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Throat Cancer: Treatment, Procedure, Cost and Side Effects

What is the treatment?

Throat cancer is a condition wherein cancerous tumours may develop in your throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. Suffering from constant cough, pain in throat or ear, difficulty in swallowing or lump/ sore that is not healing, can be symptoms of throat cancer. You must visit a doctor if you find any of these conditions to be persistent. Throat cancer can be cured by radiation therapy if detected at an early stage. The tumour can be removed through surgery. In some conditions, all/ part of voice box or part of throat may also have to be removed by surgery. Chemotherapy is done to kill cancer cells by using certain drugs.

How is the treatment done?

High energy beams are used to kill cancer cells in radiation therapy. Sources such as x rays and protons are used to deliver these high energy beams that are quite effective if your throat cancer has been detected at the first stage itself. Surgery is used in a little more critical condition. If confined to surface of the throat, cancer can be treated by the use of endoscopy. A hollow endoscope will be inserted in your throat or mouth through which surgical tools or laser will be passed. The tools can cut off and the laser can vaporise very superficial cancers. In some situations, a part of your voice box where the cancer exists may have to be removed. Some parts of throat may also need to be removed, depending on the severity. A dissection will be made near your neck and then, the cancerous lymph nodes will be removed surgically.

Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)

If you experience constant pain in throat or difficulty in swallowing you should get it examined by a doctor as it could be the sign for throat cancer. Also, if there is a lump or sore in your throat which has not healed in a long time, it is a matter to be looked into.

Who is not eligible for the treatment?

Constant pain in throat may just be tonsil pain. Get a thorough check up done.

Are there any side effects?

The high energy beams used in radiation therapy may cause irritation in skin for some time. Sense of smell and taste may change. One may also go through temporary or permanent hoarseness in voice, dry mouth and difficulty in swallowing.

What are the post-treatment guidelines?

You must look after your diet by including as many fruits and vegetables as possible. Quit smoking and avoid drinking alcohol. Make regular appointments with your doctor to keep your progress in check.

How long does it take to recover?

You may be able to walk and do your regular activities in about a week but you must rest well for 3-4 weeks before resuming more vigorous activities.

What is the price of the treatment in India?

Treatment for throat cancer may cost you between ₹100000 to ₹150000.

Are the results of the treatment permanent?

No treatment for cancer is permanent. You must take care of your body very well once you have been treated for it. Ensure that you are consuming a healthy diet and have stopped smoking and drinking alcohol.

What are the alternatives to the treatment?

There are no alternative treatments for throat cancer but you may find treatments like acupuncture, massage therapy and meditation to be of help as they may speed up the healing process.

Safety: Medium Effectiveness: Medium Timeliness: Medium Relative Risk: High Side Effects: High Time For Recovery: Medium Price Range:

Rs 1,00,000 - Rs 1,50,000

Popular Health Tips

The 4 Major Causes Of Throat Cancer One Must Be Aware Of!

MBBS, MS - General Surgery, FICS (Surgical Oncology), Fellowship of Association of Indian Surgeons(FAIS), Fellowship in Minimal Access Surgery(FMAS) & Reproductive Medicine, Fellowship of Indian Association of Gastrointestinal Endo Surgeons (FIAGES)
Oncologist, Ghaziabad
The 4 Major Causes Of Throat Cancer One Must Be Aware Of!

Cancer is a disease characterized by abnormal multiplication of cells in a particular part of the body. After starting in one body part, cancer cells spread to other body parts and lead to the formation of tumours (metastases) in other parts of the body. Throat cancer refers to the development of tumours in the different parts of the throat. Various parts of the throat include oropharynx (tonsil, soft palate, base of tongue), nasopharynx (part behind the nose), hypopharynx and larynx (voice box). Throat cancers are a common type of cancer in India. The most common causes of throat cancer are - 

  1. Tobacco is the most important cause of throat cancer. Smoking in any form increases the risk of pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer greatly. Chewing tobacco can also increase the risk of pharyngeal cancers. No amount of tobacco exposure is safe. 
  2. Alcohol: Alcohol is an important contributor to risk of pharyngeal cancer. Alcohol intake multiplies the risk of cancer that is due to tobacco exposure. 
  3. Human Papilloma Virus: Human papilloma virus or HPV is famous as the cause of cancer of uterine cervix. However, in recent years it has been found to be an important cause of throat cancer. HPV infection is transmitted through sexual contact. 
  4. Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection: EBV infection is responsible cancer of the nasopharynx or part of pharynx behind the nasal cavity. 

