Caesarean Section Procedure
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Termination Of Pregnancy Procedure
Treatment Of Pregnancy Problems
Well Woman Healthcheck
Treatment Of Female Sexual Problems
Treatment Of Medical Diseases In Pregnancy
Treatment Of Menstrual Problems
Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) Treatment
Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (Mtp) Procedure
Gynecology Laparoscopy Procedures
Pap Smear Procedure
Urinary Incontinence (Ui) Treatment
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Patient Review Highlights
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) happens when germs infect your urinary system. It includes the kidneys, bladder, and the connecting tubes. Bladder infections are normal and not a huge risk if treated immediately. Further, if the disease spreads to the kidneys, it can bring about very serious problems. In case you're a woman, your chance of getting a urinary tract disease is higher. Experts rank your lifetime danger of getting a UTI as one in every woman. Many women might even have repeated infections.
UTIs are a key reason why we are frequently advised to wipe ourselves from front to back while or after using the bathroom. That is because of the urethra - the tube that carries the urine outside the body. It is found near the anus. If the infection isn't dealt with, the kidneys are likely to be affected.
Symptoms: To recognize a UTI, watch out for the following side effects:
- Burning sensation while urinating
- A regular urge to urinate, despite the fact that little turns out when you do
- Pressure in your belly
- Pain in the lower abdomen
- Dark, bleeding or odd smelling urine
- Feeling drained or shaky
- Fever or chills (a sign the disease may have come to your kidneys)
Home Remedies: Some of the home remedies for UTI are:
- Drink lots of water: One of the main things to do when you have a urinary tract infection is drink a lot of water.
- Load Up on Vitamin C for a Healthy Urinary Tract: Getting a lot of vitamin C is important, since a lot of vitamin C make your urine more acidic. This prevents bacteria from developing.
- Cure UTI Pain with Heat: Applying a warming cushion can calm the region.
- Cut Bladder Irritants from Your Diet: Avoid caffeine, liquor, nicotine, carbonated beverages, and fake sweeteners.
- Empty Your Bladder Again: Each time you exhaust your bladder - regardless of the possibility that it's only a little, you get rid of bacteria every time. So continue making those washroom runs.
- Consider Herbal Remedies: You may discover some relief from taking the herb uva ursi (bearberry leaf)
- Switch to Healthier Habits: Change in lifestyle can make a lot of difference. For instance, quit smoking and wear cotton clothing.
Other Treatment: In case, you have 3 or more UTI bouts in a year, request your specialist for a special treatment plan. Some treatment choices include:
You can take an anti-toxin in low dosage, over a more extended period to avoid repeated infections.
You can also take a single dosage of anti-biotic after sex, as prescribed by your specialist.
A patient can also take anti-toxins for 1 or 2 days as the symptoms show up. The treatments should be only be taken after concerning the specialists. You can also use an at-home urine test kit when you see the symptoms appearing.
The contraceptive pill, or simply 'the pill', is a type of hormonal contraception taken by women to prevent pregnancy. Now, even though the birth control pill is extremely effective in preventing unplanned pregnancy, it is not without some side effects. The common side effects of birth control pill include:
- Intermenstrual spotting: Some women experience intermenstrual spotting or bleeding in the time between their menstrual cycles. This is very common in the first three months of you taking the pill. Most of the times, intermenstrual bleeding resolves itself.
- Nausea: Some women might experience mild nausea when they take the pill for the first time. The nausea will resolve on its own after some time, but if it gets critical or persists, seek medical help. Taking your pill at bedtime or with food can aid in countering the nausea.
- Breast tenderness: Breasts can become tender or enlarge as a result of birth control pills. Reducing salt and caffeine intake, and wearing a support bra can be beneficial.
- Headaches: The development of migraines and headaches are the effects of the sex hormones. Different pills with varied doses and types of hormones may lead to different symptoms of headaches. Studies suggest that pills with low hormone doses are usually linked with headaches.
