladder & right kidney. But I don't felt any pain till now or any symptoms. Report says, *Gall bladder is well distended with normal wall thickness. Small 3.8 mm calculus noted within the lumen. No pericholecystic collection *right kidney A 3.9 mm calculus noted in mid calyx Is this complicated, pls suggest something helpful.

MS - General Surgery, FMAS.Laparoscopy
General Surgeon, Gandhinagar
Hello dear Lybrate user, hi Warm welcome to I have evaluated your query thoroughly.* Nothing serious. For gall stone, avoid oily, spicy,non veg items till possible. For kidney stone, drink more and more liquids, take follow up usg after 1 month.In which gall stone size will have no decrease, but kidney stone must be decreasing in size or disappear with plenty of liquids. Later when gall stone is beyond 10 mm, you may decide for surgery for lifetime cure, but it is not an emergency at present. Hope this clears your query. Wishing you fine recovery. Welcome for any further assistance at my private URL Regards take care.
2 people found this helpful

My two tooth is calcified. My dentist couldn't find the roots. So he suggested to remove the tooth. And he told me that there is no other option. Is he right??

Bachelor of Dental Surgery
Dentist, Allahabad
Dear Lybrate user, you should take IOPA/RVG for be sure that actually root is calcified or not. If root is calcified you should extract the tooth. Because it will cause you problem in future.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?

How is the treatment done?

Who is eligible for the treatment?

Are there any side effects?

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

How long does it take to recover?

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

What are the alternatives to the treatment?