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Bronchospasm: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Bronchospasm is a respiratory condition where the muscles that line the airways of the lungs get tightened. This results in the airways becoming narrow and this does not allow as much air to come in or leave the lungs as would happen normally. This further affects the amount of oxygen that enters our blood and the amount of carbon di-oxide that leaves our blood. As a result of low oxygen levels in their blood, a person may suffer from alveolar hypocapnia which can affect the lungs badly or cause arterial hypocapnia.

There can be a number of factors that may cause bronchospasm. These are allergens like dust and pet dander, chemical fumes, general anesthesia during surgery, exercise, chemical fumes, cold weather, exercises, smoking and smoke inhalation from fire. Some of the symptoms of bronchospasm are rapidly increasing peak inspiratory pressure, decreasing exhaled tidal volumes, slowly increasing wave on the capnograph and wheezing.

Doctors usually prescribe Beta-2 agonists that work to relax the smooth muscles of a person’s bronchi or airways to treat bronchospasm. Some of the medications that can treat bronchospasm are albuterol, terbutaline and isoetharine and metaproterenol. Doctors may also prescribe inhaled corticosteroids in the form of sprays and inhalers to prevent the narrowing of airways during asthma attacks.

How is the treatment done?

There can be two types of treatment for bronchospasms: pre-operative and intra-operative. Pre-operative treatment involves supplemental oxygen, inhaled B2 agonists and intravenous steroids. The Beta-2 agonists, that help to relax the smooth muscles of a person’s airways or bronchi, control the release of basophils and mast cells. These granulocytes can cause bronchospasms in people suffering from asthma.

The different medicines that are used to treat bronchospasms in the pre-operative phase are short-acting bronchodilators, long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled steroids and oral or intravenous steroids. The short-acting bronchodilators are medicines used to quickly get relief from bronchospasm symptoms. Their effect starts within a few minutes and can last for a few hours. Long-acting bronchodilators start to show their effects late but help to keep the airways open for up to 12 hours. Inhaled steroids can be used to control bronchiospasm for a longer period of time and they help to reduce the swelling in the airways. In case of severe bronchiospasms, oral or intravenous steroids are used.

The intra-operative treatment of bronchospasm involves the use of volatile anesthetic concentration, inhaled B2 agonists, intravenous steroids and consideration of alternate causes of high airway pressures like kinked tube or endobronchial intubation.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

A person suffering from bronchospasm will feel that his/her chest feels tight and that he/she is also having problems breathing. Some of the other symptoms include making a sound while breathing, pain in the chest, fatique and coughing. A person generally experiences hypoxia, which is when the body and the tissues are deprived of oxygen. Sticky mucus is secreted by the bronchial glands and this is often difficult to remove. The mucus blocks the bronchus and impede the normal flow of air. This causes the patient to cough uncontrollably. People suffering from these symptoms and who have been diagnosed by a doctor as suffering from bronchospasm are eligible for treatment.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

A person is said to be suffering from bronchospasm if he suffers from wheezing and coughing, which occurs due to poor flow of air to the lungs. A person is only eligible for treatment if he/she has been diagnosed by a doctor. A doctor will look for increased mucus secretion, a swollen nasal passage or polyps in the nasal canal to determine whether a person is eligible for treatment or not. Two other methods of detecting whether a person is suffering from bronchospasm or not are spirometry an challenge test. People suffering from other respiratory illnesses like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary embolism, lung infections and congestive heart failure are not eligible for this treatment.

Are there any side effects?