- Weight gain: There is no logical link between weight fluctuations and contraceptive pills, but fluid retention (specifically in the hip and breast areas) and enlarged fat cells are common side-effects.
- Mood changes: Women who may have suffered from depression should consult their doctors when taking the pill. A study discovered that taking pills usually leads to the thickening of the cortexes (outermost layers of the brain involved with analysing incoming stimuli and reward response). However, there is more research pending on this issue.
- Missed periods: Skipping or missing a period is very common when you are on the pill. Factors such as stress, travel, illness and thyroid or hormonal abnormalities can influence this.
- Decreased libido: The pills contain hormones that can lower your sex drive or libido.
- Vaginal discharge: Some women experience differences in their vaginal discharge when they are on the pill. Vaginal lubrication can dip, which causes discomfort during sex.
- Visual changes: Fluid retention is a side-effect of the pill, which even ends up affecting the cornea; they change shape or swell up.
For an expecting mother, nothing is more important than the safety and well-being of her unborn child.
Read on to find out the 4 things pregnant women must avoid at all costs in order to have a safe pregnancy.
- Abdominal X-rays: Abdominal X-rays during pregnancy are a big no. This kind of X-ray exposes the abdomen of the mother, and the baby as a consequence, to high levels of radiation, which can cause changes in the baby's rapidly growing cells. As a result, the baby's chances of suffering from birth defects or certain cancers, such as leukaemia later on in life, increase rapidly. It is best to avoid X-rays until absolutely necessary. However, you must avoid self meditation.
- Alcohol: All types of alcohol must be avoided during pregnancy. Consumption of alcohol during these 9 months has been associated with several birth defects such as poor growth, learning disabilities and mental retardation. In worst case scenarios, excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to what is known as Foetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS, which severely affects the mental development and physical growth of the unborn child, particularly of the face and skull. Also, you must quit smoking.
- Caffeine: It's wise to avoid coffee, tea or even sodas that contain caffeine, as it can adversely affect the baby's heart rate. Some studies go on to suggest that the consumption of caffeine may even increase the risk of miscarriages. Not only that, the intake of caffeine by the mother can increase the chances of the baby getting diabetes. So anything that contains caffeine must be avoided at all costs.
- Heavy exercising: While moderate exercising during pregnancy is very healthy for both the baby and the mother, extreme exercising can give rise to quite a few complications. Exercises, which cause the heart rate of the mother to exceed the mark of 160 bpm (beats per minute) may result in the supply of less oxygen to the baby. This can lead to foetal hypoxia, a condition in which the supply of oxygen to the brain of the baby is restricted, resulting in brain damage. Exercises that must be avoided include abdominal crunches, exercises that hurt the mother's joints or strain her back or which require her to hold her breath for too long.
Sometimes getting pregnant is not a very easy task, and may end up taking a long time. But once you've decided to start a family of your own, it becomes harder to wait for it to happen.
So here are the do's & dont's:
- Intake of fruit and vegetables is important as they are good sources of vitamins, minerals and even fiber. They are good for digestion and also help in preventing constipation. Eat fresh fruits and vegetables daily.
- During pregnancy carbohydrates are also important as they act as an important source of energy. Different food items that are rich in carbohydrates are potatoes, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, rice, noodles, millet, maize, oats, yams, sweet potatoes, and corn meal. It is better to eat whole grains and potato with the skin on as they are rich in fiber.
- Intake of protein is very important during pregnancy, and thus you should take lean meat, pulses, beans, nuts, fish, and eggs. All these items should be cooked well so that you do not face any problem in digestion during pregnancy.
- Stress: Stress can trigger various health problems, which can be bad for both the baby and the mother. Studies have revealed the emotional environment of the mother is experienced by the baby as well. In fact, a particular study has shown that any kind of stress, whether it be work related or stress caused by strain in relationships, can affect the mental development of the child. This as result can lead to the child developing certain behavioural disorders such as fears and phobias, which remain way into his adulthood.
