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Calculus: Causes, Prevention, Removal and Home Remedies

Last Updated: Nov 09, 2019

What is calculus in medical terms?

In medical terms, calculus is often referred to as stone formation within the body. The calculus is a concretion of the material which is usually the mineral salts that get formed in the duct or the organ of the body. A number of medical conditions can occur because of the stones or calculus. Calculus can be formed in any part of the human body.

What are different types of calculus?

Different types of calculus which can be formed are given below:

  • Gastroliths: When calculus is formed in the stomach it is known as gastroliths.
  • Calculus: It can be formed within the gallbladder and the bile ducts. These are called gallstones.
  • Enteroliths: When there is calculus in the gastrointestinal tracts it is termed as enteroliths. It is enormous in size.
  • Nephroliths: When calculus is formed in the kidney of a person it is known as nephroliths.
  • Sialoliths: The formation of the calculi in the salivary glands is known as sialoliths.

What are the symptoms of calculus?

The signs and symptoms which may be experienced by a person suffering from the condition of calculus are given below:

  • A person may experience irritation in the tissues due to the formation of the calculi which further leads to inflammation, swelling, and pain.
  • There may be an obstruction in the opening which leads to interference of the normal flow. This can cause a disturbance in the capacity of the organs.
  • A person might suffer from the problem of infection.
  • If a person is suffering from the problem of kidney stones then he/she might experience swollen kidneys, it can progress to urolithiasis, and cause infection in the kidney.
  • If there is calculus in the urinary bladder which can further lead to bladder outlet obstruction.
  • In the event that there is a stone in the bile pipe and the nerve bladder then it may prompt aggravation of the pancreas.
  • Torsion, necrosis, and obstruction can be caused due to gastric calculi.

What are the causes of calculus?

Some of the causes because of which calculus can be formed are given below:

  • Bezoars: A stomach consists of lumps of material known as bezoars. The most commonly comprise of the hairs. This leads to the formation of the nidus of the enterolith.
  • Enteroliths: it is the type of calculus that is synonymous with intestines of the humans. It is shaped by natural or inorganic constituents.
  • There may some local condition which may promote the formation of the calculus like slower rate of fluid flow or local bacteria action. It is the possible explanation of the majority of the calculus formed in the salivary duct.
  • If a person is suffering from the condition of kidney stones then calcium oxalate is the most common type of mineral which causes it.

What is the best treatment for the calculus?

The treatment for calculus is based on the location of the stone within the body of a person. There are medications that help in the dissolving of stone. These medications only work if the calculus is small in size. A doctor may recommend surgery for the complete removal of the calculus from the body. A patient may be required to undergo laparoscopic surgery or open surgery for eliminating the calculus.

How to prevent calculus?

Some of the ways which can be used for the prevention of the calculus are given below:

  • Consuming calcium supplements along with the meals help in reducing the risk of the calculus. It is believed that if a person has calculus then he/she should avoid calcium however, it is not true.
  • A person should consume a diet that has less sodium content. If there is too much salt then it prohibits the calcium from being reabsorbed to the blood from the urine.
  • Food products that are rich in oxalate must be avoided like spinach, beets, wheat bran, peanuts, and soy products.
  • Food rich in animal protein like pork, fish, beef, and poultry must be avoided at any cost.
  • According to study men who consume a high dose of vitamin C supplements have increased risk of the formation of calculus. However, consuming vitamin C in the form of food products does not carry the same risks.

What are the home remedies for calculus?

Some of the home remedies which can be used for the treatment of the calculus are given below:

  • Black salt and lemon: The combination of black salt and lemon is considered as one of the best treatments for the condition of calculus as it is both antioxidant and antiseptic.
  • A mixture of grape leaves and lemon: For providing pain relief in the condition of calculus a paste of grape leaves along with lemon is a very effective treatment. It helps in alleviating the symptoms of the calculus.
  • Pomegranate juice: To remove the obstruction caused by the calculus a pomegranate juice is an effective home remedy.
  • Water: A person needs to be properly hydrated if he/she wants to prevent the formation of calculus.

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Written ByDr. C.S. Ramachandran DNB (General Surgery),FICS,MBBS,MS - General Surgery,FCCP (USA)General Surgery
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