Some of the common side effects of Beta-2 agonists are headache, nausea, anxiety, nervousness, muscle tremors and increased or irregular heartbeat. Inhaled steroids, when used for a long period of time, can have a number of side-effects including sore mouth and throat, fungus infection inside mouth, cataracts, high blood pressure or fluid build-up in the eye and reduction of bone thickness in adults. Furthermore, a person can suffer from stomach irritation, rapid heartbeat, flushing of the chest, neck and face, feeling of warmth or coldness and increase in energy.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

There are some guidelines that a person who has been cured from bronchospasm needs to follow so that they can prevent this illness from afflicting them again. If a person exercises, he/she should warm up for 5-10 minutes before exercising and also cool down for a similar period after exercise. A person can loosen any mucus in his/her chest by drinking lots of water. It will also be important for a smoker to quit smoking and also to stay away from anyone who smokes. People above 65 should get pneumococcal vaccines.

How long does it take to recover?

Bronchospasm can be caused due to the swelling or irritation of the airways. An episode of bronchospasm generally subsides within 7-14 days. A doctor generally prescribes medicines to clear the airways and to prevent wheezing. Medicines help to widen the airways and provides temporary relief.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Beta 2 agonists can be purchased within a price range of Rs 40 to Rs 84. A person on inhaled steroids to treat bronchospasm will have to shell out close to Rs 10000 per month. Oral steroids are available for around Rs 330 in our country. Long-acting bronchodilators, if used over a long period of time, are sure to leave you poorer as they cost a lot.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

The steroids and other medicines used to treat bronchospasm basically work to suppress its effects. They do not address the underlying causes. Bronchospasm may occur due to smoking, from chemical fumes, infection of the lungs or airways, from allergens like dust and a lot of other reasons. Thus, a person may suffer from bronchospasm even if he/she has undergone treatment for the same.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There is the Butyeko Breathing Technique, that has been developed by a Russian researcher, which consists of shallow breathing exercises that help the person to breathe easy. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce the levels of arachidonic acid in the system and so its intake will prove beneficial for people suffering from bronchospasms. Intake of sufficient quantities of tomatoes, carrots and leafy vegetables also help to avoid acute bronchospasms. Reducing weight also helps to deal with this disorder.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: High Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: Low Side Effects: Low Time For Recovery: Low Price Range:

Rs 40 - Rs 10000

Popular Health Tips

Understanding Asthma

MBBS, MD -Pulmonary Medicine-Tuberculosis ,Respiratory Disease Medicine , Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD), European Diploma in Respiratory Medicine
Pulmonologist, Delhi
Understanding Asthma

Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest pain, allergies, cold, shortness of breath and trouble while sleeping.


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Afrezza (Insulin Inhalation)

General Physician, Gorakhpur
Afrezza (Insulin Inhalation)

Afrezza - the only inhaled insulin for diabetes.

Afrezza® is an inhaled human insulin indicated to help improve glycemic control in adults with diabetes mellitus.


Afrezza is a rapid-acting, inhaled insulin used to control high blood sugar in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The product consists of a dry formulation of human insulin delivered from a small and portable inhaler. 

Administered at the beginning of a meal, afrezza dissolves rapidly upon inhalation to the lung and delivers insulin quickly to the bloodstream. Peak insulin levels are achieved within 12–15 minutes of administration. Afrezza is available in 4-unit and 8-unit single dose cartridges of insulin powder that can be used, as prescribed by a health care professional, in combination with other diabetes medications to achieve target blood sugar levels. For afrezza doses exceeding 8 units, patients may use a combination of 4 unit and 8 unit cartridges. Other sizes of cartridges are being considered. The disposable inhaler can be used for up to 15 days, should be kept in a clean, dry place with the mouthpiece cover on and may be wiped with a clean, dry cloth if needed.

Limitations of use

Do not use afrezza as a substitute for long-acting insulin; 

Afrezza must be used in combination with long-acting insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.

Do not use afrezza to treat diabetic ketoacidosis. Afrezza is not recommended in patients who smoke or who have recently stopped smoking.

Important safety information for afrezza

Warning: risk of acute bronchospasm in patients with chronic lung disease


Acute bronchospasm has been observed in patients with asthma and COPD using afrezza. Afrezza is contraindicated in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma or copd. Before initiating afrezza, perform a detailed medical history, physical examination, and spirometry (FEV1) to identify potential lung disease in all patients.