The risk of throat cancer can be reduced by avoided tobacco and alcohol. HPV infection can be avoided through safe sexual practices. These practices can prevent large majority of throat cancers. Other that prevention, timely testing for early diagnosis and immediate treatment when cancer is diagnosed will lead to successful outcomes.

In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

3053 people found this helpful

Head and Neck Cancer - What To Know About It?

MD - Radiation Oncology, MBBS, Diploma in Tuberculosis and Chest Diseases (DTCD)
Oncologist, Delhi
Head and Neck Cancer - What To Know About It?

Cancer can occur in any part of the body. In this article, we will discuss head and neck cancer, which occurs when cells in these regions grow abnormally. Cancer cells that grow in the head and neck can spread to other parts of the body as well, and there are reported cases in which head and neck cancer has spread to the lungs.

Symptoms for Suspicion of cancer 

  1. Non-healing sore or ulcer
  2. Neck lymph nodes, 
  3. Hoarseness of voice or difficulty in swallowing
  4. Red or white patch in the mouth.
  5. Lump, bump, or mass in the head or neck area, with or without pain.
  6. Persistent sore throat.
  7. Foul mouth odor not explained by hygiene. 

Common Types of Head and Neck Cancer-
The common type of head and neck cancer is called carcinoma, and it can start in the nose, mouth and throat. Lymphoma cancers affect the immune system of the neck and head and can spread to other body parts.

Tests that are done for diagnosing head and neck cancer
A patient may feel some pain in the head and neck region. At first, the patient might visit an ENT specialist in order to diagnose the reason for the pain. In case the ENT specialist is not able to relate the issue with common causes of such pain, he refers the patient to a head and neck specialist. Then the first thing that the doctor will check for is the growth of any lymph nodes. Special fiber optics, mirror and lights are used for the examination of the head and neck as some regions are not easily visible.

A panendoscopy is performed on patients to confirm the growth and spread of cancer cells. This test is done under anesthesia and may need to be performed in an operation theater. Thin tubes called scopes are used for viewing the tissues and the doctor may take a sample for a biopsy test.

A biopsy test confirms whether the growth of cells is cancerous or not, and if it has spread. The biopsy will tell us whether the growth is cancerous or not. For staging of cancer, we do scans which may be CT, MRI or PET CT. A scan helps the doctors to understand whether the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body such as the lungs. The barium swallow method is used to check if there are cancer cells in the throat.

How serious can head and neck cancer be?
There are various stages of head and neck cancer, and they are classified based on the seriousness of the growth. Normally, cancer starts at stage 1 and could progress till stage 4 if left untreated and undiagnosed. Different stages require different types of treatment and medications. Stage 1 and 2 usually involve radiotherapy or surgery whereas stage 3 and 4 would require radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy. Also, avoid tobacco and alcohol for prevention.

One should always consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment of head and neck cancer, and must follow the advice of the doctor for a speedy recovery. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2990 people found this helpful

Throat cancer - Symptoms to watch for!

FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Throat cancer - Symptoms to watch for!

Throat cancer is a broad term used to cover cancer across a number of organs in the oronasal passage – right from the nasopharynx, oropharynx, glottis, epiglottis to supraglottis. Minus the medical terms, it means anywhere from the back of the nose and throat to the where the neck ends. The mucous cells along this path can undergo changes and begin multiplying rapidly, leading to cancer. The following are some additional risk factors:

Cigarette smoking is the most important of all, and a person can significantly reduce the risk by cutting down smoking. The throat has different types of linings and gland tissue, and depending on the cell type affected, the type of cancer could vary.

Symptoms: Throat cancer diagnosis can get delayed as the symptoms are very similar to a throat infection.

  1. Sore throat: A sore throat that lasts for weeks together is often a cause for concern and requires ruling out underlying serious problem. Having associated risk factors is a good way to see if ruling out cancer is needed.
  2. Cough: A cough that does not go away is a cause for concern. This is often associated with other symptoms mentioned here.
  3. Voice change: Usually hoarseness of the voice, which is painless and not accompanied by a throat infection, is an indication of throat cancer.
  4. Difficulty swallowing or breathing: Depending on where the cancer is located, there could be problems in either free breathing or swallowing. The developing mass gets in the way of free air and/or food movement.
  5. Lumpy feeling in the throat: If the developing mass is along the length of the throat, then there could be a lumpy feeling, as if something is caught in the throat and not going down.
  6. Bleeding: There could be bleeding either through the nose or the mouth, depending on the place of the cancer. Again, this is one of the late symptoms and not seen in the beginning.
  7. Unexplained weight loss: As with any cancer, throat cancer also leads to unexplained weight loss.

Depending on the area affected, the symptoms can point to the location. For instance, voice changes are often associated with laryngeal cancer. A combination of risk factor assessment and symptoms will help in pinning down the diagnosis. Reach out to the doctor as soon as you notice something is wrong, as early diagnosis is very good for timely intervention and improving prognosis. In case you have a concern or query you can always consult an expert & get answers to your questions!

2021 people found this helpful

Neck Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

MBBS, MS - ENT
ENT Specialist, Delhi
Neck Cancer Symptoms and Treatment

Neck cancer refers to the formation of cancer cells in the throat or neck region of your body. Neck cancer is commonly seen in people above sixty years of age .But people above forty can also have the chances of getting neck cancer. Though the symptoms of neck cancer can vary from one person to the other, 

Some of the common symptoms are stated as follows:

  1. Neck cancer affects the voice box, so a change in your voice can be noticed.
  2. Weight loss is also a symptom for neck cancer.
  3. A person suffering from neck cancer can also suffer from dysphagia or difficulty in swallowing.
  4. Sore throat in some cases can be considered as a symptom of neck cancer
  5. Bleeding from mouth or through your nose is also a common symptom for neck cancer.
  6. Ear pain in some cases is a symptom of neck cancer.
  7. Coughing persistently is also regarded as a symptom of neck cancer.
  8. Sometimes a lump in the neck is also noticed and it is usually painless.
  9. Some people also encounter breathing problem.
  10. In some cases a swelling of the neck, jaw or eyes can also be noticed.

Neck cancer involves certain risk factors too. Neck cancer can be treated in many ways. The following are few treatments available for neck cancer:

  1. Surgery: Your doctor can conduct a surgery for removing the tumors from your neck region. The doctor may decide to do either a microsurgery or laser treatment or endoscopy.
  2. Chemotherapy: If the tumor spreads to other regions or is large in size, then your doctor may recommend chemotherapy. 
  3. Radiation: It is used to destroy the malignant cells. It is usually conducted after removing the tumor.

These three are the common treatments followed by doctors. Your doctor may also take help of other treatments like administering drugs to control the growth of cancer cells. But, sometimes treatments fail to work if the process of metastasis starts. So you should not ignore it, as soon as you encounter any of the symptoms stated above, visiting an oncologist is highly recommended.

4606 people found this helpful

Rakesh Roshan Has Early Stage Throat Cancer - How Can You Stay Safe?

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
General Physician, Faridabad
Rakesh Roshan Has Early Stage Throat Cancer - How Can You Stay Safe?

In a shocking post on Instagram, Hrithik Roshan revealed how his father, the veteran actor Rakesh Roshan, has been diagnosed with early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the throat or in simple terms throat cancer.  

For someone who dedicatedly takes care of his health, this news came in as a startling reminder of the possibility that such a condition can happen to anyone anytime.

What is Early Stage Throat Cancer?

Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumours that typically affect the voice box, vocal cord, tonsils and oropharynx. Early stage throat cancer ranges from stage I to stage III. The good thing is that it is curable only if diagnosed early. Treatment generally involves surgery, radiation therapy or a combination of both.

Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of throat cancer where the disease develops on the cells lining the wall of the throat.

What are the Major Risks Leading to Throat Cancer?

Certain factors heighten the possible occurrence of throat cancer like:

What are the Possible Signs of Throat Cancer?

Symptoms of early-stage throat cancer often tend to merge with signs of common infection. However, if any of the following symptoms continue to persist, one should seek urgent medical assistance.

  1. Dysphagia
  2. A sore throat
  3. Sudden weight loss
  4. The abrupt change in voice
  5. A continuous cough including the presence of blood
  6. The constant need to clear throat
  7. Wheezing
  8. Ear pain

Treatment Options

Following the identification of the disease, the stage of the cancer is determined, which helps in deciding treatment options.