- Alcohol: All types of alcohol must be avoided during pregnancy. Consumption of alcohol during these 9 months has been associated with several birth defects such as poor growth, learning disabilities and mental retardation. In worst case scenarios, excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to what is known as
- Foetal Alcohol Syndrome or FAS, which severely affects the mental development and physical growth of the unborn child, particularly of the face and skull. Also, you must quit smoking.
Giving birth to a child is the most profound form of joy felt by a woman. After getting pregnant, one should discuss with her gynecologist what form of surgery they should go in for. Women have been delivering babies by normal childbirth without any complications since the old times. However, complications might arise if you don't take proper care of your body before the date of delivery. You should be careful and alert at all times so that there are no detrimental effects to you and your child.
Certain tips and guidelines should be followed so that you and your child are safe and secure during a normal delivery:
- Diet: As soon as you know you are pregnant, you should take care of your diet. Avoid junk food and street food. Stick to a nutritious diet, which contains vegetables, fruits and whole grains. Iron and calcium rich food items should also be consumed for the healthy development of your fetus.
- Active lifestyle: Try to exercise daily. Include light permissible yoga and also light walks during your pregnancy. You can also join a yoga fitness class for expecting mothers. This can make your body flexible and ready for a normal delivery.
- Water: Drink at least 8 to 10 glasses of water every day to keep yourself hydrated during your pregnancy.
- Stress: Pregnancy can be extremely stressful. This can take a toll on your body and also on your unborn child's health. Also too much stress can make labor a difficult experience, as the pelvic muscles might not expand for the baby to pass through.
- Avoid smoking and alcohol consumption: Tobacco is very harmful and might lead to birth defects in your child. Alcohol also acts as a poison. Intake of these substances should be avoided completely.
- Prenatal class: Joining a prenatal class can be very helpful because you get to learn about giving birth and the things, which your body will be required to do during labor. This can come handy during the delivery.
- Breathing exercise: During labor it is possible that you can experience shortness of breath. Practicing breathing exercises will help you prepare for a normal delivery.
These tips should be known by every expectant mother so that the strenuous process of a normal delivery is eased out.
Cervical cancer occurs in the cervical cells which are present in the lower part of the uterus. It is usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) which is transmitted sexually. However, in some cases, the virus may survive for a few years, causing some cells of the cervix to become cancerous.
Cervical cancer is usually classified into two types:
- Adenocarcinoma: This type of cancer starts in the column shaped glandular cells along the lining of the cervix.
- Squamous cell carcinoma: Most cases of cervical cancer are of this type. Here, the cancer occurs in the flat and thin cells that are present in the outer region of the cervix.
Symptoms: Usually, very few symptoms show up in the initial stages. However, the latter stages tell a different story. The symptoms at an advanced stage are:
- You may experience pain during sexual intercourse
- Foul smelling discharge from the vagina
- Bleeding from the vagina during sexual intercourse
Causes: Cervical cancer develops due to the mutation of healthy cells which makes turns them into malignant (cancerous) cells. The cancerous cells tend to grow at a fast pace, thus accumulating and forming a tumor. The cancerous cells may also spread to the adjoining areas of the body.
There are certain factors which increase your chances of being affected by cervical cancer:
- Too many sexual partners: The chances of cervical cancer increase significantly if you have multiple sexual partners.
- A weak immune system: A weak immune system makes you highly susceptible to cervical cancer.
- Lifestyle factors: Various lifestyle factors such as smoking can increase your risk of cervical cancer.
The treatment for cervical cancer involves the following:
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy involves injecting chemicals into the vein to destroy the cancer cells.
- Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy consists of using x-rays to destroy the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used alongside chemotherapy to destroy cancer cells.
- Surgery: Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that is used in the treatment of cervical cancer. It involves removal of the uterus to treat this disorder. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Child deliveries during pregnancies are of two types. If you are pregnant or have someone in your family who is then you can either go for caesarean section (or C-section) delivery or normal delivery, which is also known as vaginal delivery. In some case C-section delivery is chosen by your doctor as it may be a safer option in case you have some health complications. Diabetes, high blood pressure or herpes can cause complication that may in advance let you know whether the delivery procedure would be C-section or the normal one. Here are the pro and cons of both the procedure.
Natural Delivery: Benefits and Disadvantages
- Shorter stay in the hospital and time for recovery can help you in case of normal delivery.
- It may be physically painful but at the end of the day as it is a natural delivery method and you will experience less postpartum pain.
- There would be lesser chances of respiratory problems in your baby.
- Normal delivery may cause fear and anxiety which may lead to huge complications. Even your baby may face the risk of being deprived of oxygen from cord compression.
- It is also more painful and unpredictable.
- There may be increased chances of pelvic organ prolapses in normal section deliveries.
C-section: Benefits and Disadvantages
- You will be well in advance told about the delivery date by your doctor and hence planning is made easy. 2. If you have any infection like herpes chances of your baby being is reduced by c section delivery.
- There will be lesser risk of pelvic floor injury and few cases of urinary continence.
- There will be no risk of birth related trauma like bruises and swelling.
- There are surgical risks of anesthesia which can cause severe adverse side effects like headache, nausea and vomiting.
- There are also chances of heart attacks and blood clotting in veins. You may also have chances of postpartum infection in c section delivery.
- Numbness around the area of operation and bleeding may require a hysterectomy which is a surgery to remove the uterus.
There are many other pro and cons of the two methods of delivery and you should always consult your doctor and follow proper medications for better delivery of the newborn.
Treatment for Repeated Miscarriages and IVF Failure
Infertility is a condition where a couple, trying to conceive in a natural way is not able to do so even after one year of trying. So here are the causes and risks for this condition.
Causes: There are many causes of infertility. It may be due to a condition present in one or both partners. As per a medical study, 20% of the cases of infertility are due to males, while 40% to 50% cases are due to problems in the female partner. 30% of the cases suffer from infertility due to problems in both males and females. Ovulation and fertilisation are the main elements of the conception process and any condition in the female or male can upset either function, which can make it difficult to conceive.
While abnormal sperm production and transport may be a common condition that leads to infertility in males, other factors like side effects of cancer treatments and too much exposure to toxins and chemicals can also play an important role in this regard. For females, the causes of infertility may range from ovulation disorders, uterine and fibroid tumours, uterine and cervical anomalies
Risks: There are a number of factors that put a male or a female at risk of infertility. Being in your mid 30s usually has an adverse effect on the ovulation and production of well functioning sperm. Further, smoking and tobacco are among the main causes of infertility in either partner.
Excessive alcohol consumption may also lead to this problem. Being overweight or underweight can also make a person infertile. Further, not getting enough exercise and routine activities out of your day, can lead to this condition as well.
A collection of symptoms typically occurring between ovulation and menses (discharge of blood and from the uterus) is defined as premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Premenstrual syndrome symptoms can either be physical or emotional.
Physical symptoms and signs include:
- Muscle or joint pain
- Weight gain due to fluid retention
- Bloated abdomen
- Breast tenderness
- Acne breakouts
- Diarrhoea or constipation
While other behavioural and emotional symptoms include:
- Anxiety or tension
- Depressed mood
- Crying spells
- Anger or irritability and mood swings
- Food cravings and appetite changes
- Social withdrawal
- Poor concentration
Causes: The exact cause of PMS is unknown. But there are several contributing factors, such as:
- Cyclic hormonal changes: The hormones oestrogen and progesterone fluctuate a lot while preparing for a normal menstrual cycle. This fluctuation causes some of the symptoms of PMS.
- Chemical changes: The fluctuation of serotonin, a kind of neurotransmitter (brain chemical), affects the mood, which causes some of the emotional symptoms of PMS. For instance, insufficient serotonin triggers premenstrual depression, insomnia, food cravings and fatigue.
