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Periodontal Disease: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

Last Updated: Dec 25, 2022

What is Periodontal Disease?

The gums and surrounding bone tissue that supports and protect the teeth become infected and swollen as a result of periodontal disease. Initially, the gums generally swell out and become red. This early stage is known as gingivitis, which is less serious but bleeding may occur. Later on, the situation becomes more critical and this stage is known as Periodonotis. At this stage, the gums may pull away from the tooth and the bone may be lost. The teeth may also be loosened or even fall out.

Summary- Gums and teeth are affected by periodontitis. It can be cured by proper treatment only.

Types of Periodontal (Gum) Disease

Gum disorders can be divided into the following groups: -

  • Gingivitis- the earliest and mildest form of periodontitis
  • Aggressive periodontal disease- which causes a quick loss of bone and gum tissue.
  • Chronic periodontal disease- commonly observed in people above 45 years, characterized by destruction of gingival
  • Necrotizing periodontal tissue- rapid worsening of the symptoms observed in people suffering from HIV, malnutrition, chronic stress, etc.
  • Periodontitis related to systemic conditions- people suffering from underlying heart issues often get this type of periodontitis.

Summary- Based on the severity of the symptoms, the types of gum problems listed above were created. They require immediate treatment from a specialist

Symptoms of Periodontal Disease (Periodontitis)

Periodontal disease or Periodontitis is a major threat to dental health. The gums become infected and swollen as a result. Symptoms of periodontitis include-

  • Bleeding gums
  • Tender gums
  • Loose and sensitive teeth
  • Red or swollen gums
  • Bad breath or bad taste
  • Change in the fitting of partial dentures
  • Painful chewing, etc.

Summary- In periodontal disease, the bad taste, and bad breath are persistent and do not go away. The patient feels immense pain when he/she chews the food.

Causes of Periodontitis (Periodontal Disease)

Bacterial infections are the major cause of periodontitis. The bacteria infect the tissue surrounding the tooth and result in inflammation. A film-like structure called plaque is formed over the teeth when bacteria stay on the teeth for a longer time. The plaque eventually hardens to tartar.

This tartar build-up spreads above and below the gum line. This makes the teeth harder to clean. Thus, leading to periodontal disease. There are also some other risk factors that cause Periodontal disease including-

  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Crooked teeth
  • Underlying immunodeficiency disease, etc.

Summary- This disease may also occur due to a hereditary passed-on case. Diabetes patients are always at risk of having periodontal disease.

Complications of Periodontal Disease (Periodontitis)

Periodontal disease often leads to several complications like tooth decay, bad breath, and other Gum diseases too. It can lead to a very dangerous situation if not treated on time. Therefore, it requires immediate attention. The warning signs and symptoms of periodontal disease must not be disregarded. Periodontal disease while suffering from heart disease or pregnancy is also one of the urgent situations. It needs to be addressed as soon as possible.

Summary- It is important to take periodontal disease seriously. It can lead to a very critical situation for the patient. Treatment is necessary to suppress the disorder.


Treatment of periodontitis is lengthy and extensive. So it would be preferable if we could stop periodontal disease before it starts. Some steps can be followed for its prevention, such as-

  • Maintain good oral hygiene
  • Regular dental visits
  • Flossing
  • Brushing twice a day, etc.

Maintaining and following proper oral hygiene is the best way to prevent this disorder. We should opt for a healthy dental routine and be consistent with it throughout life. We also need to avoid causative factors like smoking, obesity, etc. because they support the progression of the disease.

Summary- Prevention of periodontal disease is more important. So that we could avoid the harmful aftereffects of this disorder.


After a detailed diagnosis, doctors advise you on further treatment. There are both surgical and non-surgical treatments out there. Surgical treatments include-

  • Soft tissue grafts- reinforcement of damaged soft gumline tissue.
  • Tissue-stimulating proteins- application of a special gel directly to the damaged root.
  • Flap surgery- recontouring of gum tissues
  • Bone grafting- grafting of the destroyed bone surrounding the tooth
  • Guided tissue regeneration- regrowth of bone is promoted
  • Non-surgical treatment comprises-
  • Root planning- moothes the tissue root surfaces and discourages the accumulation of tartar and bacteria
  • Scaling- is the process of removing germs and tartar with the aid of various tools.
  • Antibiotics- helps to control bacterial infections

Summary- The above-stated treatment procedures are employed according to the severity of symptoms. Surgical and non-surgical processes both work effectively.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

We need to follow some guidelines before and after the treatment. It facilitates a quicker recovery. The following are the post-treatment recommendations:-

  • Take medicines on time
  • Have a balanced diet
  • Proper hydration
  • Be regular on follow-ups
  • Maintain dental hygiene, etc.

Summary- These above-stated simple guidelines make our healing process easy and smooth.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

The cost of periodontal treatment may put a little stress on your budget. This is because the treatment involves several clinical examination processes so the costs are raised to a certain extent. It usually ranges from 6,000-8,000 rupees.

Summary- The treatment cost is a little higher but it is available everywhere out there.


Periodontitis is a dental disorder that affects the gum and teeth and bones adversely. It is categorized into several kinds. It causes due to bacterial attacks. Its successful treatment is available be they surgical or non-surgical. The results of the treatments are usually permanent.

Summary- To treat the disorder completely, we must consult a specialist. We need to eradicate this before it gets severe.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Is periodontitis a serious disease?

Yes, periodontitis is a serious condition as it affects the oral cavity adversely.

Can mouthwash get rid of periodontitis?

Mouthwash can reduce the accumulation of plaque but cannot treat periodontitis disorder.

Does Listerine help with periodontitis?

Listerine helps to reduce plaque build-up so it can help with the disorder to a certain extent.


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Written ByDr. Vikram Singh AtwalPCAD,MCID Implant,BDS,Advanced AestheticsDentistry

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