  • Radiation - Radiation involves emission of high-energy beams from X-rays or protons that directly eliminate cancer cells. For the initial stages, this is an extremely effective way of treatment.
  • Surgery - Surgery is referred to when the cancer cells are limited to the vocal cords. Here endoscopy is used to scrape off the infected portion. In situations where the voice box is infected, doctors try to save as much area of the voice box that they can. This helps in retaining the patient’s ability to speak and breathe normally. For extensive tumours, it becomes necessary to surgically remove the entire voice box and speech has to be restored using speech therapy.
  • Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy works by injecting drugs into the bloodstream. It is prescribed together with radiation to treat cancer cells. It, however, leaves room for long-term side effects and the consequences must be discussed thoroughly with the physician.

Prevention Measures

There are no substantial ways to prevent throat cancer. However, you can minimize its possibility by incorporating certain healthy practices -

  1. Quit smoking and use of tobacco
  2. Limiting alcohol intake
  3. Following a balanced and healthy diet
  4. Protecting oneself from HPV
  5. Regularly going for preventive health checkups

As the saying goes ‘prevention is better than cure,’ it is necessary to follow a healthy lifestyle. With proper treatment during initial stages, there are positive chances of winning over the disease.

3 people found this helpful

Popular Questions & Answers

Hi, Mere gale mein cancer tha electric sikai ki wajah se mera mouth dry ho gaya hai. Kuch bhi nahi kha pa raha hoon khane se zyda paani peena padta hai. Koi solution batayen.

FACS, MBBS, MS - General Surgery
Oncologist, Gurgaon
Mr. lybrate-user you will be o k after a few days mean while drink more water daily. And take syrup b complex two tea spoon three times aday.
7 people found this helpful

Some days ago I felt like something is sticked at my throat. By today it is giving me a pain. I smoke 3-5 cigarettes in a day. Is it a symptom of throat cancer? Please advice.

BASM, MD, MS (Counseling & Psychotherapy), MSc - Psychology, Certificate in Clinical psychology of children and Young People, Certificate in Psychological First Aid, Certificate in Positive Psychology, Positive Psychiatry and Mental Health
Psychologist, Palakkad
Dear user. I can understand. Please don't be panic. I suggest you to consult a surgeon in person. We are here to help you in every aspect of your mental and physical health. Any sexual or psychological problems can be cured with the help of various methods and therapies. I suggest you to post your query with every detail here. We will help you in overcoming your problems certainly. Take care.
1 person found this helpful

Hlo Dr. Grandma has a primary metastasis breast cancer which spread to lungs and throat Dr. says chemo but she did one chemo she cant handle now she take homeo and ayurvedic medicine She has a guilty shown outside the breast where there is a wound She has a pain in breast and guilty.

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
If the breast cancer has fungated then it is better to do a toilet mastectomy to remove the same. What is the Biopsy and IHC report of the Breast? I would be able to opine better if you send the reports directly to me.
1 person found this helpful

Hi Sir, What is the sign of throat cancer and and which types of doctor treat these type of cancer and where I can test for throat cancer.

MBBS Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery, MD - Internal Medicine, DM - Oncology
Oncologist, Mohali
Signs are difficulty in swallowing Hoarseness (change )of voice Show to ENT Spl near you If he diagnoses cancer than you have to go to cancer centre.
1 person found this helpful

Dr. I have been smoking form last 2 years in an average 5-6 cigrate a day. And I got an infection in throat. Is this a symptoms of cancer I worry?

MBBS, M.S. General Surgery, M.R.C.S. England, M.Ch. Surgical Oncology, DNB Surgical Oncology, FEBS Surgical Oncology, DNB General Surgery, MNAMS, FMAS, FIAGES, FAIS, FICS, FEBS Breast Surgery, FACS, Fellowship IFHNOS & MSKCC USA, Fellowship in breast and oncplastic Surgery
Oncologist, Mumbai
If the infection subsided in a few days, it is not a symptom of cancer. If persistent, better to see a surgical oncologist for the same. Why not quit smoking, rather than waiting for the cancer to occur. Most of our patients quit smoking after they get cancer. But by that time it is quite late. 90% of the lung cancers we see in OPD are advanced or metastatic and cannot be cured. Please quit smoking before it is too late. Feel free to contact me directly if you want to discuss this further.
1 person found this helpful

Table of Content

What is the treatment?
How is the treatment done?
Who is eligible for the treatment? (When is the treatment done?)
Who is not eligible for the treatment?
Are there any side effects?
What are the post-treatment guidelines?
How long does it take to recover?
What is the price of the treatment in India?
Are the results of the treatment permanent?
What are the alternatives to the treatment?
Play video
Head And Neck Cancer
Causes and symptoms of Head and Neck Cancer

My name is Dr. Manish Julaha and I practice Head & Neck Oncosurgery. Today I'll tell you some facts about Head and Neck cancer how to predict them early. So in India approxiately 1.2 million cancer patients are detected every year, and out of this one thirds of the number occur in head and neck, mainly oral cavity and throat. And this is a very big number if you compare with rest of the countries because head and neck cancer they account for less than 10% in western countries and less than 4% in U.S. So what is the cause of such high number of head and neck cancers in India. It is mainly the use of tobacco and another sad fact about head and neck cancer in India is that majority of the patients, you can say more than 65% are present in stage 3 or stage 4. And we say cancer is curable if it is detected early and when patients presents to us in such late stages it effects all the paramaeters like overall survival, treatment outcome, side effects, functional outcome, quality of life everything is affected. And when patients come in early stage, the treatment is less invasive with less side effects and the functional outcome is very good and the chances of recurrence is very less.

So what can we do to detect head and neck cancer at the earliest. We can do this if we've the knowledge of the signs and symptoms which hint towards the head and neck cancer and by doing self examination. So what are the early signs and symptoms. They're mainly any ulcer in the oral cavity which dosen't heal in three weaks or any lump in the lung or oral cavity, any red or white patches in the oral cavity, or there maybe unexplained earache or nasal blockage, mainly on one side, specially with blood stained mucous discharge, ill fitting of denture because of any swelling in the gums. So, these are the early signs and symptoms. If we find any such thing we should take expert opinion. And by doing self examination we can detect head and neck cancer at the earliest. I would say all those people who're at a high risk of getting head and neck cancer they should do the self examination at least once a month. So who're the people who're at high risk of getting head and neck cancer. Most importantly those who use tobacco in any form, then elderly people above the age of 45 and people who have exposure to ionizing radiation in past, and people who have had head and neck cancer in the past they're at high risk of getting a second cancer so they should also be very careful.

Now, how to do this self examination. It is very simple, to do this you've to stand in front of the mirror and you've to feel both the lips, upper lips and lower lips, using your thumb and index finger feel both the lips and by pulling them outward you've to see the inner lining of the upper lip and lower lip and also you have to look at the upper gums and lower gums. And using your thumb and index finger pull your cheek and look at the inner lining of your cheek on both sides and look for any ulcer or lump or any red or white patches. Now just open your mouth and say "aaa" and while saying "aaa" just look at the throat and also at the roof of the mouth. Then by touching your tongue on the back of upper teeth have a look at the under surface of the tongue and the floor of mouth. Then pull your tongue outward and look at it's upper surface, by moving the sideways look at the sides also. Again look for any ulcer or lumps or any red or white patches and you have to examine your neck also. Just by standing straight palpate below the jaw bone and above the collar bones, and by moving the head backwards look for any asymmetry of the neck, if there is any fullness on one side as compared to the other side, there maybe some lump. If you find any such thing just take expert opinion.

Thank you very much for watching this video and contacting through Lybrate . Thank You.
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Know More About Cancer
What You Need To Know About Cancer?
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Know More About Cancer
Symptoms of various Cancers
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Know More About Cancer
Homeopathy Treatment for Cancer
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Cancer Of Cervix (Cervical Cancer)
Hello friends,

I am Dr. Jayanti Kamat, director of Srishti Fertility Care Centre and Women's Clinic I am an IVF Consultant, an obstetrician and gynecologist practicing for the last 20 years.

So today I will be talking about Cancer of the cervix, Cancer cervix is the commonest cancer found in Indian women after breast cancer. Every year according to WHO studies 1, 24,000 cases have been detected and annually there are 64,000 deaths, so cancer cervix is a very deadly disease. So what is this cancer cervix, the cervix is the mouth of the uterus? Now, what are the causes of Cancer cervix there are many causes of Cancer cervix but the commonest cause is a virus called as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus, now this virus is responsible for 70% of cases of Cancer cervix. HPV is a very common virus it is usually contracted during sexual intercourse so what does this HPV virus do, it enters into a normal cell and it changes the mechanism and the machinery inside the cell and once it changes the mechanism in machinery of the cell, the cell start behaving little differently and then these abnormal cells they multiply and once they multiply they form a tumor called as cancer cervix. Now, what are the other causes of Cancer cervix that is an early age of marriage then repeated pregnancies the more the number of pregnancies more is the incidence of Cancer cervix, then sexually transmitted diseases, smoking also increases the incidence of cancer cervix? Now this HPV virus it is not that every woman who is infected with HPV virus will develop cancer cervix it all depends on the dose of the virus which infects the cells and the immunity of the person as well. In some women the HPV infection becomes a self-limiting disease in the sense, it gets cured by itself. And in some women say after the period of 5, 10 or 15 years it can cause dysplasia or changes in the cells which later on formed cancer cervix. Fortunately, friends, cancer cervix is one of the few cancer which can be detected at an early stage very easily and how can we do it, there is the simple test called for Pap Smear and also we do have vaccines as of today or HPV vaccines which helps to prevent this HPV infected cells to get converted into cancer. HPV vaccine, now this HPV vaccine is one of the few vaccines which have been invented for the prevention cancer, so we are lucky to have such a vaccine. So this vaccine it has to be given to all girls between the ages of 9 and 26 days before they become sexually active. So this vaccine will prevent the HPV cells from HPV infected cells from developing into cancer there are three roses of this vaccine which have to be completed within 6 months. Now what is this Pap test is a very simple test it can be done on a small clinic or in a big hospital it can be done anywhere, it is an OPD procedure the patient does not have to go for fasting nor it is painful, nor does it required anaesthesia. So when should this Pap test is ideally done, Pap test should be ideally done after menses preferably between the 5th and 10th day of menses and what should you expect during the Pap test procedure the gynaecologist will examine you and take a few cells from your cervix with the help of a spatula and then send those cell to the pathologist for examination. So by examination these cells the pathologist will know whether the cells are normal or abnormal. So what are the advantages of Pap smear so when the gynaecologist examine you she or he will also find out whether your cervix is normal or whether the cervix has Erosion. So this erosion can also cause white discharge so what is that erosion the cells from inside the cervix they just come out so the treatment for this erosion can be done by cautery or just burning the tissue. The gynaecologist will also see that if you have some cervical polyp that also will be visible during the Pap test procedure. So if the polyp is there the polyp can be removed at the same sitting. Now, what is the Pap test come abnormal, the next step will be colposcopy. What is colposcopy? Colposcopy is when the cervix is visualized with an instrument called as colposcope which magnifies, which gives a very magnify review of the cervix. So what does the doctor see through the colposcope, the doctor will see whether the cells are normal or abnormal, there are different criteria blood vessels, the pattern of blood vessels etc and by observing all these things the doctors will be able to make out whether there is some suspicious area which is indicative of malignancy. So from such a suspicious area the biopsy is taken and the biopsy is again sent to the pathologist, so ensure the biopsy will be the test in which we can find out whether the lady has cancer or not. So now what are the symptoms of cancer cervix, so cancer cervix in its early stage has no symptoms at all and that is why we do Pap smear? Pap smear my dear friends is a screening method and not a diagnostic method, what is the screening method that we try to find out the early stages of the disease even before the patient has symptoms and why do we do that because if this cancer is detected in early stage the treatment is very simple and if it is detected in the later stage, the treatment can get complicated and goes much agony and pain to the patient. Now cancer in the little later stage will give rise to symptoms such as white discharge, blood stained discharge, discomfort, pain during sex, bleeding immediately after sexual intercourse and even with the small gynaec examination also the patient may start bleeding, patient may have swelling of feet, sudden loss of weight or pain during urination so all these can be the symptoms of cancer cervix. So whenever lady has these symptoms she has to go and consult her gynecologist. Now what if the biopsy report comes as positive for malignancy there are various methods in which cancer cervix is treated, one is surgery where we remove the cancerous part. The next is radiotherapy, radiotherapy can be two types of radiotherapy, one is external radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept outside the body of the uterus and there is another method called as the intracavitary radiotherapy whereas the radioactive source is kept inside the body of the lady. Then we have chemotherapy as well or sometimes the patient may require a combination of various therapies. So, friends, it is my earnest request to you please get a Pap test done today itself and Pap smear has to be done once in every 3 years for all women under the age of 40 and after 40 it has to be done every year, the Pap test has to be done every year after the age of 40 combined with the HPV testing as well. So we can reduce the incidence of Cancer cervix by being very vigilant, by following safe practices, by avoiding things like smoking and of course getting a Pap smear and an HPV testing done just as we have eradicated polio from India, I strongly believe that if all of us are vigilant we can surely reduce the incidence of cancer cervix in India today, thank you.

If you have any queries about Cancer Cervix, please contact me on Lybrate.
Having issues? Consult a doctor for medical advice