- Depression: If the PMS symptoms are severe, depression could be the underlying cause, though it doesn't usually trigger all of the symptoms.
Treatment: There is no permanent cure for PMS, but a few lifestyle changes and home remedies can work very well for you. Some treatment options include:
- To ease abdominal bloating, drink lots of fluids
- Eat a balanced diet comprised of plenty of vegetables and fruits. Reduce your alcohol, caffeine, salt and sugar intake.
- You can take supplements such as magnesium, calcium, vitamin B-6 and folic acid to reduce mood swings and cramps.
- Take vitamin D supplements to relieve symptoms
- Sleep for at least eight hours in the night to counter fatigue
- Exercise to improve your emotional health and reduce bloating
- Try to reduce your stress as much as you can; read a book or walk to relieve some stress.
Besides, these lifestyle changes, you can take over-the-counter medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen to reduce stomach cramps, muscles aches and headaches. Diuretics (drugs that increase urination) are excellent treatments for bloating and fluid retention. However, consult your doctor before consuming any medication or supplement. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist and ask a free question.
Cancer that originates in the uterus is termed as Endometrial Cancers. The cancer is known to originate in the endometrium i.e. lining as well as the cells of the uterus. Abnormal vaginal bleeding causes the cancer to be detected early and a consultation with the doctor should be done immediately. When other cancers originating from the uterus are considered, endometrial cancer is found to be the most common.
Causes: The exact cause for endometrial cancer is not known clearly. The cells in the endometrium tend to become abnormal due to the occurrence of a genetic mutation, which causes rapid multiplication of cells that ultimately lead to the formation of a tumour like mass. They begin to spread to other parts and proceed to affect the tissues in the surrounding areas.
The typical symptoms of endometrial cancer include:
- 1. Irregular bleeding in between periods
- 2. A watery discharge from the vagina
- 3. Bleeding from the vagina postmenopausal
- 4. Pain in the pelvic floor muscles
Risk factors that might increase the chances of being affected by endometrial cancer include:
- 1. Aging increases the chances of this disease, especially post menopause.
- 2. Obesity can cause hormonal imbalance.
- 3. Certain drugs used in hormone therapy
- 4. Early onset of menstruation, especially before 12 years of age
Treatment for Endometrial Cancer Includes:
- Radiation therapy: This treatment procedure involves using radiations, such as X-rays to target and destroy the cancer cells. The two forms of radiation therapy are external radiation therapy (external machine is used to direct radiation on the cancer cells) and internal radiation therapy (radioactive substance enclosed within small and consumable items is placed near to or directly at the spot of cancer).
- Hormone therapy: Medications are administered to eliminate imbalances in hormone levels and prohibit the growth of cancer cells in the body. This remedy is preferred if the cancer progresses to an advanced stage.
- Chemotherapy: This form of treatment uses oral administration or injection of chemicals into the veins so that the growth of cancerous cells is curbed, either by elimination of the cells or by prohibiting cell division.
- Surgery: In this surgery, the areas affected by cancer are surgically removed; i.e. the uterus in this case. The surgical procedures that might be used include total hysterectomy (total removal of uterus), radical hysterectomy (removal of the cervix, uterus and part of the vagina) and Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (removal of both the ovaries and the fallopian tubes)
Water birth, as revolutionary as it might sound, is not a bad idea. Common in the European countries like Australia and New Zealand, many birth centres in the United States have also started installing water birth tubs. It is the process of giving birth in a warm water tub, which is said to ease the process. The logic behind this goes that since the baby stays in the mother's womb for nine months in a water sac, therefore, birthing in a similar environment is better for the baby and less complex. Many obstetricians believe that this also prevents any kind of foetal complications.
There are both benefits and risk of water birth. They are as follows:
Benefits of water birth:
Water labour and water birth has the following advantages for the mother and the baby.
For the mother:
- The warm water provides mobility and comfort to the mother. The mother is also at a spontaneous position in water to change her location and deliver the baby.