Do not use afrezza if you have problems with your lungs, such as asthma or COPD. Do not use afrezza during a low blood sugar reaction (hypoglycemia). If you are allergic to any of the ingredients in afrezza, do not use afrezza as this may cause a significant and severe allergic reaction. 



Afrezza patient starter kit

type diabetes
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Types of Lung Diseases

MD - General Medicine, DTM & H
Internal Medicine Specialist, Motihari
Types of Lung Diseases

Lung diseases are some of the most common diseases suffered by human beings throughout the world. Smoking and infections are responsible for most lung diseases. The lungs perform one of the most important functions of the body. It is also one of the most active organs in the human body and hence lung problems can arise due to problems in any other part of the body.

Some of the most common and infectious lung diseases are discussed below...

  1. AsthmaAsthma is a common long term disease which is characterized by reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm. The symptoms of asthma include coughing, shortness of breath and tightness of chest. These symptoms may occur frequently during a day and depending on the person, it may become worse during night or during a certain exercise.
  2. PneumoniaPneumonia is another common lung problem which is suffered due to inflammation in the microscopic air sacs in the lungs known as alveoli. Symptoms of pneumonia include dry cough, chest pain, breathing problem and fever. Pneumonia is caused most commonly by viruses or bacteria. It is also caused by certain medications and conditions which are popularly known as autoimmune diseases. There are a number of vaccines available to prevent certain types of pneumonia. Other methods include hand washing and refraining from smoking.
  3. TuberculosisTuberculosis is a very infectious disease which is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it has been known to affect other parts of the body as well. Symptoms of tuberculosis include cough containing sputum with blood, night sweats, fever and weight loss. Air is an active medium for spreading tuberculosis. This happens when people who already have tuberculosis sneeze, cough or speak. Infection occurs more in those who have HIV/AIDS or those who smoke. Prevention of tuberculosis includes staying away and keeping those who are at high risk, early detection and treatment and vaccination.
  4. Mesothelioma: Mesothelioma is a type of cancer which affects the lungs. It affects the lining of the lungs and chest wall. Symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath, swollen abdomen, cough, chest pain, weight loss and general lethargy. Mesothelioma is caused mainly due to exposure to asbestos. Those people who mine asbestos, produce products from asbestos, work with asbestos products are at high risk. Mesothelioma also results from genetical problems and due to infection caused by the simian virus 40.
  5. Pulmonary EmbolismThis is a disease caused due to blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance which has travelled from another part of the body by the bloodstream. Symptoms of this disease include chest pain, breath shortness and coughing up of blood. There may also be signs of blood clot in the legs. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
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Treating Asthma With Homeopathy!!

Homeopath, Pune
Treating Asthma With Homeopathy!!

Asthma is a condition that severely affects the lungs. The airways become narrow and the lungs become inflamed. Its characteristic features include bronchospasm, reversible airflow obstruction and variable and recurring symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. This might be caused up to 2 to 3 times a day.


  1. Daily use of Paracetamol
  2. Vaccines
  3. Daily use of antibiotics
  4. Caesarean sections
  5. Asthma in family

Asthma is usually triggered by:

  1. Tobacco Smoke
  2. Exercise
  3. Polluted or Poor air
  4. Cold Air
  5. Emotional Stress
  6. Allergies

Homeopathy is a system of medicine which tries to ‘cure’ this disease, instead of trying to provide symptomatic relief. While dealing with a case of asthma, a homeopath not only records the symptoms of the disease but also studies the medical history, family history, physical and psychological characteristics of a person. This helps to find the cause, the precipitating factors, and the hereditary tendency etc. Of special interest to a homeopath is the history of suppression of skin disease. Homeopaths believe that when there is a tendency or predisposition for a disease – it first manifests on the less vital organs, towards the periphery (like skin). If this manifestation is suppressed than the disease shifts inwards, towards the more vital organs (like lungs, heart, brain etc).