- Pressure on the abdomen is decreased. Buoyancy helps in the efficient contraction of the uterine walls and it improves blood circulation, which again gives better supply of oxygen to the uterine muscles. The baby is provided with sufficient amount of oxygen while the mother endures lesser pain.
- Birthing in water helps in conservation of energy on part of the mother. The immersion helps to reduce collision with gravity and gives support to the mother's weight. This energy produced helps in coping with the uterine muscle contractions.
- The process of labour becomes more productive as it gives relaxation to the mother. While the mother calms down in the water, her hormones start working better and in turn the process is accelerated. The water also helps in soothing the pelvic muscles.
- The immersion helps in lowering the level of blood pressure and in reducing anxiety.
- Stress is hugely reduced as the mother is at ease and this helps in producing endorphins that serve as pain inhibitors.
For the baby:
- The baby gets a similar environment as the amniotic sac which helps in the birthing process gets added support.
- The stress of birth is greatly reduced.
Risks of water birth:
- There remains a risk of water embolism that is when the water enters into the mother's bloodstream.
- If the mother has herpes, this practice should not be followed as herpes spreads in water faster.
- This should be avoided in case of excessive bleeding and any kind of maternal infection. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a gynaecologist.
Pregnancy is a welcome change in a woman's life. She is full of hope and happiness while awaiting the birth of her bundle of joy. However, it is almost inevitable to bring up the topic of conception and leave out a host of bodily alterations or disadvantages it entails. You might eagerly wait for months in a row to conceive and once you do the signs of health issues show. Most noticeable of all other problems are the ones affecting your skin. Skin problems can be immensely predominant and widespread in a pregnant mother; so much so that her psychological disposition might vary considerably.
Commonly observed symptoms of the skin that may affect you during pregnancy:
- Your eyes may look puffy and withdrawn: While the news of a baby lighting up your life in a few months' time makes you very happy, it also subjects your body to exhaustion. It is natural for expecting mothers to feel tired and wasted. Acute iron deficiency and poor blood circulation could result in fatigue that further surfaces as dark circles and puffy bags under your eyes.
- Your face could develop acne suddenly: Acne is caused mainly because of excess sebum secretions from the oil glands present in your body. Excess oil tends to choke the open pores of your skin preventing it from breathing. Increased levels of progesterone are maintained by the human body for a strong uterine lining that is again required for the healthy development of a child; progesterone kicks off oil secretions.
- Spider like marks could spot your skin: Hormonal imbalances, sudden increase in weight, and heightened pressure in the veins may cause the blood vessels in your face to redden and grow big; the veins then look like the web of a spider. This condition is often referred to as Spider Angiomas.
- Big dark patches can also be seen: During pregnancy, your body has an excess of both oestrogen and progesterone. These hormones incite the impact of melanocytes, thus resulting in big dark patches on your skin. The condition is more prevalently known as Melasma.
Miscarriage refers to the spontaneous loss of the fetus before one completes the 20th week of pregnancy, taking into account the period from the conception to gestation. It usually happens in the first trimester of the pregnancy; that is within the seventh and the twelfth week of conception. Recurrent miscarriage is when one suffers from multiple miscarriages in a row.
- Abnormally-shaped Uterus: Some miscarriages, particularly late ones, are thought to happen because the uterus (womb) has an abnormal shape.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Women with this condition have many small cysts in their ovaries.They also tend to have hormonal problems, including high levels of insulin and male hormone in the blood, which can lead to recurrent miscarriage.
- Infection: Some serious infections can cause or increase the risk of single miscarriages. These include toxoplasmosis, rubella, listeria and genital infection. But it is not clear whether infection plays a role in recurrent miscarriage.
- Diabetes and Thyroid Problems: Uncontrolled diabetes and untreated thyroid problems can cause miscarriage. But well-controlled diabetes and treated thyroid problems do not cause recurrent miscarriage.
Your risk of recurrent miscarriage is higher if:
- You and your partner are older; the risk is highest if you are over 35 and your partner over 40;
- You are very overweight. Being very underweight may also increase your risk.
Each new pregnancy loss increases the risk of a further miscarriage. But even after three miscarriages, most couples will have a live baby next time.
Testing After Recurrent Miscarriage:
If you have had three miscarriages in a row, you should be offered tests to try to find the cause. This should happen whether or not you already have one or more children. Testing is not usually offered after one or two early miscarriages (up to 14 weeks) because these are often due to chance. But you might be offered tests after two early miscarriages if you are in your late 30s or 40s or if it has taken you a long time to conceive.
If you had a late (second trimester) miscarriage, where your baby died after 14 weeks of pregnancy, you should be offered tests after this loss.
- You can opt for blood tests to check for sticky blood syndrome or APS. Tests would look for antibodies that would help treat the condition. Antibodies are chemicals produced by the body to combat infections.
- Get an examination done should the doctor suspect chromosomal abnormalities and in case it is diagnosed, both of you can consult a clinical genetics specialist for genetics counseling.
- Your doctor will recommend an ultrasound scan to trace any type of abnormality that may make a pregnancy futile, for instance, a short or a fragile cervix.
It is natural to pin your hopes on testing as the answer to your problems. But there are three reasons why it may not be the answer you’re looking for:
- A cause may not be found; when this happens your miscarriages are called ‘unexplained’
- Even if a cause is found, it may not be treatable;
- Treatment may not lead to a successful pregnancy. This can happen if a pregnancy miscarriages for a different reason than the one being treated. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Infertility is a condition wherein a woman does not get pregnant in spite of having unprotected intercourse over a period of a year or even more. An abnormal menstrual cycle that is either too short or too long, irregular or even scanty can be an indication of a lack of ovulation, which in turn, is another factor behind female infertility.
Ovulation disorders are characterized by either a lack of ovulation or irregular and infrequent ovulation. These are a major cause of infertility. This may be due to defects in the regulation of the reproductive hormones by the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus (brain center responsible for producing some of the most essential hormones required by the body). Malfunctioning of the ovary is another cause in itself. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome, premature failure of the ovaries (a condition wherein a woman’s ovaries fail to function properly even before she is 40 years old), hypothalamic dysfunction (a dysfunction of the hypothalamus) and excessive production of prolactin (a hormone that stimulates milk production among women after childbirth) by the pituitary gland are some of the factors responsible for the occurrence of such a disorder.
Damaged fallopian tubes do not allow the sperms to fuse properly with the egg. They might also prevent the fertilized egg from entering into the uterus. This condition may be caused due to pelvic inflammatory diseases (a group of infections of the reproductive organs in women), an infection in the fallopian tubes or the uterus caused due to various Sexually Transmitted Diseases, any abdominal surgery or surgery of the pelvic region and pelvic tuberculosis.
Endometriosis, wherein the tissue that usually grows in the uterus, starts growing outside it, is another factor responsible for infertility.
Several cervical or uterine disorders, such as tumors, inflammation within the uterus, uterine abnormalities, a cervical narrowing or the inability of the cervix to produce mucous for the sperm to travel to the uterus, are likely to impact fertility by obstructing implantation or enhancing the chances of miscarriage.
Fertility drugs can be used to regulate and induce ovulation. But they carry with them certain risks and therefore you should consult your physician prior to consumption. Few examples of these drugs are Clomiphene Citrate, Gonadotropins, Metformin, Letrozole and Bromocriptine.
Surgical procedures can be recommended to correct reproductive abnormalities and restore fertility. A laparoscopic surgery or a tubal ligation reversal surgery (a surgery that unites one’s fallopian tubes again in order to enable the woman to have a baby) can be advised by the doctor.
- Reproductive assistance by Intrauterine insemination (a process that involves putting sperms inside a woman’s uterus in order to help her conceive) and Assisted reproductive technology (consisting of IVF and surrogacy).
Birth control is a method by which unwanted pregnancy is prevented. Partners can plan their childbearing in a better way using the increased levels of awareness about birth control.
Methods of birth control:
- Intrauterine devices (IDUs): These are most effective methods of birth control. The intrauterine device (IUD) is a long-acting and reversible form of contraception for women. It is of two types: Copper IUD (contains copper) and Hormone-releasing IUDs (progestin hormone is released into the womb slowly). It is a small device that is fitted inside the womb and it provides contraception by preventing fertilization of the egg.
- Sterilization: This is a process of birth control that renders a woman incapable of conception or a man incapable of sperm delivery. The process is conducted with the consent of the individual and can be done using either surgical or non-surgical methods. In both the cases, tubes carrying sperms (in males) and fallopian tubes (females) are either cut or blocked.
- Condoms: These are the most commonly used measures for birth control. Male and female condoms act as barriers and prevent the sperm from reaching the uterus.
- Oral contraceptive pills: These pills are the most popular measures of birth control used by women across the world. This is the most convenient way of postponing pregnancy. However, it is very important that the side effects of the contraceptive pills be noted. The side effects cause changes in the body, such as irregular bleeding, increase in the breast's size increased levels of blood pressure as well as eventual infertility.
- Contraceptive Injections: In this method, one hormone injection is administered, the effects of which last inside the body for a time period of 8 to 12 weeks i.e. 2-3 months. The contraceptive injection has the similar effects as that of contraceptive pills on birth control. Evidently, the shot is irreversible, which makes the woman infertile for a period of three months. However, similar to the pill, protection from STDs is not offered by contraceptive injections. But these injections can guarantee 99% safety and surety on being used.
- Natural Family Planning: Even though it is not any external pill or device, Natural Family Planning is also a method of birth control. It relies on the knowledge of timings of the menstrual cycle (periods) so that the couple can avoid sex during the time period when the woman is fertile. If you wish to discuss about any specific problem, you can consult a doctor and ask a free question.
Your body goes through drastic changes when you are pregnant. Your body makes more blood during pregnancy; for instance, prior to pregnancy, your body made approximately 5 litres of blood, but now it produces 7 to 8 litres of it.
Producing excess red blood cells requires haemoglobin, which in turn requires plenty of folate, iron and vitamin B12. If there is a deficiency in any of these requirements, you might develop anaemia.
Anaemia is a condition, which is characterized by a lack of red blood cells in the body. The risks of becoming anaemic during pregnancy include:
- Being extremely fatigued
- Miscarriages, premature birth, or low birth-weight
- The baby can inherit anaemia from the mother
- The child can have certain developmental delays
- Postpartum depression (post-childbirth depression)
How it can be prevented?
To prevent such risks, it is important to implement the proper diet. Here are some dietary tips to prevent anaemia during pregnancy:
1. Consume iron-rich foods: Foods that provide you with the best source of iron are
- Poultry and eggs
- Dark green and leafy vegetables (for example: spinach, broccoli and kale)
- Seeds and nuts
- Beans and lentils
- Ripe bananas
2. Don't forget the supplements: Foods are great sources of the nutrients you require, but they may be lacking at times. Ask your doctor for supplements like vitamin, folic acid and iron supplements mostly. Consuming supplements before pregnancy can go a long way in preventing anaemia.
3. Folic acid is important: Folic acid is very important for pregnant women. You must consume 400 milligrams of it to prevent anaemia and birth defects in babies. Foods that are rich in folic acid include:
- Brussel sprouts
4. Vitamins are crucial: Vitamin C helps in iron absorption which boosts haemoglobin production. Some foods rich in vitamin C include
- Citrus fruits
- Bell peppers
5. Be vigilant while cooking: Sometimes while cooking foods, the wrong method can strip them of their iron content. So be careful not to fry, boil or stew such foods too much. Certain foods are best consumed raw; read the labels properly if in doubt.
6. Abstain from certain habits: Alcohol, tea, cigarette and coffee hinder iron absorption. So stop consuming them if you are trying to conceive or have conceived.