The fact that in children asthma is often preceded by eczema is observed by the allopaths also. This fact is written in all their textbooks of medicine. They say that children often ‘move-out’ of eczema and ‘move-into’ asthma. But they are unable to make a correlation. Homeopaths believe that the suppression of eczema with topical preparations, does not cure the disease/sensitivity of the person, it merely drives it inwards.

Now after ascertaining the symptoms and the cause, the homeopath tries to find a medicine which matches the symptoms as well as the general characteristics of the person. The medicine so selected is administered to the patient.

When a right medicine is given, the asthma disappears but the old eczema or skin rash reappears for some time, before finally disappearing itself. This reappearance of old symptoms is seen as a reversal of disease process and is considered a very good prognostic sign by homeopaths.

MEDICINES – There are lots of medicines in homeopathy for asthma symptoms and it is not possible to list them all here. Some of the common medicines are ars- alb, ipecac, lachesis, pulsatilla, spongia, sulphur, ignatia, antim-tart, hepar-sulph, nat-sulph, tuberculinum etc. The selection of medicine varies from patient to patient. Therefore, it is always recommended to consult a specialized homeopath for treating your individual case.

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7 Ways To Minimise Allergic Diseases!

MD - Homeopathy, BHMS
Homeopath, Gurgaon
7 Ways To Minimise Allergic Diseases!

1. Temperature

The abrupt change of temperature is the major culprit causing and precipitating asthma and allergic rhinitis. Try your best to avoid exposure to the extreme and sudden variation of temperature while bathing, eating, drinking and sleeping, use nothing too hot in cold weather and nothing too chilled in hot weather. Variation of more than 20 degrees centigrade of temperature causes immunological injury to life force and causes over-sensitisation of the living being. Hence body overreacts to allergens and results in allergic diseases like sneezing and running nose asthma etc.

2. Restrict diet

Avoid (if possible) or at least minimise eating rice, banana and colocasia roots (arvi) during severe sneezing, difficulty in breathing, severe coughing and running nose (arvi). Also, avoid specific edibles which make you worse.

3. Regular exercise

Maintain regular symptom limited exercise (as per age of patient). Walk for 45 minutes or more daily.

4. Anti-inflammatory drugs

Avoid all pain killer and fever pills such as salicylic acid (aspirin-disprin), paracetamol (crocin), nemuselide (nemulid, nice), ibuprofen (brufen, combiflam etc.) except for high grade fever. All such type of medicines cause bronchospasm (constriction of air passage) and lead to asthma.

5. Don't overreact

Slight running nose and sneezing in asthmatic patients ameliorate their difficulty in breathing. Do not suppress minor sneezing and running nose unnecessarily with anti allergic medicines.

6. No to perfumes 

Avoid all sorts perfume scented items such as deodorants, toothpaste, soaps, shampoo, oils etc.

7. Dust mites

Beware of house dust mites and storage mites hidden in quilts, carpets, mattresses, pillows, storage of bed, almirah, old forgotten books and clothes. House dust is the most common cause to precipitate allergic symptoms because the majority of the human population has developed antibodies against antigens derived from dead and live house and storage dust mites. Use all washable beddings instead of heavy mattresses, washable bed linen and quilts.

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Popular Questions & Answers

Sir my x-rays report says that prominent broncho vascular marking are seen in both lungs fields .What is this sir.

C.S.C, D.C.H, M.B.B.S
General Physician, Alappuzha
If you are a smoker the bronchi will be seen prominent in X rays. YOUR AGE IS ALSO NEEDED .Just by one sentence Xray cannot be reported There can be a number of reasons why this may occur. However, the most common reason is taking a deep breath in when the x-ray is taken. A lot of time prominent bronchovascular markings are of no significance. That being said, if the markings are prominent in someone with a weak heart, it could indicate fluid accumulation in the lung. This can occur because the weak heart fails to pump blood effectively throughout the body.

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice